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Election law

Election law is a discipline falling at the juncture of constitutional law and political science. It researches "the politics of law and the law of politics"; the conceptual knowledge behind election law focuses on who votes, when that person can vote, the construction behind the tabulated totals. Some of the questions that are addressed by election law are: Which people are entitled to vote in an election, the procedures by which such persons must register to vote or present identification in order to vote Which people are entitled to hold office, the procedures candidates must follow to appear on the ballot and rules governing write-in candidates The rules about what subjects may be submitted to a direct popular vote through a referendum or plebiscite, the rules that governmental agencies or citizen groups must follow to place questions on the ballot for public consideration The framework by which political parties may organize their internal government, how they select candidates to run for political office The financing of elections The requirements for creating districts which elect representatives to a legislative assembly What restrictions are placed on campaign advocacy How votes are cast at an election How votes are counted at an election and election challenges Whether, how, voters or candidates may file legal actions in a court of law or administrative agency to enforce their rights or contest the outcome of an election Definition of electoral fraud and other crimes against the electoral system The sources of election law and the interplay between these sources of law The French electoral code addresses most of the elections.

However, other texts frame this material for special elections. Thus the Constitution but fixed some general basic provisions concerning the presidential election, the legislative and senatorial elections. For litigation election, the court depends on the concerned election; the Constitutional Council is responsible for the most important elections: presidential elections and senatorial elections or referendums. In contrast, to the municipal or district elections the administrative tribunal has jurisdiction the appeal is to the State Council. For the regional and European elections, the Council of State which has jurisdiction at first and last resort. In decisions on electoral matters, the law takes into account the results: if an essential principle is violated, the election is canceled but if fraud is "classic" but the election was won with a large or large lead, the judge cancels the result; the Italian Constitution fixes some general basic provisions concerning the legislative elections. Electoral disputes in Italy are complex.

For example, with regard to the dispute concerning registration of candidates for ballots or litigation election, the administrative court has jurisdiction. For eligibility and disfranchisement, the judge is the ordinary tribunal. If a fraud is proven by the judge, it does not cancel the elections, unless they think that the result of election without the fraud would not have been identical; the survival of the acts performed by the elected organs would seem solved by abundant case law that protects innocent trust of third parties. See Law of the United States In the United Kingdom, election law is legislated for by The Houses of Parliament; the statutory governance of UK Election law comes from acts of parliament such as the Fixed Term Parliaments Act 2011. The Electoral Commission's mandate and establishment was set out in the Political Parties and Referendums Act 2000, ranges from the regulation of political donations and expenditure by political and third parties through to promoting greater participation in the electoral process.

The Electoral Administration Act 2006 made a number of improvements to electoral registration, improving the security arrangements for absent voting, allowing observers to attend elections and a major change in reducing the minimum age for candidates at UK parliamentary elections. It introduced the performance standards regime for electoral services. Category:Election law in the United Kingdom Court of Disputed Returns Right of foreigners to vote Universal suffrage Disfranchisement Election Law Journal - A scholarly journal devoted to election law Election Law @ Moritz - a repository of Election Law news and commentary from academics and practitioners, compiled at the Ohio State Michael E. Moritz College of Law. Electoral Studies - A scholarly journal devoted to the study of elections Samuel Issacharoff, Pamela S. Karlan & Richard H. Pildes; the Law of Democracy: Legal Structure of the Political Process. 4th Rev. Ed. Foundation Press, 2012. Daniel H. Lowenstein, Richard L. Hasen & Daniel P. Tokaji, Election Law: Cases and Materials.

