Politics of Ontario
The Province of Ontario is governed by a unicameral legislature, the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, which operates in the Westminster system of government. The political party that wins the largest number of seats in the legislature forms the government, the party's leader becomes premier of the province, i.e. the head of the government. Ontario's primary political parties are the centre-right Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario, the centre-left to left Ontario New Democratic Party, the centre-left Ontario Liberal Party and the left-wing Green Party of Ontario. After the Province's indecisive first election in 1867, in which the Conservative John Sandfield Macdonald became the first Premier of Ontario, the Liberals under Edward Blake gained power in 1871 which they would hold until 1905. Blake left for federal politics in 1872, Oliver Mowat would serve as Premier until 1896. Secure in its predominance in the rural parts of Southwestern Ontario, the Liberals received support through their friendship with the Roman Catholic hierarchy, their use of patronage for political ends, their dealings with the liquor trade.
Mowat's success was buttressed by Arthur Sturgis Hardy's activity as a hard-nosed and down-to-earth politician in his service, as noted by Grip: Acting as his own Attorney General, Mowat promoted the cause of provincial sovereignty before the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, winning key controversies over Provincial boundaries, jurisdiction over liquor licenses and commerce, rivers and streams, mineral rights and other matters. Mowat was cautious in his approach to reform, preferring to do so by instalments; as George William Ross observed it reflected Mowat's cunning: The agrarian revolt and anti-Catholic sentiment in 1894, exemplified by the rise of the Patrons of Industry and the Protestant Protective Association, was deftly handled by the Liberals and Conservatives declining to nominate a full bank of candidates in that election and fielding candidates that were nominated by these protest groups. The Patrons and PPA ceased to exist by 1898. After Mowat left for federal politics in 1896, the premiership was passed to Hardy, who promoted the development of New Ontario with measures for colonization and incentives for the development of lumber and mining operations.
He was followed by Ross in 1899, but a series of scandals in Ross' term of office would lead to his defeat in 1905. Through reforming the Conservatives by establishing the Ontario Liberal-Conservative Association, reaching out to Catholics, distancing the party from its federal counterpart, James Pliny Whitney was able to win the election of 1905. In that campaign, he stressed the necessity of public ownership of electrical development, saying, "The water power of Niagara should be as free as the air." In office, he worked to promote Ontario's industrial development through the creation of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, promoted social welfare through the passage of the first workmen's compensation law. He maintained the party's support from the Orange Order by suppressing French-language instruction in schools through the issue of Regulation 17, he continued as Premier until his death in 1914. William Howard Hearst took over as Premier, served until his defeat in 1919; the era was known for aggressive exploitation of the Province's natural resources.
In 1919, Howard Ferguson declared, "My ambition has been to see the largest paper industry in the world established in the Province, my attitude towards the pulp and paper industry has been directed towards assisting in bringing this about."The rise of activism amongst farmers and workers following World War I resulted in the United Farmers of Ontario - Labour coalition government headed by E. C. Drury, in power from 1919 to 1923; the Conservatives returned, would retain control until the onset of the Great Depression, at which time the Liberals returned under Mitchell Hepburn, who would pursue aggressive policies in promoting Ontario's interests until 1943. The Progressive Conservative Party dominated Ontario's political system from 1943 to 1985 and earned the nickname of the Big Blue Machine. During this period the party was led by Red Tory premiers: George Drew, Leslie Frost, John Robarts and Bill Davis; these governments were responsible for some of the province's most progressive social legislation, the creation of most of Ontario's welfare state and social programs, the creation of many Crown Corporations, strong economic growth.
Though the Conservatives were reduced to a minority government in 1975 and 1977, they stayed in power as they moved to the left of the rural-based Liberals. In addition, the Liberal and NDP opposition parties had been unwilling to cooperate; the Conservatives' were returned with a majority government in 1981. However, in 1985, the party came back to the right, electing Frank Miller as leader at a leadership convention, following the retirement of popular longtime Red Tory Premier Bill Davis; this shift in policy did not help the party's fortunes, nor did Davis' announcement to extend full funding for Catholic schools, the latter which alienated the Conservatives' rural supporters. After 42 years of governing Ontario, the 1985 election reduced the Tories to a minority in the Legislature, with only four seats more than the opposition Liberals; the Tories won fewer votes overall than the Liberals. Miller attempted to forge an alliance with the NDP, as Bill Davis did during his minority terms, but they were unable to come to an agreement.
