Mauricio Macri is the current President of Argentina and has been in office since 2015. A former civil engineer, Macri won the first presidential runoff ballotage in Argentina's history and is the first democratically-elected non-Radical or Peronist president since 1916, he was chief of government of Buenos Aires from 2007 to 2015, represented the city in the lower house of the Congress of Argentina from 2005 to 2007. The reintegration of Argentina into the international community is central to Macri's agenda. Born in Tandil, Buenos Aires Province, Macri is the son of Franco Macri, a prominent Italian businessman in the industrial and construction sectors, was raised in an upper class home, he received a bachelor's degree in civil engineering from the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina and studied at Columbia Business School in New York City. Macri became president of Boca Juniors, one of Argentina's two most popular football clubs, in 1995. In 2005, he created the centre-right Republican Proposal party.
Although Macri was a potential presidential candidate in the 2011 general elections, he ran instead for reelection as mayor. He received about 47 percent of the vote in the mayoral election, which led to a runoff election on 31 July 2011 against Daniel Filmus in which Macri was reelected for a second consecutive term. On 22 November 2015, after a tie in the first round of the presidential elections on 25 October, he received 51.34 percent of the vote to defeat Front for Victory candidate Daniel Scioli and was inaugurated on 10 December 2015 in the Argentine Congress. In 2016, Macri was named one of the world's 100 most influential people and the most powerful president in Latin America by the U. S. news magazine Time. Macri was born in Tandil in the province of Buenos Aires, the son of Italian-born tycoon Francesco "Franco" Macri and Alicia Blanco-Villegas Cinque; the family moved to Buenos Aires a short time and kept their houses in Tandil as vacation properties. His father, his uncle Jorge Blanco Villegas, influenced Macri to become a businessman, Franco expected his son to succeed him as leader of his firms.
Macri preferred his uncle's company to constant scrutiny by his father. He was educated at Colegio Cardenal Newman, received a bachelor's degree in civil engineering from the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina. At this time Macri became interested in neoliberalism and joined the now-defunct Union of the Democratic Centre and a think tank led by former minister Álvaro Alsogaray. In 1985, he attended Columbia Business School, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and the Universidad del CEMA in Buenos Aires. Macri's professional experience began at SIDECO Americana, a construction company, part of his father's Socma Group holding company, where he worked for three years as a junior analyst and became a senior analyst. In 1984, he worked in the credit department of Citibank Argentina in Buenos Aires. Macri joined Socma Group the same year, became its general manager in 1985. In 1992, he became vice president of Sevel Argentina, became president two years later. In 1991, Macri was kidnapped for 12 days by officers of the Argentine Federal Police.
Kept in a small room with a chemical toilet and a hole in the roof to receive food, he was freed when his family paid a multimillion-dollar ransom. Macri has said, his first wife was daughter of race-car driver Juan Manuel Bordeu. They had three sons: Agustina and Francisco. After they divorced, Macri married model Isabel Menditeguy in 1994. Although the marriage reached a crisis when Macri became chairman of Boca Juniors, they did not divorce until 2005, he began a romance with María Laura Groba. Macri left Groba in 2010, began a relationship with businesswoman Juliana Awada and married Awada that year. At the wedding reception, he wore a fake moustache as part of his impersonation of singer Freddie Mercury. Macri accidentally swallowed the moustache, Minister of Health Jorge Lemus performed first aid to save his life. Macri intended to run for chairman of Boca Juniors in 1991, but his father convinced him to keep working at Sevel, he tried to buy the Deportivo Español team, but could not get support from the team's board of directors.