5th Ed. Carolina Press, 2012. Joshua A. Douglas & Eugene D. Mazo. Election

Spring Brook Township, Kittson County, Minnesota

Spring Brook Township is a township in Kittson County, United States. The population was 74 at the 2000 census. Spring Brook Township was organized in 1884. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 35.9 square miles, of which 35.9 square miles of it is land and 0.03% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 74 people, 26 households, 21 families residing in the township; the population density was 2.1 people per square mile. There were 32 housing units at an average density of 0.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 97.30% White, 2.70% from two or more races. There were 26 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 84.6% were married couples living together, 15.4% were non-families. 11.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.09. In the township the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 17.6% from 25 to 44, 29.7% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.4 males. The median income for a household in the township was $36,875, the median income for a family was $45,625. Males had a median income of $35,000 versus $28,750 for females; the per capita income for the township was $13,637. There were 9.5% of families and 7.5% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64

Lens (anatomy)

The lens is a transparent biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina. By changing shape, functions to change the focal length of the eye so that it can focus on objects at various distances, thus allowing a sharp real image of the object of interest to be formed on the retina; this adjustment of the lens is known as accommodation. Accommodation is similar to the focusing of a photographic camera via movement of its lenses; the lens is more flat on its anterior side than on its posterior side. The lens is known as the aquula or crystalline lens. In humans, the refractive power of the lens in its natural environment is 18 dioptres one-third of the eye's total power; the lens is part of the anterior segment of the human eye. In front of the lens is the iris, which regulates the amount of light entering into the eye; the lens is suspended in place by the suspensory ligament of the lens, a ring of fibrous tissue that attaches to the lens at its equator and connects it to the ciliary body.

Posterior to the lens is the vitreous body, along with the aqueous humor on the anterior surface, bathes the lens. The lens has an biconvex shape; the anterior surface is less curved than the posterior. In the adult, the lens is circa 10 mm in diameter and has an axial length of about 4 mm, though it is important to note that the size and shape can change due to accommodation and because the lens continues to grow throughout a person's lifetime; the lens has three main parts: the lens capsule, the lens epithelium, the lens fibers. The lens capsule forms the outermost layer of the lens and the lens fibers form the bulk of the interior of the lens; the cells of the lens epithelium, located between the lens capsule and the outermost layer of lens fibers, are found only on the anterior side of the lens. The lens itself lacks blood vessels, or connective tissue; the lens capsule is a smooth, transparent basement membrane that surrounds the lens. The capsule is composed of collagen, it is synthesized by the lens epithelium and its main components are Type IV collagen and sulfated glycosaminoglycans.

The capsule is elastic and so allows the lens to assume a more globular shape when not under the tension of the zonular fibers, which connect the lens capsule to the ciliary body. The capsule varies from 2 to 28 micrometres in thickness, being thickest near the equator and thinnest near the posterior pole; the lens epithelium, located in the anterior portion of the lens between the lens capsule and the lens fibers, is a simple cuboidal epithelium. The cells of the lens epithelium regulate most of the homeostatic functions of the lens; as ions and liquid enter the lens from the aqueous humor, Na+/K+-ATPase pumps in the lens epithelial cells pump ions out of the lens to maintain appropriate lens osmotic concentration and volume, with equatorially positioned lens epithelium cells contributing most to this current. The activity of the Na+/K+-ATPases keeps water and current flowing through the lens from the poles and exiting through the equatorial regions; the cells of the lens epithelium serve as the progenitors for new lens fibers.

It lays down fibers in the embryo, fetus and adult, continues to lay down fibers for lifelong growth. The lens fibers form the bulk of the lens, they are long, transparent cells packed, with diameters 4–7 micrometres and lengths of up to 12 mm long. The lens fibers stretch lengthwise from the posterior to the anterior poles and, when cut horizontally, are arranged in concentric layers rather like the layers of an onion. If cut along the equator, it appears as a honeycomb; the middle of each fiber lies on the equator. These packed layers of lens fibers are referred to as laminae; the lens fibers are linked together via gap junctions and interdigitations of the cells that resemble "ball and socket" forms. The lens is split into regions depending on the age of the lens fibers of a particular layer. Moving outwards from the central, oldest layer, the lens is split into an embryonic nucleus, the fetal nucleus, the adult nucleus, the outer cortex. New lens fibers, generated from the lens epithelium, are added to the outer cortex.