The Liberals of David Peterson and the New Democrats of Bob Rae signed an accord, ousting Frank Miller, ending one of the l
Hamilton Police Service
The Hamilton Police Service is the police service of the City of Hamilton, Canada. The town of Hamilton was established on February 1833 by a statute of Upper Canada, it was one of the first Canadian communities to adopt the concepts of Sir Robert Peel. The first board of police elections were held on March 4, 1833. Thomas Taylor was the first president of the board with elected members. C. Ferrie, Ebenezer Stinson, Joseph Rolston and Peter Hamilton, their first meeting took place at the Hamilton Court House on March 11, 1833. The first order of business was to consider a location for a town market place. By-laws were set forth for the regulation of the town and a number of town officials were appointed; the direction of the board of police, High Bailiff John Ryckman was appointed to keep the peace, thus establishing him as Hamilton's first police officer. In 1846 the town of Hamilton received its charter. In 1848 Dundas created its own police agency. In 1850, the police village of Ancaster followed suit to complete the trio of area pre-confederation police departments.
In August 1940, the Township of Saltfleet established a constabulary to patrol its urban territory, in 1949, in the wake of the post-war boom, Stoney Creek did the same. On January 1, 1974, these police forces were merged into one Hamilton-Wentworth Regional Police Force under its own board of commissioners of police. Policing was no longer a department of city hall. On February 22, 1986, the Hamilton Harbour Police, under the jurisdiction of the Hamilton Harbour Commission, was disbanded and its function taken over by the Hamilton Wentworth Regional Police Force. On January 1, 2001, the communities of Ancaster, Flamborough, Stoney Creek and Hamilton merged to become the new City of Hamilton. At the same time, the Hamilton Wentworth Regional Police merged to become the Hamilton Police Service; the Hamilton Police Service coat of arms and colours and guidons were granted by the Canadian Heraldic Authority November 15, 2007. The coat of arms is a version of the national coat of arms for municipal police services.
It may be granted to any municipal police service, part of a municipal corporation that possesses a coat of arms by lawful grant from the Crown. All such badges share a frame of gold maple leaves rising up from a representation of the provincial flower from the province in which the service is sited, all ensigned by the Royal Crown - St. Edward’s Crown. "On a hurt a maple leaf gules fimbriated or, all within a wreath of maple leaves or issuant from a trillium flower proper between two cinquefoils gules, the whole ensigned by the Royal Crown proper and in base a ribbon sable edged or inscribed Hamilton Police Service in letters argent. The exterior frame of maple leaves, the trillium, St. Edward’s Crown follow the traditional style of police coats of arms for a municipal police service in Canada; the police service has the responsibility of upholding the peace and the administration of justice under the Canadian Crown. The Royal Crown, at the top of the coat of arms, symbolizes the administration of Crown’s justice, while the laurel of maple leaves and trillium refer to Canada and Ontario respectively.
The blue field represents the harbour of the City of Hamilton and the gold edges represent the city’s industry and wealth. The red maple leaf represents Canada; the two cinquefoils allude to the arms of the City of Hamilton in which such a cinquefoil appears. The cinquefoil is taken from the arms of the Chief of Clan Hamilton, it thus refers to the city's namesake; the coat of arms is included in the Public Register of Arms and Badges of Canada.</ref> "Per bend sinister gules a bend sinister or overall the badge. The grant of arms, more known as a coat of arms incorporates symbolism reflecting the years of history and heritage of the Hamilton Police Service. A ‘colour’ is the ceremonial flag, with a specific registered design, awarded to the Hamilton Police Service by Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada. In Canada this is done through the Governor General of the Canadian Heraldic Authority; the design incorporates specific symbolic features. To consecrate a flag is to ceremonially dedicate it to the service of the men and women and civilians, of the Hamilton Police Service.
The consecration making the flag a visible symbol of the years which have passed since the Service was created, emblematic of the years to come. It is meant to serve as an inspiration for the future, is a silent challenge to the future members to meet and exceed the achievements of those who have come before them. In a ceremony steeped in protocol and pageantry, the colour was consecrated by a drumhead service; the logo, similar to the heraldic crest, was developed by a police committee when the Hamilton-Wentworth Regional Police became the Hamilton Police Service. It is the logo that appears on marked patrol vehicles, letterhead, etc. St. Edward's Crown ribbon containing the words Hamilton banner below with the words police within the ribbon: maple leaf: while representing Canada, the leaf has six facets, representing the six municipalities that formed the Hamilton-Wentworth Region and later the amalgamated City of Hamilton; those municipalities in addition to Hamilton are Ancaster, Dundas
Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities
The Ministry of Training and Universities is the ministry of the government of Ontario responsible for administration of laws relating to post-secondary education and skills training. This ministry is one of the other being the Ministry of Education; the Ministry's offices are in downtown Ontario. The current minister is Merrilee Fullerton. In May, 1964, the Department of University Affairs Act was passed establishing the Department of University Affairs; the department was charged with administering the government's support programs for higher education the responsibility of the Department of Education. Bill Davis, the inaugural minister, was the Minister of Education at the time and continued to hold the position after the department's establishment. In addition to jurisdiction over higher education, The department had financial jurisdiction over the Royal Ontario Museum, the Royal Botanical Gardens and the Art Gallery of Ontario. In October 1971, the department's size was doubled by the addition of the Applied Arts and Technology Branch of the Department of Education.