Macri supported Boca Juniors, paying coach César Luis Menotti's salary and buying players for the team. Franco, skeptical about his son's prospects for success allowed him to run Boca Juniors, he instructed aide Orlando Salvestrini to work with Mauricio for two reasons: to help him and to monitor his activities. Mauricio met with former Boca Juniors chairmen Antonio Alegre and Carlos Heller, tried to convince them to work with him. Macri sought the support of other groups in Boca Juniors winning the team's internal elections in 1995 with 7058 votes, his first years were unsuccessful. The only initial improvement was a partial reconstruction of the stadium, he arranged that the Boca Juniors institution worked in the stock exchange, to earn enough money to buy new players. Macri's first coach was Carlos Salvador Bilardo, who brought 14 new players to the team and finished the 1996 Apertura league in 10th place, his second coach, Héctor Veira performed poorly. New coach C
Politics of Argentina
The politics of Argentina take place in the framework of what the Constitution defines as a federal presidential representative democratic Republic, where the President of Argentina is both Head of State and Head of Government. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Argentine National Congress; the Judiciary is independent of the Legislature. Elections take place on a multi-party system; the government structure of Argentina is a democracy. The current Chief of State and Head of Government is President Mauricio Macri. Legislative Branch is a bicameral Congress, which consists of the Senate, presided by the Vice-President, the Chamber of Deputies presided by Emilio Monzó of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires; the General Auditing Office of the Nation and the Ombudsman are part of this branch. Deputies serve for 4 years; the Judiciary Branch is composed of federal judges and others with different jurisdictions, a Supreme Court with five judges, appointed by the President with approval of the Senate, who may be deposed by Congress.
Further information: Government of Argentina Argentina is divided into 23 Provinces, the equivalent of States, one autonomous district, CABA, inside the Buenos Aires province. Because of its federal government, every province has its own constitution, authorities; each province, except for Buenos Aires Province, is divided into departments, or disctricts, which are in turn divided into municipalities. The Buenos Aires Province is different, its territory is divided into 134 districts called partidos, not municipalities. Argentina's first government, autonomous from the Spanish Crown, can be traced back to May 1810 and the May Revolution, where an assembly of Argentines, called Primera Junta, took power; because at the time it was difficult to find the right form of government, more difficult to consolidate a Republic, Argentina experimented with different forms of assembly, like juntas and triumvirates. The 9th of July 1816, half of Argentina's provinces signed a declaration of independence.
The beginnings of Argentine state building were rough and many provinces refused to answer to a central government and sign the first constitution of 1826. In 1853, after several years of centralist power, a new constitution was passed, this one consolidated fully, the Argentine Nation. Buenos Aires, still refused to be considered part of the country. However, after the battle of Pavon in 1861, Buenos Aires set terms for its inclusion in the Constitution and the Republic of Argentina was born, with Bartolome Mitre as the President. From 1852 until 1930 Argentina experienced liberal government with first oligarchic and democratic tendencies. From 1852-1916 the government, run by the landowning elite, controlled the outcome of elections by committing fraud; this was contested by working-class sectors. This fueled the creation of more unions and political parties, including the Radical Civil Union, which represented the emergent middle-class. In 1912, Law 8871, or the Sáenz Peña Law established universal and obligatory male suffrage, which marked the middle classes entering the government, displacing the landowning elite.
Since the 1930s coups d'état have disrupted this democracy. After World War II and Juan Perón's presidency, recurring economic and institutional crises fostered the rise of military regimes. In 1930, the elected president Hipolito Yrigoyen was ousted by a right-wing led coup. In 1931 the new government held controlled elections and blocked the participation of Yrigoyen's party; this alleged elections gave way to the Concordancia, a three-party regime. They controlled the Argentine government, through fraud and rigged elections, until 1943. Several factors, including the deaths of the most prominent leaders and World War II, led to another coup that ended the Concordancia regime; this coup was led by the army, which supported the Axis powers, modeled the new government after Italy's fascist regime. Among the military leaders was Juan Domingo Perón, in charge of the Secretariat of Labor and Social Welfare, he veered off the path set by the conservative army and set forth to improve the living and working conditions of workers, including giving Labor Unions support and governmental positions.
He was jailed but after mass protests, he became president in the elections of 1946. His regime is known as a populist one, aided by the figure of his first wife Eva Duarte de Perón or “Evita”, their regime produced economic growth and improvements on working conditions. It passed female suffrage, nationalized the central bank and gas, urban transport and the telephone. After the death of his wife, Perón started losing support, he was ousted in 1955 by another coup. However, Peronism continues to live on in Argentina; the next stage of the Social State was one characterized by both political instability. Peron died a year later, his second wife, became president. However, she was not capable of running the country and the military took power once again in 1976. Jorge Rafael Videla's dictatorship began in 1976 but fell into decline in 1982 after a defeat in the Falklands War, ended in 1983 with the democratic election of President Raúl Alfonsín of the Radical Civic Union party. Alfonsín faced significant challenges, including a military uprising, resigned in 1989, six months before the end of his term, but the country was not in clear danger of becoming subject to a dictatorship again.