Mature lens fibers have no nuclei. Development of the human lens begins at the 4 mm embryonic stage. Unlike the rest of the eye, derived from the neural ectoderm, the lens is derived from the surface ectoderm; the first stage of lens differentiation takes place when the optic vesicle, formed from outpocketings in the neural ectoderm, comes in proximity to the surface ectoderm. The optic vesicle induces nearby surface ectoderm to form the lens placode. At the 4 mm stage, the lens placode is a single monolayer of columnar cells; as development progresses, the lens placode begins to invaginate. As the placode continues to deepen, the opening to the surface ectoderm constricts and the lens cells forms a structure known as the lens vesicle. By the 10 mm stage, the lens vesicle has separated from the surface ectoderm. After the 10 mm stage, signals from the developing neural retina induces the cells closest to the posterior end of the lens vesicle begin to elongate toward the anterior end of the vesicle.

These signals induce the synthesis of crystallins. These elongating cells fill in the lumen of the vesicle to form the primary fibers, which become the embryonic nucleus in the mature lens; the cells of the anterior portion of the lens vesicle give rise to the lens epithelium. Additional secondary fibers are derived from lens epithelial cells located toward the

Amador Vaz de Alpoim

Amador Vaz de Alpoim was a Portuguese nobleman, who served as Officer of the Royal Armies, conquistador and explorer of South America in the service of the Spanish Crown. He was the founder of the Cabral de Melo Alpoim family in the Río de la Plata, descendants of the first settlers of the Azores islands, he maintained an active military participation in the Río de la Plata, taking part in the military expeditions led by Hernandarias de Saavedra. He was born in 1568, in the Terceira Island, son of Estevan Alpoim and Isabel Velha, a family belonging to the Portuguese nobility. Towards the year 1598 he and his wife, Margarida Cabral de Melo, their children arrived in Buenos Aires from Rio de Janeiro, city where the family had lived for some years. Installed in Buenos Aires, the Alpoim family received parcels of land in the city and in the province, obtained permission from the authorities to export products, he and all members of his family swore loyalty to the Monarch Philip III, King of Spain and Portugal, being enrolled in the Royal armies from the moment they arrived at the Río de la Plata.

In 1604 the Captain Alpoim was part of the expedition organized by Hernando Arias de Saavedra in City of the Caesars, known as the expedición de Hernandarias a la Patagonia. That same year he participated in the exploration of the islas del Paraná. A failed expedition where Alpoim saved the life of Hernandarias, when this fell from his horse, was about to be killed by tribes Charruas. In his youth, Alpoim had been involved in the introduction of slaves from Angola to Brazil. In the early 1600s, he renounce their activities as slave-trader, to devote himself to his ranch, where he was engaged in raising cattle and wine production. Amador Vaz de Alpoim became one of the most powerful men of the Río de la Plata, where he received encomiendas from the Kings of Spain, receiving permission for the exploitation of cimarrón cattle, he was the owner of a large number of haciendas in the province of Buenos Aires, including farms in the current locations of Avellaneda, Lomas de Zamora and Monte Grande.

Amador Vaz de Alpoim was married in the Azores to Margarita Cabral de Melo, daughter of Matias Nunes Cabral and Maria Simões de Melo, belonging to a noble family, among whose numerous ancestors are found Martim Afonso de Melo and Briolanja de Sousa, a direct descendant of Afonso III of Portugal. Amador Vaz de Alpoin belonged to the first colonizing families of the Azores, his grandparents were Estêvão Pires de Alpoim, a known notary of the Islands, Grimanesa Pires, daughter of Pedro Vaz Marinheiro, a rich and powerful sailor. Some of their ancestors were connected through maternal lineages with several European royal houses such as Álvaro Pires Pinheiro Lobo, Martim Gonçalves de Lacerda, his families came from Portuguese nobles linked to the French and English aristocracy, like Luís de Alpoim and John Falconet. His sons Amador Báez de Alpoim and Manuel Cabral de Melo, had a preponderant role in the political and military life of Argentina during the colonial period. At least two Argentine presidents were descendants of Amador Vaz de Alpoim and Margarida Cabral de Melo.

