Parliament of India
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. The Parliament is composed of the President of India and the houses and it is bicameral with two houses, the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. The President in his role as head of legislature has powers to summon. The president can exercise these powers only upon the advice of the Prime Minister and those elected or nominated to either house of Parliament are referred to as members of parliament. The Parliament meets at Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi, the Sansad Bhavan is located in New Delhi. It was designed by Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker, who were responsible for planning, the construction of buildings took six years and the opening ceremony was performed on 18 January 1927 by the Governor-General of India, Irwin. The construction costs for the building were ₹8.3 million, the parliament is 560 feet in diameter and covers an area of 6 acres. The Central hall consists of the chambers of Lok sabha, Rajya Sabha, surrounding these three chambers is the four storied circular structure providing accommodations for members and houses Parliamentary committees and the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs.
A new Parliament building may replace the existing complex, the new building is being considered on account of the stability concerns regarding the current complex. A committee to suggest alternatives to the current building has been set up by the Ex, the present building, an 85-year-old structure suffers from inadequacy of space to house members and their staff and is thought to suffer from structural issues. The building needs to be protected because of its heritage tag, the Indian Parliament consists of two houses called the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha with the President of India acting as their head. The President of India, the Head of state is a component of Parliament, the President of India is elected by the members of Parliament of India and the state legislatures and serves for a term of five years. Lok Sabha or the house has 545 members. It has a term of five years, Rajya Sabha or the upper house is a permanent body not subject to dissolution. One third of the members every second year, and are replaced by newly elected members.
Each member is elected for a term of six years and its members are indirectly elected by members of legislative bodies of the states. The Rajya Sabha can have a maximum of 250 members and it currently has a sanctioned strength of 245 members, of which 233 are elected from States and Union Territories and 12 are nominated by the President. The number of members from a state depends on its population, the minimum age for a person to become a member of Rajya Sabha is 30 years
Indian Forest Service
Indian Forest Service was created in 1966 under the All India Services Act 1951. Previously, the Imperial Forestry Service existed during the British Raj from 1865 to 1935, Ministry of Environment and Climate Change, under the Government of India, is the cadre controlling authority of Indian Forest Service. India was one of the first countries in the world to introduce scientific forest management, in 1864, the British Raj established the Imperial Forest Department. In 1864 Dr Dietrich Brandis, a German forest officer, was appointed Inspector General of Forests, the Imperial Forestry Service was organised subordinate to the Imperial Forest Department in 1867 when five candidates were selected to undergo training in France & Germany. This continued up to 1885 except for a break on account of war between France and Russia. Officers appointed from 1867 to 1885 were trained in Germany and France, from 1905 to 1926, the University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, and University of Edinburgh had undertaken the task of training Imperial Forestry Service officers.
The Government of India Act 1935, which transferred forestry to Provisional list, with the retirement of IFS officers, the demand for trained foresters cropped up and thus Indian Forest College was born in 1938. The Superior Forest Service officers, recruited from different states, were trained in the Indian Forest College thus retaining the all India character of the service, the main mandate of the service was scientific management of the forests to exploit it on a sustained basis for primarily timber products. It was during this time large tracts of the forest were brought under state control through the process of reservation under the Indian Forest Act,1927. Since the subject of forestry was shifted to the concurrent list in the year 1977, the main thrust of managing forests for production of timber products as in the British period continued even after the reconstitution of IFS in 1966. The recommendations of National Commission on Agriculture in 1976 was a shift in forest management.