Carlos Menem of th
Constitution of Argentina
The Constitution of Argentina is the basic governing document of Argentina, the primary source of existing law in Argentina. Its first version was written in 1853 by a Constitutional Assembly gathered in Santa Fe, the doctrinal basis was taken in part from the United States Constitution, it was reformed in 1860, 1866, 1898, 1949, 1957, the current version is the reformed text of 1994. The first attempt to divide political power in Argentina was during the government created after the May Revolution: the Primera Junta could not create new taxes without the Cabildo's authorization. Many revolutionary leaders, led by Mariano Moreno, wanted to declare independence and to make a constitution in order to build an independent state. In October 1811, the Junta Grande, which succeeded the Primera Junta, enacted the Regulation for the Division of Power, but it was not accepted by the executive power; the freedom of press and the Decree on Individual Security were accepted by November. In 1813, the General Constitutional Assembly was intended to declare a constitution but it could only declare the freedom for slaves' sons.
In 1819 and 1826 were declared two constitutions that failed because of the disagreement between Federalists and Unitarians. Many other constitutional pacts existed between 1820 and 1853; the most important of them are: the Treaty of Pilar, the Treaty of the Cuadrilátero, the Federal Pact, the Palermo Protocol, the Treaty of San Nicolás. The Federal Pact urged all the provinces to call a General Federal Congress, however this would have limited Juan Manuel de Rosas's power, the most powerful province governor, so the Congress was never called; when Rosas was defeated, in 1852, the Treaty of San Nicolás called the Constitutional Congress that, in Santa Fe, on May 1, 1853, sworn to make effective the federal Constitution. The Province of Buenos Aires left the Argentine Confederation until 1859; the first constitutional amendment to the original 1853 text was performed in 1860 after Buenos Aires rejoined the Argentine Confederation. It consisted of several changes to many of the original articles.
One of the major changes was the renaming of the state: according to the reform, the country would be named República Argentina and, for legal purposes, Nación Argentina, replacing the older Argentine Confederation denomination in all articles of the constitution. Another important inclusion was the constitutional recognizing of Buenos Aires' exclusive rights guaranteed by the Treaty of San Nicolás; the following reform was done in 1866 and established that exportation and importation taxes would be destined to the National Treasury indefinitely, no longer until 1866 as the 1860 reform did. In 1898, another minor constitutional amendment was approved, it allowed a more flexible ratio for proportional apportionment in the Chamber of Deputies and set the number of ministries to eight. During Juan Domingo Perón's government the Argentine Constitution of 1949 was passed, a major revision of the constitution, its goal was to modernize and adapt the text to the twentieth century's concepts of democracy, as for example, including a list of social rights including better working conditions for the working class, right to good education, etc.
This was included into the principles stated on the Preamble. It permitted the indefinite reelection of the president. During the military regime known as the Revolución Libertadora that had deposed Perón's government in 1955, in 1957 and before the elections that had to be held in 1958, a Constitutional Convention was elected to reform the constitution; this reform does not include 1949's, implicitly annulling it. The only changes done were to include a summary of Perón's social articles known as article 14 bis and to establish the necessity to have a Labour and Social Security Code. In 1972, a "Constitutional Amendment" done by the military government led by general Alejandro A. Lanusse reformed the 1957 text; this had to last until 1977 but its application could be extended until 1981 if no Constitutional Convention in 1976 decided either to accept it or reject it definitively. This amendment was not applied by the democratic government of Perón in his third term nor by his wife Isabel Perón acting as President after his death.
Some changes were related to the size of Senate and one-term reelection of president and vice-president. Reduced presidential and deputies' terms all to four years; the last version of the Argentine Constitution was done by Carlos Saúl Menem in 1994. It included many of the modifications from the 1972 "amendment" as the growth of the Senate size, one-term presidential reelection and reduction of its term to four years, it made Buenos Aires City an autonomous entity with its own authorities. Other changes were done to ensure a softer presidentialist regime, the inclusion of a new chapter into the Bill of Rights related to politics and environment, the adoption of a much faster legislative procedure for creating laws. In addition with the 1994 constitutional reform, the requirement of belonging to the Roman Catholic faith in order to be President or Vice President of the Republic, was abolished; the Argentine Constitution has four major division types. For example, the First Part is divided into Chapters but not into Sections.