In light of this expansion of functions, the name of the department was changed to the Department of Colleges and Universities. It was renamed the Ministry of Colleges and Universities in 1972 as part of a government-wide restructuring. In 1975, various cultural programs and institutions of the ministry were transferred to the newly created Ministry of Culture and Recreation. In 1985, a separate Ministry of Skills Development was created. In 1993, the Ministry of Colleges and Universities, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Skills Development were combined to form the Ministry of Education and Training. In June 1999, the responsibilities for post-secondary education and skills development were again given to a standalone ministry, named the Ministry of Training and Universities. Between 2016 and 2018, it was renamed the Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Development; the Minister of Training and Universities is a member of the Executive Council of Ontario reporting to the Premier and held accountable by the Legislative Assembly of Ontario.
The deputy minister manages the operations of the ministry. As a whole, the ministry has responsibility for administration of laws relating to postsecondary education and skills training in Ontario; the divisions cover employment and training, postsecondary education, strategic policy and programs, corporate management and services, French-language education and educational operations. The divisions report to the deputy minister who reports to the minister; the ministry works with several external advisory bodies to assist in the governance of the higher education system in Ontario. The Rae Report titled Ontario: A Leader in Learning, called for deregulation of tuition fees, income-contingent loan repayments, an increase in public funding. Higher education in Ontario
Attorney General of Ontario
The Attorney General of Ontario is the chief legal adviser to Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Ontario and, by extension, the Government of Ontario. The Attorney General is a senior member of the Executive Council of Ontario and oversees the Ministry of the Attorney General – the department responsible for the oversight of the justice system in the province of Ontario; the Attorney General is an elected Member of Provincial Parliament, appointed by the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario on the constitutional advice of the Premier of Ontario. The goal of the Ministry of the Attorney General is to provide a fair and accessible justice system which reflects the needs of the diverse communities it serves across government and the province; the Ministry represents the largest justice system in Canada and one of the largest in North America. It strives to manage the justice system in an equitable and accessible way throughout the province; as of June 29, 2018, the Attorney General of Ontario is Caroline Mulroney and is assisted by Lindsey Park as Parliamentary Assistant to the Attorney General.
The Attorney General has the authority to represent the provincial government in court but this task is always delegated to crown attorneys, or to crown counsel in civil cases. Ian Scott, a prominent courtroom lawyer prior to entering politics, chose to plead the crown's case in court for several cases related to constitutional law. Most holders of the office had legal training. Marion Boyd was the only Attorney General, not a lawyer until Caroline Mulroney appointment. Although Mulroney studied and practiced law in the United States, she is not able to practice law in Canada; the Ministry of the Attorney General delivers and administers a wide range of justice services, including: administering 115 statutes. The Ontario Crown Attorney's Office, the Office of the Public Guardian and Trustee, the Children's Lawyer, the Special Investigations Unit all fall within the Ministry's responsibilities; the Ministry funds Legal Aid Ontario, administered by an independent board. In 2008, Office of the Independent Police Review Director was established under the authority of the AG, as a civilian body with powers invested through Public Inquiries Act to investigate complaints about municipal police forces and the Ontario Provincial Police.