It was for the first time that peoples perception was taken care of in addressing biomass needs, the concept of sustained yield was addressed in tandem with biomass needs of the people living in and around forest areas. Equal thrust was given to habitat management in protected area and conserving the biodiversity of the land, today there are over 2700 IFS officers serving in the country. The modern Indian Forest Service was established in 1966, after independence, the first Inspector General of Forests, Hari Singh, was instrumental in the development of the IFS. India has an area of 635,400 km2 designated as forests, indias forest policy was created in 1894 and revised in 1952 and again in 1988. Officers are recruited via a competitive examination conducted by the UPSC. Their services are placed under various State cadres and joint cadres, an IFS officer is largely independent of district administration and exercises administrative and financial powers in their own domain. All top positions in state forest department are held by IFS officers, positions like Divisional Forest Officer, Conservator of Forests and Principal Chief Conservator of Forests etc. are some examples
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
Politics of India
India follows the dual polity system, i. e. a double government which consists of the central authority at the center and states at the periphery. The Indian constitution provides for an independent Judiciary which is headed by the Supreme Court, the governments, are formed through elections held every five years, by parties that claim a majority of members in their respective lower houses. The 1990s saw the end of single party domination and rise of coalition governments, in recent decades, Indian politics has become a dynastic affair. Possible reasons for this could be the absence of party organizations, independent civil society associations that support for the parties. Compared to other countries, India has a large number of political parties. It has been estimated that over 200 parties were formed after India became independent in 1947, the two main parties in India are the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Indian National Congress, Indian National Congress dominates Indian Politics. On the left-right political spectrum, the Indian National Congress is the typical welfare heavy, centre-left party, whereas the BJP is a fiscally conservative, there are many types of political parties in India - National Party and Regional/State party.
Every political party must bear a symbol and must be registered with the Election Commission of India, symbols are used in Indian political system as an identity of political parties and that illiterate people can vote by recognizing symbols of party. For a National party, it must be the presence in the Lok Sabha and for a State party. In any election, a party can set up a candidate only from amongst its own members. A party, that loses its recognition, shall not lose its symbol immediately, recognition should be given to a party only on the basis of its own performance in elections and not because it is a splinter group of some other recognized party. OR it wins at least two percent seats in the House of the People, and these members are elected from at least three different States. OR it wins at least three percent of the number of seats in the Legislative Assembly of the State, or at least three seats in the Assembly, whichever is more. At present there are 5 national parties and many state parties.
India has a history of alliances and breakdown of alliances, there are three alliances on a national level in India, competing with each other for the position of Government. The coalition government went on to complete the five years term. In the 2014 General Elections NDA once again returned to power for the second time, BJP itself won 282 seats thereby electing Narendra Modi as the head of the government. United Progressive Alliance - Centre-Left coalition led by Indian National Congress, the alliance even after losing some of its members, was reelected in 2009 General Elections with Manmohan Singh as head of the government
Sukumar Sen (civil servant)
Sukumar Sen was an Indian civil servant who was the first Chief Election Commissioner of India, serving from 21 March 1950 to 19 December 1958. Under his leadership, the Election Commission successfully administered and oversaw independent Indias first two elections, in 1951–52 and in 1957. He served as first Chief Election Commissioner in Sudan, Sen was the older brother of the more famous Ashoke Kumar Sen, Union Law Minister and a noted Indian barrister. Another brother was Amiya Kumar Sen, an eminent doctor, who was the last man to see Rabindranath Tagore alive, Sen was born in 1899 in Bengali Vaidya-Brahmin family. He was the elder or eldest son of a district magistrate and he was educated at Presidency College, Kolkata and at the University of London. He was awarded a medal in Mathematics at the latter. In 1921, Sen joined the Indian Civil Service, and served in various districts as an ICS officer, in 1947, he was appointed Chief Secretary of West Bengal, the senior-most rank that an ICS officer could attain in any state in British India.
He was still serving in that capacity when he was sent on deputation as chief election commissioner and he was among the first recipients of the civilian honour of Padma Bhushan. It is a pity we know so little about Sukumar Sen and he left no memoirs and, it appears, no papers either. It was perhaps the mathematician in Sen, which made him ask the minister to wait. No officer of State, certainly no Indian official, has ever had such a stupendous task placed in front of him. Consider, first of all, the size of the electorate,176 million Indians aged 21 or more, each voter had to be identified and registered. This registration of voters was merely the first step, for how did one design party symbols, ballot papers and ballot boxes for a mostly unlettered electorate. Then, polling stations had to be built and properly spaced out, voting has to be as transparent as possible, to allow for the fair play of the multiplicity of parties that would contest. Moreover, with the election would take place elections to the State Assemblies.