The scheme of the Constitution is the following: Pream
1995 Argentine general election
The Argentine general election of 1995 was held on 14 May. Voters chose both the President and their legislators and with a turnout of 82.1%. The Justicialist Party had been founded in 1945 by Juan Perón on the promise of greater self-reliance, increased state ownership in the economy and a shift in national policy to benefit "the other half" of Argentine society. Taking office on Perón's ticket in 1989 amid the worst crisis in a hundred years, President Carlos Menem had begun the systematic sell-off of Argentina's array of State enterprises, which had produced nearly half the nation's goods and services. Following 18 months of mixed results, in February 1991 Menem reached out to his Foreign Minister, Domingo Cavallo, whose experience as an economist included a brief but positive stint as the nation's Central Bank president in 1982, his introduction of a fixed exchange rate via his Convertibility Plan led to sharp drops in interest rates and inflation, though the sudden recovery and Cavallo's fixed exchange rate led to a fivefold jump in imports.
A wave of layoffs after 1992 created a tense labor climate worsened by the flamboyant Menem, who diluted basic labor laws, leading to less overtime pay and increasing unemployment and underemployment. Private-sector lay-offs, dismissed as a natural consequence of recovering productivity, added to mounting state enterprise and government layoffs, leading to a rise in unemployment from 7% in 1992 to 12% by 1994. In this policy irony lay the Justicialists' greatest weakness ahead of the 1995 election; the election itself created yet another unexpected turn. Barred from immediate reelection by the 1853 Argentine Constitution, President Menem reached out to his predecessor and head of the embattled centrist Radical Civic Union, Raúl Alfonsín. Meeting at the presidential residence in Olivos in November 1993 to negotiate an extensive amendment of the Constitution, the two leaders came to an agreement of mutual benefit: Alfonsín obtained the direct election of the mayor of Buenos Aires and an expansion in the Argentine Senate from 48 to 72 members, which would assure the runner-up the third seat.
Both men faced dissension in their parties' ranks after the 1994 reform of the Argentine Constitution was unveiled in August. Alfonsín's candidate in the UCR primaries, Río Negro Province Governor Horacio Massaccesi, defeated Federico Storani and Rodolfo Terragno for the nomination over their opposition to the Olivos Pact. Menem, in turn, had lost a number of Congressmen from his party after Carlos Álvarez led a center-left splinter group in revolt over Menem's privatizations and unchecked corruption, his Frente Grande had become influential after merging with fellow ex-Peronist José Octavio Bordón in 1994, ahead of the May 14, 1995 election date. Bordón, a popular Mendoza Province Senator was a centrist who lent the leftist Álvarez, whose strength was in Buenos Aires, appeal in Argentina's hinterland, they combined forces to create the FREPASO. The new constitutional rules governing elections provided opportunities for parties stuck in 2nd or 3rd place in the polls, as the Frepaso and UCR were, respectively.
Bypassing the previous electoral college system, a victory by direct proportional voting could be achieved by either through a run-off election. The Justicialists enjoyed a clear advantage, given polls and their control of both chambers of Congress. Local prosperity, the guarantor of Menem's presumptive victory, was shaken by the Mexican peso crisis in December. Dependent on foreign investment to maintain its central bank reserves, its sudden scarcity led to a wave of capital flight out of Buenos Aires' growing banks and to an unforeseen recession. Concurrent revelations of gross corruption surrounding the purchase of IBM computers for the antiquated National Bank of Argentina, further added to the opposition's hopes that a runoff might still be needed in May. Between them, the Frepaso enjoyed the advantage. Sporting charismatic leadership, they hoped to displace the UCR from its role as the Peronists' chief opposition; the UCR had been badly tarnished by President Raúl Alfonsín's chaotic 1983-89 term, though its candidate, Río Negro Province Governor Horacio Massaccesi, had earned international renown in 1991 for storming a local National Bank branch in search of needed funds being retained by the federal government for what seemed to be political reasons.