Following the 2013 release of former Supreme Court judge Frank Iacobucci's report on the relationship between Aboriginal peoples and the Ontario justice system, a position of deputy attorney general with responsibility for Aboriginal issues was created. 1. John White 1791–1800 2. Robert Isaac Dey Gray 1800–1801 3. Thomas Scott 1801–1806 4. William Firth 1807–1812 5. G. D'Arcy Boulton 1814–1818 6. Sir John Robinson, 1st Baronet, of Toronto 1818–1829, acting AG 1812–1814 7. Henry John Boulton 1829–1832 8. Robert Sympson Jameson 1833–1837, last British-appointed AG 9. Christopher Alexander Hagerman 1837–1840, first Canadian-born AG of Upper Canada 10. William Henry Draper 1840–1841, last AG of Upper Canada In 1841, the Province of Upper Canada became the Province of Canada 11. William Henry Draper 1841–1843 12. Robert Baldwin 1843–1848 13. William Buell Richards 1848–1854 14. John A. Macdonald 1854–1862, 1864–1867 15. John Sandfield Macdonald 1862–1864 After 1867, the Attorney General position was split into federal and provincial counterparts: Attorney General of OntarioAttorney General of Quebec Attorney General of Canada Government of Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General website
Ministry of Finance (Ontario)
The Ministry of Finance is a portfolio in the Executive Council of Ontario known as the cabinet. The Finance Minister is responsible for managing the fiscal and related regulatory affairs of the Canadian province of Ontario; the cabinet posted used to be called the Treasurer of Ontario and was changed to be in line with other post in other Canadian provinces. For most of the period from 1867 until 1993, the minister was called the treasurer or provincial treasurer. Https://tvo.org/blog/current-affairs/here-comes-the-budget The ministry were renamed the Ministry of Economics in 1956 and the minister became known as Minister in charge of Economics instead of treasurer. From January to December 1961, the ministry became the Ministry of Economics and Federal and Provincial Relations; the title of treasurer was revived in December 1961 with the minister often holding the secondary title of minister of economics or some variation after 1968. Frank Miller had the sole title of minister of economics from 1978 until 1981 when he was given the additional title of treasuruer.
At various times in the 1960s and 1970s the minister held the titles of chairman of the management board of cabinet, chairman of the treasury board and/or minister of revenue. This practice was revived in recent years with Greg Sorbara acting as finance minister and chair of both the management board and the treasury board, it has ended as there is now a different person holding the position of chair of the management and treasury board. In 1993, the positions of treasurer and minister of economics were formally combined and renamed the minister of finance. In early 2007, Premier Dalton McGuinty split the province's revenue collection function from the Ministry of Finance and resurrected the Ministry of Revenue, a ministry/portfolio that had not been used since the Ontario New Democratic Party government of Bob Rae in 1993. Following the 2011 Ontario general election, the Ministry of Revenue was merged back into the Ministry of Finance. Since 1985, the Provincial Treasurer or Minister of Finance has but not always, concurrently held the appointment Deputy Premier of Ontario.
Ontario Ministry of Finance website
Ministry of Education (Ontario)
The Ministry of Education is the Government of Ontario ministry responsible for government policy, curriculum planning and direction in all levels of public education, including elementary and secondary schools. This Ministry is responsible for curriculum and guidelines for all recognized elementary and secondary schools in the province and some outside the province; the ministry is responsible for public and separate school boards across Ontario, but are not involved in the day-to-day operations. A number of ministers of education went on to become Premier, including Arthur Sturgis Hardy, George Ross, George Drew, John Robarts, Bill Davis, Kathleen Wynne; the current Minister of Education is Lisa Thompson. Prior to confederation, the supervision of the education system and the development of education policy of Canada West were the responsibilities of the Department of Public Instruction. Founded in 1850, the department was headed by the Chief Superintendent of Education, Egerton Ryerson, reported to the Executive Council and the Legislative Assembly through the Provincial Secretary.
In February 1876, the Department of Public Instruction was replaced by the Department of Education. The new department was presided over by the Minister of Education, assigned the powers held by the Chief Superintendent of Education. Responsibilities for post-secondary education were part of the department's portfolio prior to 1964 when the Department of University Affairs was created; the Department of Education continued to be responsible for post-secondary education in applied arts and technology until 1971 when the responsibility was transferred to the renamed Department of Colleges and Universities. In 1972, the Department of Education was renamed the Ministry of Education; the ministry again oversaw post-secondary education between 1993 and 1999. The Hall-Dennis Report titled Living and Learning, called for broad reforms to Ontario education, to empower teachers and the larger community, put students' needs and dignity at the centre of education; the Fullan Report titled Great to Excellent, calls for a focus on the 6 C's: Character, Communication, Critical thinking and problem solving and teamwork, Creativity and imagination.