Working with Sukumar Sen in this regard were the commissioners of the different provinces. Tinker and Walker write that Sukumar Sen was aided by two Regional Election Commissioners plus one Chief Election Officer for each state, niaz comments, Though not always successful, Nehru took it upon himself to shield the higher bureaucracy against any arbitrary interference and allowed it to operate autonomously. The autonomy and integrity of the IAS was an element in motivating opposition parties to participate in the elections
Human rights in India
The Constitution of India provides for Fundamental rights, which include freedom of religion. Clauses provide for freedom of speech, as well as separation of executive and judiciary and freedom of movement within the country, the country has an independent judiciary and well as bodies to look into issues of human rights. The 2016 report of Human Rights Watch accepts the above-mentioned faculties but goes to state that India has serious human rights concerns, Civil society groups face harassment and government critics face intimidation and lawsuits. Free speech has come under attack both from the state and by interest groups, the Asian Centre for Human Rights estimated that from 2002 to 2008, over four people per day died while in police custody, with hundreds of those deaths being due to police use of torture. According to a written by the Institute of Correctional Administration in Punjab. Instances of torture, such as through a lack of sanitation, India is home to the largest number of sexually abused children in the world.
About 53% of children have been subjected to form of sexual abuse. In 2012, India introduced the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act to deal with cases of sexual abuse. However, it took two years to record the first cases under the law and there are gaps in its implementation with the conviction rate under the act being only 2. 4%. It is argued that the prevalence is driven by reluctance to expose relatives, as a result, more than 50% of adults who were abused surveyed wanted the matter to stay within the family and only 17% wanted harsh punishments for offenders. India has the highest number of living in conditions of slavery,18.3 million. Most of those in India living in slavery are in bonded labour, debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation, with children required to pay off their parents debt. India has the largest number of child labourers under the age of 14 in the world with an estimated 12.6 million children engaged in hazardous occupations, Human trafficking is a $8 million illegal business in India.
Around 10,000 Nepali women are brought to India annually for commercial sexual exploitation, each year 20, 000–25,000 women and children are trafficked from Bangladesh. Communal conflicts between groups have been prevalent in India since around the time of its independence from British Rule. Among the oldest incidences of violence in India was the Moplah rebellion. Communal riots took place during the partition of India between Hindus/Sikhs and Muslims where large numbers of people were killed in large-scale violence. The 1984 Anti-Sikh Riots was a period during which Sikhs were massacred by members of the secular-centrist Congress Party of India
Law enforcement in India
Law enforcement in India is performed by numerous law enforcement agencies. At the federal level, the agencies are part of the Union Ministry of Home Affairs. Larger cities operate metropolitan police forces, under respective state governments, all senior police officers in the state police forces, as well as those in the federal agencies, are members of the Indian Police Service. The central agencies are controlled by the central Government of India, the majority of federal law enforcement agencies are controlled by the Ministry of Home Affairs. The head of each of the law enforcement agencies is always an Indian Police Service. The constitution permits the government to participate in police operations. Central police forces can assist the police force, but only if so requested by the state governments. In practice, the government has largely observed these limits. During the Emergency of 1975-77, the constitution was amended to permit the government to dispatch. This action proved unpopular, and the use of the Central Police Forces was controversial, after the Emergency was lifted, the constitution was amended in December 1978 to make deployment of central Police forces once again dependent on the consent of the state government.
In addition to managing the Indian Police Service, the Ministry of Home Affairs maintains several agencies and organisations dealing with police, Police in the union territories comes directly under MHA. The Central Bureau of Investigation investigates crimes that might involve public officials or have ramifications for several states, the Indian Border Security Force is responsible for policing Indias land borders during peacetime and preventing trans-border crimes. It is a police force operating under the Union Ministry of Home Affairs. It performs a variety of duties ranging from VIP security to election duties, the BSFs policing capabilities were used in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 against the Pakistani Armed Forces in areas which were least threatened. During wartime or upon orders from the central government BSF operates under the command of the Indian Army, BSF troops took part in the Battle of Longewala in 1971 in this capacity. After the 1971 war which led to the creation of Bangladesh, although originally charged with guarding Indias external boundaries, the BSF has more recently been given the task of counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism operations.