The UCR, still had its name recognition and organized, if frayed political machinery, controlled by Alfonsín and popular Córdoba Province Governor Eduardo Angeloz. As election day drew near, analysts debated not only the possibility of a runoff, but which of the two opposition parties would face Menem in such a case. Corruption and the sudden recession were not enough to keep the unflappable Menem from a first-round victory; the big tent Justicialist Party, allied in many districts to local parties, formed an electoral front which obtained half of the total vote. The Frepaso garnered nearly 30%, though their hopes for a runoff were stymied, this was considered a good result for a party assembled only the previous year. Frepaso, came ahead in the presidential race only in two di
Argentine passports are issued to citizens of Argentina by the National Registry for People. They were issued by the Argentine Federal Police up to 2011, their primary use is to facilitate international travel. Argentine passports are valid for travel all over the world. For traveling within South America, Argentines do not need to use a passport, as they may use their National Identity Document. On June 15, 2012, the Argentine Interior Ministry announced the immediate introduction of biometric passports; the new passports will have unique numbers, a significant change from the current policy, where passport numbers were the national ID number of the holders. In accordance with Presidential Decree 2015/66, in order to get an Argentine passport, a person must go to the nearest Civil Registry and present his/her National Identity Document, birth certificate and a proof of marital status. If the person is an Argentine citizen by naturalisation rather than by birth, a Citizenship Certificate must be presented.
Citizens under the age of 18 may only get a passport with parental authorization. Argentines living outside the country must follow the same procedure at an Argentine Embassy or Consulate. Regular Passport price is 550 ARS. Applicants receive their passports via postal mail within 15 days. There is an express service for 1250 ARS and an ultrafast passport for 3675 ARS, only available at Ministro Pistarini International Airport in Buenos Aires, with the possibility of getting a passport in only 15 minutes, if there are any proofs of an international flight for that same day. Since January 2011, in all cases, Argentine passports are valid for 10 years. Beforehand, they were only given in 5-year-periods. Passports are not issued to persons who are under arrest because of criminal offenses, or to those who appear as'dangerous' in accordance with the South American Police Agreement of 1920. In accordance with Mercosur regulations, it is blue-covered, with the legend MERCOSUR written on its top, followed by the country's name in Spanish, the national coat of arms and the word PASAPORTE.
A biometric passport has the e-passport symbol at the bottom. It has a digital photograph of the passport holder. All the information is written in English. Photograph Type of document Country code Passport number Surname Given names Nationality Date of Birth DNI number Gender Place of Birth Issuing date Expiration date Signature FingerprintThe previous version included: Passport copy Marital Status Police-registry Number A map of South America appears on the back of Argentine passports, showing the country's location within the continent and within Mercosur, together with the Argentine Antarctic Claim. In the map, half of the Chilean Magallanes Region isn't shown, including the Strait of Magellan, the Chilean part of Tierra del Fuego in which 61.43% of the total area, belongs to Chile and all the southern islands of the Beagle Channel. Passports of many countries contain a message addressed to authorities of other countries identifying the bearer as a citizen of the issuing country, requesting that he or she be allowed to enter and pass through the other country, requesting that, when necessary, he or she be given assistance consistent with international norms.
In Argentine passports, the message is in Spanish, English and French. The message is: In Spanish: En nombre del Gobierno de la República Argentina, la autoridad que expide el presente pasaporte ruega y solicita a todos aquellos a quienes puede concernir, dejen pasar libremente a su titular y prestarle la asistencia y protección necesaria. In English: The Government of the República Argentina hereby requests all whom it may concern, to permit the bearer to pass without delay or hindrance and in case of need, to give all lawful aid and protection. In Portuguese: Em nome do Governo da República Argentina, a autoridade que concede o presente passaporte roga e solicita às autoridades competentes, deixar passar livremente o titular e prestar-lhe toda a assistência e proteção necessária. In French: Au nom du Gouvernement de la République Argentine, l'autorité qui délivre le présent passeport demande à tous ceux qui pourraient être concernés, de laisser passer librement son titulaire et lui prêter l'assistance et la protection nécessaire.