The report calls for innovation in how these areas are learned. Ontario public schools use progressive discipline. Discipline is corrective and supportive rather than punitive, with a focus on prevention and early intervention, it is a whole-school, systemic approach, engaging students and the larger community, as well as classes and boards. Schools are to recognize and respect the diversity of parent communities, partner with them accordingly. Students are surveyed at least every two years about their experience of the school climate."For students with special education needs, interventions and consequences must be consistent with the student’s strengths and needs". While the school principal is responsible for discipline, all board employees who come into contact with students are responsible for stepping in if inappropriate behaviour occurs; the principal may delegate powers and duties related to discipline. Education in Ontario Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Development List of school districts in Ontario Ministry of Education Biography of the Minister of Education
USB flash drive
A USB flash drive known as a thumb drive, pen drive, gig stick, flash stick, jump drive, disk key, disk on key, flash-drive, memory stick, USB key, USB stick or USB memory, is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated USB interface. It is removable and much smaller than an optical disc. Most weigh less than 1 oz. Since first appearing on the market in late 2000, as with all other computer memory devices, storage capacities have risen while prices have dropped; as of March 2016, flash drives with anywhere from 8 to 256 GB were sold, while 512 GB and 1 TB units were less frequent. As of 2018, 2TB flash drives were the largest available in terms of storage capacity; some allow up to 100,000 write/erase cycles, depending on the exact type of memory chip used, are thought to last between 10 and 100 years under normal circumstances. USB flash drives are used for storage, data back-up and transfer of computer files. Compared with floppy disks or CDs, they are smaller, have more capacity, are more durable due to a lack of moving parts.
Additionally, they are immune to electromagnetic interference, are unharmed by surface scratches. Until about 2005, most desktop and laptop computers were supplied with floppy disk drives in addition to USB ports, but floppy disk drives became obsolete after widespread adoption of USB ports and the larger USB drive capacity compared to the 1.44 MB 3.5-inch floppy disk. USB flash drives use the USB mass storage device class standard, supported natively by modern operating systems such as Windows, macOS and other Unix-like systems, as well as many BIOS boot ROMs. USB drives with USB 2.0 support can store more data and transfer faster than much larger optical disc drives like CD-RW or DVD-RW drives and can be read by many other systems such as the Xbox One, PlayStation 4, DVD players, automobile entertainment systems, in a number of handheld devices such as smartphones and tablet computers, though the electronically similar SD card is better suited for those devices. A flash drive consists of a small printed circuit board carrying the circuit elements and a USB connector, insulated electrically and protected inside a plastic, metal, or rubberized case, which can be carried in a pocket or on a key chain, for example.
The USB connector may be protected by a removable cap or by retracting into the body of the drive, although it is not to be damaged if unprotected. Most flash drives use a standard type-A USB connection allowing connection with a port on a personal computer, but drives for other interfaces exist. USB flash drives draw power from the computer via the USB connection; some devices combine the functionality of a portable media player with USB flash storage. M-Systems, an Israeli company, were granted a US patent on November 14, 2000, titled "Architecture for a -based Flash Disk", crediting the invention to Amir Ban, Dov Moran and Oron Ogdan, all M-Systems employees at the time; the patent application was filed by M-Systems in April 1999. In 1999, IBM filed an invention disclosure by one of its employees. Flash drives were sold by Trek 2000 International, a company in Singapore, which began selling in early 2000. IBM became the first to sell USB flash drives in the United States in 2000; the initial storage capacity of a flash drive was 8 MB.
Another version of the flash drive, described as a pen drive, was developed. Pua Khein-Seng from Malaysia has been credited with this invention. Patent disputes have arisen over the years, with competing companies including Singaporean company Trek Technology and Chinese company Netac Technology, attempting to enforce their patents. Trek has lost battles in other countries. Netac Technology has brought lawsuits against PNY Technologies, aigo and Taiwan's Acer and Tai Guen Enterprise Co. Flash drives are measured by the rate at which they transfer data. Transfer rates may be given in megabytes per second, megabits per second, or in optical drive multipliers such as "180X". File transfer rates vary among devices. Second generation flash drives have claimed to read at up to 30 MB/s and write at about half that rate, about 20 times faster than the theoretical transfer rate achievable by the previous model, USB 1.1, limited to 12 Mbit/s with accounted overhead. The effective transfer rate of a device is affected by the data access pattern.
By 2002, USB flash drives had USB 2.0 connectivity, which has 480 Mbit/s as the transfer rate upper bound. That same year, Intel sparked widespread use of second generation USB by including them within its laptops. Third generation USB flash drives were announced in late 2008 and became available in 2010. Like USB 2.0 before it, USB 3.0 improved data transfer rates compared to its predecessor. The USB 3.0 interface specified transfer rates up compared to USB 2.0's 480 Mbit/s. By 2010 the maximum available storage capacity for the devices had reached upwards of 128GB. USB 3.0 was slow to appear in laptops. As of 2010, the majority of laptop models still contained the 2.0. In January 2013, tech company Kingston, released a flash drive with 1TB of storage; the first USB 3.1 type-C flash drives, with read/write speeds of around 530 MB/s, were announced in March 2015. As of July 2016, flash drives within the 8 to 256 GB