BSF operates a Tear-Smoke Unit situated at BSF Academy, Gwalior, BSF operates Dog Squads and runs the National Dog Training and Research Centre. BSF is one of several Indian police forces which has its own Air and it provides helicopter and other support services to the State Police
Indian Administrative Service
The Indian Administrative Service is the All India administrative civil service. IAS officers hold key and strategic positions in the Union Government, States governments, along with the Indian Police Service and Indian Forest Service, the IAS is one of the three All India Services — its cadre can be employed by both the Union Government and the individual States. On attaining the upper levels of Super Time Scale to Apex Scale, they can go on to head whole departments and subsequently entire Ministries of Governments of India, IAS officers represent Government of India at the international level in bilateral and multilateral negotiations. On deputations they work at Intergovernmental organisations like World Bank and United Nations or its Agencies, IAS officers at various levels of administration play vital roles in conducting free and smooth elections in India under the direction of Election Commission of India and states. The erstwhile Imperial Civil Service was the highest civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947, Civil servants were divided into two categories - covenanted and uncovenanted.
The covenanted civil service consisted of only white British civil servants occupying the higher posts in the government, the uncovenanted civil service was solely introduced to facilitate the entry of Indians at the lower rung of the administration. With the passing of the Government of India Act 1919, the Imperial Services headed by the Secretary of State for India, were split into two – All India Services and Central Services. At the time of the partition of India and the departure of the British in 1947, the part which went to India was named the Indian Administrative Service, while the part that went to Pakistan was named the Civil Service of Pakistan. IAS officers are recruited from Civil Services Examination conducted by the Union Public Service Commission and they are promoted from State Civil Services and selected from non-state civil service. After getting selected, candidates undergo training at LBSNAA, Mussoorie for IAS, being an All India Service, officers of the IAS are allotted to State cadres at the beginning of their service.
They continue to work in that cadre or are deputed to Government of India, there is one cadre for each Indian state, except for three joint cadres, Assam–Meghalaya, Manipur–Tripura, and Arunachal Pradesh–Goa–Mizoram–Union Territories. The insider-outsider ratio is maintained as 1,2, with one-third of the recruits as insiders from the same state. The rest are posted as outsiders according to the roster in states other than their home states, the next year the roster starts from H, for either Haryana or Himachal Pradesh. This highly intricate system, in vogue since the mid-1980s, had ensured that officers from different states are placed all over India, changes of state cadre is permitted on grounds of marriage to an All India Service officer of another state cadre or under other exceptional circumstances. The officer may go to their home state cadre on deputation for a limited period, the centralising effect of cadre system was considered extremely important by the systems framers, but has received increasing criticism over the years.
There are concerns that such reform, the IAS will be unable to move from a command and control strategy to a more interactive. A civil servant is responsible for the law and order and general administration in the area under his work, most IAS officers start their careers in the state administration at the sub-divisional level as a sub divisional magistrate. They are entrusted with the law and order situation of the city along with general administration and they proceed to various posts in the State and Central Governments, and local-self Governments, and Public Sector Undertakings
Indian Foreign Service
The Indian Foreign Service is the administrative diplomatic civil service under Group A and Group B of the Central Civil Services of the executive branch of the Government of India. It is one of the two premier Civil Services, as appointment to IFS renders a person ineligible to reappear in Civil Services Examination and it is a Central Civil service as Foreign policy is the subject matter and prerogative of Union Government. The Ambassador, High Commissioner, Consul General, Permanent Representative of India to the United Nations, the service is entrusted to conduct diplomacy and manage foreign relations of India. It is the body of career diplomats serving in more than 180 Indian Diplomatic Missions, in addition, they serve at the headquarters of the Ministry of External affairs in Delhi and the Prime Ministers Office. They head the Regional Passport Offices throughout the country and hold positions in the Presidents Secretariat, Foreign Secretary of India is the administrative head of the Indian Foreign Service.