The Argentine Ministry of Foreign Affairs issues diplomatic passports to Argentine diplomats acreditad overseas and their eligible dependants, to citizens who reside in Argentina and travel abroad for diplomatic work. The Ministry issues official passports to Government employees assigned overseas, either permanently or temporarily, their eligible dependents, to members of Congress who travel abroad on official business. Under special circumstances, if a woman is stateless but married to an Argentine citizen, the Federal Police will issue a Pasaporte de Esposa de Argentino in order to leave the country; the same applies for persons under the age of 18. List of passports Visa requirements for Argentine citizens Visa policy of Argentina Documento Nacional de Identidad Documentación Personal - Policía Federal
2015 Argentine general election
General elections were held in Argentina on 25 October 2015 to elect the President and National Congress, followed primary elections which were held on 9 August 2015. A second round of voting between the two leading candidates took place on 22 November, after close results forced a runoff. On the first runoff voting held for an Argentine Presidential Election, opposition leader and Buenos Aires Mayor Mauricio Macri narrowly defeated FPV candidate and Buenos Aires Province Governor Daniel Scioli. President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner was re-elected in 2011; as the Constitution of Argentina does not allow more than two consecutive terms, several politicians from the Front for Victory speculated about a constitutional amendment to allow unlimited re-elections. This idea was resisted by the opposition parties, the FPV could not reach the required two-thirds majority in Congress; the mid-term elections in 2013 ended the FPV's hope for a constitutional amendment after they failed to win the necessary supermajority.
The election of the president was carried out using the ballotage system, a modified version of the two-round system in which a candidate would win if they received 45% of the vote, or if they received 40% of the vote and were 10 percentage points ahead of the second-place candidate. Voting is 70 years old. Suffrage was extended to 16- and 17-year-olds, though without compulsory voting. There are a total of 257 seats of the Chamber of Deputies. There are a total of 24 electoral districts; the number of seats are distributed in relation to the population of the province. In order to be in concordance with the "one-third female" law enforces that one-third of the overall seats in the Chamber of Deputies are female; the 130 seats of the Chamber of Deputies up for election were elected from 24 multi-member constituencies based on the 23 provinces and Buenos Aires. Seats were allocated using the D'Hondt method of proportional representation, with an electoral threshold of 3%; the 24 seats in the Senate up for election were elected in three-seat constituencies using the closed list system.
Each district is represented by three senatorial seats. Each party is allowed to register up to two candidates; the party receiving the most votes wins two seats, the second-placed party won one. The third senatorial seat was established in the Constitution of 1994 in order to better represent the largest minority in each district. Parties and coalitions provided their own ballot papers. However, voters were able to cut ballot papers up and place different sections from different parties inside the envelope if they wanted to vote for different candidates or lists for different posts. Being under a Federal system, it is possible for different provinces to use different systems. In Buenos Aires and Salta electronic voting machines were used to print out a single unified ballot, with voters able to select different candidates and parties on a touch screen. Other municipalities such as Bariloche opted for a non-electronic single unified ballot. Opposition candidates, including Sergio Massa, Mauricio Macri and Margarita Stolbizer called for the nationwide implementation of a unified ballot and/or electronic voting, though Massa in particular was more cautious, saying it was more realistic for such a system to be implemented by 2017.
The authority in charge of regulating elections rejected changing the system within 2015 since they claimed it would be too short term to implement the changes and explain to the public how the new system works. These candidates passed to the general election. Mauricio Macri, from the Republican Proposal, was the mayor of Buenos Aires city. Many smaller parties had created a coalition the previous year, the Broad Front UNEN. Elisa Carrió of the Civic Coalition left it to join Macri. An internal congress of the Radical Civic Union decided to do so as well, proposing Ernesto Sanz as their precandidate. UNEN was thus disbanded, the three candidates ran for the coalition Cambiemos. Margarita Stolbizer refused to join the coalition with Macri, ran in a separate party instead; the FPV had several pre-candidates to the presidency, but only Daniel Scioli and Florencio Randazzo had a good reception in the opinion polls. Scioli was resisted by factions of the party that did not consider him loyal to Kirchner.