Juan Manuel de Rosas and Justo José de Urquiza, were descendants of Gil Gonçalves de Moura and Inês Nunes Cabral, brothers in law of Amador Vaz de Alpoim. Amador Báez de Alpoin - Genealogía Familiar Nobiliário de familias de Portugal Nobiliário de familias de Portugal

The Stray Dog (Simont book)

The Stray Dog is a 2000 children's picture book by Marc Simont. A family of four meets a stray dog while having a picnic in the park; the two kids ask their parents if they can keep him. Their parents say no. During the next week, every member of the family keeps on thinking about Willy; when Saturday comes, they decide to go on another picnic to see. When they see a dogcatcher chase after the dog, they try to save him; when they catch up to him, the dogcatcher says. The kids tell him that the dog does belong to them by saying that the boy's belt was the dog's collar and the girl's hair ribbon was his leash; the dogcatcher leaves. Steve Barancik of Best Children's Books has written that the story is heartwarming and that the ending reminded him of that of Horton Hatches the Egg; the book has won several awards, including ALA Notable Children’s Book, Boston Globe-Horn Book Award, Caldecott Honor Book


Year 1326 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. February 10–March 11 – Raid on Brandenburg: Allied forces of the Kingdom of Poland, led by Władysław I the Elbow-high, of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led by the pagan Gediminas, raid Louis V of Germany's Margraviate of Brandenburg, with the sanction of Pope John XXII. April 19 – A peace treaty in the Flemish peasant revolt, 1323-1328, is ratified. June 3 – The Treaty of Novgorod delineates the border between Russia and Norway in Finnmark. August 27 – A marriage contract is drawn up between Prince Edward and Philippa of Hainault, guaranteeing that the wedding will take place within two years. September 24 – England is invaded by Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer. October – Ibn Battuta reaches Mecca. Orhan I succeeds Osman I, on the throne of the Ottoman Empire. Ingeborg of Norway is deposed from political power in Sweden; the use of the word "cannon" is first recorded in reference to a firearm. Clare College, the University of Cambridge's second oldest college, is founded.

The foundation of Oriel College, the University of Oxford's fifth oldest college, is confirmed by royal charter. March 5 – King Louis I of Hungary March 30 – Ivan II of Russia, Grand Duke of Muscovy May 1 – Rinchinbal Khan, Emperor Ningzong of Yuan May 8 – Joanna I of Auvergne, queen consort of France June 29 – Murad I, Ottoman sultan date unknown Olivier de Clisson, French soldier Robert of Durazzo, Neapolitan nobleman Prince Narinaga, Japanese Shōgun Imagawa Sadayo, Japanese poet and soldier Isaac ben Sheshet, Spanish Talmudic authority probable Manuel Kantakouzenos, despot of Morea Seii, King of Chuzan Simeon Uroš, self-proclaimed Emperor of Serbs and Greeks January 18 – Robert FitzWalter, 1st Baron FitzWalter, English baron February 28 – Leopold I, Duke of Austria March 26 – Alessandra Giliani, Italian anatomist April 29 – Blanche of Burgundy, queen consort of France May 31 – Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley, English rebel baron July 29 – Richard Óg de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster October 15 – Walter de Stapledon, English bishop October 27 – Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester November 17 – Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel, English politician November 25 – Prince Koreyasu, Japanese shōgun November 24 – Hugh the younger Despenser, English knight December 20 – Peter, Metropolitan of Moscow December 28 – Sir David II Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl, Constable of Scotland, Chief Warden of Northumberland date unknown Mondino de Liuzzi, Italian anatomist Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire John Palaiologos, Byzantine nobleman Ser Petracco, notary public of the Republic of Florence, father of Petrarch