IFS Day is celebrated on October 9 every year since 2011 to commemorate the day the Indian Cabinet created the IFS, officers of the IFS are recruited by the Government of India on the recommendation of the Union Public Service Commission. Fresh recruits to the IFS are trained at the Foreign Service Institute after a foundation course at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration. Although established by the Company, the Indian Foreign Department conducted business with foreign European powers, each was headed by a secretary-level officer. The Foreign Department Secretary was entrusted with the conduct of all correspondence belonging to the external and internal diplomatic relations of the government, the External Affairs Department was set up separately under the direct charge of the Governor-General. Caroe pointed out that as India emerged as autonomous, it was imperative to build up a system of representation abroad that would be in harmony with the objectives of the future government.
On 9 October 1946, on the eve of Indian independence, with independence, there was a near-complete transition of the Foreign and Political Department into what became the new Ministry of External Affairs and Commonwealth Relations. In 1948, the first group of Indian Foreign Service officers recruited under the combined Civil Services Examination administered by the Union Public Service Commission joined the service and this exam is still used to select new foreign service officers. The Civil Services Examination is used for recruitment for the Indian Foreign Service, the entire selection process lasts for about 12 months. Only a rank among toppers guarantees an IFS selection— an acceptance rate of 0.02 percent, in recent years, the intake into the Indian Foreign Service has averaged between 25-30 persons annually. The present cadre strength of the stands at approximately 600 officers manning around 162 Indian missions and posts abroad. On acceptance to the Foreign Service, new entrants undergo significant training, the entrants undergo a probationary period.
Training begins at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration in Mussoorie and they go on attachments with different government bodies and defence establishments and undertake tours both in India and abroad. The entire training programme lasts for a period of 36 months, upon the completion of the training programme at the Institute, the officer is assigned a compulsory foreign language
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India. Membership of Rajya Sabha is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of 250 members, Members sit for staggered six-year terms, with one third of the members retiring every two years. The Rajya Sabha meets in continuous sessions, and unlike the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha, like the Lok Sabha can be prorogued by the President. The Rajya Sabha has equal footing in all areas of legislation with Lok Sabha, except in the area of supply, in the case of conflicting legislation, a joint sitting of the two houses can be held. However, since the Lok Sabha has twice as many members as the Rajya Sabha, the Vice-President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, who presides over its sessions. The Deputy Chairman, who is elected from amongst the houses members, the Rajya Sabha held its first sitting on 13 May 1952. The salary and other benefits for a member of Rajya Sabha are same as for a member of Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha members are elected by state legislatures rather than directly through the electorate by single transferable vote method.
Article 84 of the Constitution lays down the qualifications for membership of Parliament, must be elected by the Legislative Assembly of States and Union territories by means of Single transferable vote through Proportional representation. Must have their name present on the voters list, cannot be an insolvent, i. e. he/she should not be in debt that he/she is not capable of repaying in a current manner and should have the ability to meet his/her financial expenses. Should not hold any office of profit under the Government of India. Should not be of unsound mind, must possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament. In addition, twelve members are nominated by the President of India having special knowledge in areas like arts. However, they are not entitled to vote in Presidential elections as per Article 55 of the Constitution, the Constitution of India places some restrictions on Rajya Sabha which makes Lok Sabha more powerful in certain areas in comparison.
Money bills, as defined in the Constitution of India Act 110, when Lok Sabha passes a money bill, and transmits it to Rajya Sabha, Rajya Sabha has only fourteen days to return the bill to Lok Sabha. If Rajya Sabha fails to return the bill in fourteen days, also, if Lok Sabha rejects any of the amendments proposed by Rajya Sabha, the bill is deemed to have been passed by both Houses of Parliament in the form Lok Sabha finally passes it. Hence, Rajya Sabha cannot stall, or amend, a bill without Lok Sabhas concurrence on the same. Article 108 provides for a joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament in certain cases, considering that the numerical strength of Lok Sabha is more than twice that of Rajya Sabha, Lok Sabha tends to have a greater influence in a joint sitting of Parliament. A joint session is chaired by the Speaker of Lok Sabha, in Indian federal structure, Rajya Sabha is a representative of the States in the Union legislature