All the minor candidates resigned. Randazzo resigned as well some weeks before the primary elections, leaving Scioli as the sole precandidate of the FPV. Randazzo did not accept to run for governor of the Buenos Aires province, which had primary elections between minister Aníbal Fernández and Julián Domínguez. Fernández won the local primary elections. In alphabetical order These candidates didn't receive at least of the 1.5% of valid votes to pass to the general election. With Kirchner unable to run, three candidates led the opinion polls. Several controversies took place during the time of the elections, or related to the elections themselves; the primary elections and some local elections had scandals of Electoral fraud. There was a frequent theft of ballot papers from the polling places. State-owned Correo Argentino collects the results of each school and sends them to a centralized location for their global count. Tucumán had a case of people burning ballot boxes, which l
President of Argentina
The President of Argentina known as the President of the Argentine Republic, is both head of state and head of government of Argentina. Under the national Constitution, the President is the chief executive of the federal government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. Through Argentine history, the office of the Head of State has undergone many changes, both in its title as in its features and powers. Current President Mauricio Macri was sworn into office on December 10, 2015; the Constitution of Argentina, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements and responsibilities of the president and term of office and the method of election. The origins of Argentina as a nation can be traced to 1776, when it was separated by the Spanish King from the existing Viceroyalty of Peru, creating the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata; the Head of State continued to be the King. These Viceroys were natives of the country. By the May Revolution of May 25, 1810, the first Argentine autonomous government, known as the Primera Junta, was formed in Buenos Aires.
It was known as the Junta Grande when representatives from the provinces joined. These early attempts at self-government were succeeded by two Triumvirates and, although the first juntas had presidents, the King of Spain was still regarded as Head of State, the executive power was still not in the hands of a single person; this power was vested in one man when the position of Supreme Director was created by the 1813 National Assembly. The Supreme Directors became Heads of State after Independence was declared on 9 July 1816, but there was not yet a presidential system. In 1816, Congress composed a Constitution; this established an executive figure, named Supreme Director, vested with presidential powers. This constitution gave the Supreme Director the power of appointing Governors of the provinces. Due to political circumstances, this constitution never came into force, the central power was dissolved, leaving the country as a federation of provinces. A new constitution was drafted in 1826; this constitution was the first to create a President, although this office retained the powers described in the 1816 constitution.
This constitution did come into force, resulting in the election of the first President, Bernardino Rivadavia. Because of the Cisplatine War, Rivadavia resigned after a short time, the office was dissolved shortly after. A civil war between unitarios and federalists ensued in the following decades. In this time, there was no central authority, the closest to, the Chairman of Foreign Relations the Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires; the last to bear this title was Juan Manuel de Rosas, who in the last years of his governorship was elected Supreme Chief of the Confederation, gaining effective rule of the rest of the country. In 1852, Rosas was deposed, a constitutional convention was summoned; this constitution, still in force, established a national federal government, with the office of the President. The term was fixed with no possibility of reelection; the first elected President under the constitution was Justo José de Urquiza, but Buenos Aires seceded from the Argentine Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires.
Bartolomé Mitre was the first president of the unified country, when Buenos Aires rejoined the Confederation. Thus, Rivadavia and Mitre are considered the first presidents of Argentina by different historians: Rivadavia for being the first one to use the title, Urquiza for being the first one to rule under the 1853 constitution, Mitre for being the first president of Argentina under its current national limits. In 1930, 1943, 1955, 1962, 1966, 1976, military coups deposed elected Presidents. In 1966 and 1976, the federal government was undertaken by a military junta, where power was shared by the chiefs of the armed forces. In 1962, the President of the Senate ruled, but in the other cases, a military chief assumed the title of President, it is debatable whether these military presidents can properly be called Presidents, as there are issues with the legitimacy of their governments. The position of the current Argentine government is that military Presidents Jorge Rafael Videla and Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri were explicitly not legitimate presidents.
They and their immediate successors were denied the right to a presidential pension after the conclusion of their terms. The status of earlier military presidents, remains more uncertain; the President of the Nation has the following powers: Is the supreme head of the Nation, head of government and is politically responsible for the general administration of the country. Issues the instructions and regulations necessary for the execution of the laws of the nation, without altering their spirit with regulatory exceptions. Participates in the making of laws under the Constitution, has them published; the Executive Power shall in no case under penalty, void, issue legislative provisions. Only when exceptional circumstances make it impossible to follow the ordinary procedures foreseen by this Constitution for the enactment of laws, not try to rules governing criminal matters, electoral or political party regime, may issue decrees on grounds of necessity and urgency, which will be decided by a general agreement of ministers who shall countersign them together with the head of cabinet of ministers.
The head of and within ten days submit the decision to the consideration of the Joint Standing Committee, whose compos