Ed Davis (Royal Marines officer)
Lieutenant General Edward Grant Martin Davis, is a senior Royal Marines officer. He was Commandant General Royal Marines from December 2011 to June 2014, he was the Deputy Commander of NATO's Allied Land Command at Turkey. He became Governor of Gibraltar in January 2016. Davis was born in Herefordshire, he was educated at Coleraine Academical Institution, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland and King's College London. Davis was commissioned into the Royal Marines in 1981 and joined 40 Commando with whom he undertook a six-month tour in the Falkland Islands and a six-month tour in Cyprus. In 1996, he attended the Army Staff Course at Staff College, Camberley. In the same year, he became Chief of Staff at the Headquarters of the Combat Service Support Group in which role he took part in the Bosnian War, he was appointed Chief of Staff to the Commander of the UK’s Amphibious Forces in 2007 and was deployed to Afghanistan as Chief of Joint Effects for ISAF. He was appointed Commander of 3 Commando Brigade in January 2010 and again deployed to Afghanistan – this time as the Commander of Task Force Helmand.
He became Commandant General Royal Marines in December 2011. He was promoted to major general on 10 January 2012, with seniority from 28 November 2011. Davis succeeded Lieutenant General Gordon Messenger as Deputy Commander of NATO Allied Land Command -Izmir in July 2014. On 1 October 2015, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office announced that Davis was the designated Governor of Gibraltar after the resignation of Sir James Dutton. 14 June 1996 – Appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire 31 December 2005 – Advanced to an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2006 New Year Honours 23 March 2012 – Advanced to a Commander of the Order of the British Empire "in recognition of gallant and distinguished services in Afghanistan during the period 1 April 2011 to 30 September 2011". 14 June 2014 – Appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath in the 2014 Birthday Honours. 5 August 2016 – Appointed a Knight of the Order of St John by Queen Elizabeth II. RM Biography
Speaker of the Gibraltar Parliament
The Speaker of the Gibraltar Parliament is the presiding officer of the Gibraltar Parliament, the legislature of the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. The current Speaker is Adolfo Canepa, appointed on 18 October 2012, following the resignation of Haresh Budhrani. Below is a list of Speakers of the Gibraltar Parliament:A Legislative Council, the predecessor of the parliament, was inaugurated on November 23, 1950. A Speaker was appointed in 1958
Politics of Gibraltar
The politics of Gibraltar takes place within a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic British Overseas Territory, whereby the Monarch of the United Kingdom is the constitutional head of state represented by the Governor of Gibraltar. The Chief Minister of Gibraltar is the head of Government; as a British Overseas Territory, the Government of Gibraltar is not subordinate to the Government of the United Kingdom. The British Government, however, is responsible for defence and external affairs but Gibraltar has full internal self-government under its 2006 Constitution. Gibraltar is represented in the European Union, having been the only British Overseas Territory to have joined the European Economic Community under the British Treaty of Accession; the government of Spain continues with an irredentist territorial claim to Gibraltar, ceded in perpetuity to the British Crown in 1713 by Article X of the Treaty of Utrecht. In a referendum held in 2002, a proposal for shared sovereignty was overwhelmingly rejected by the Gibraltar electorate with 98.97% voting against.
The sovereignty issue remains an important factor in local politics. Gibraltar has a number of political parties; the preamble to the 2006 Constitution repeated from the 1969 Constitution states that "Her Majesty's Government will never enter into arrangements under which the people of Gibraltar would pass under the sovereignty of another state against their and democratically expressed wishes." As an overseas territory of Britain, the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, represented by the Governor of Gibraltar. Britain retains responsibility for defence, foreign relations, internal security and financial stability; the Government of Gibraltar is elected for a term of four years. The head of Government is the Chief Minister the Hon. Fabian Picardo of the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party, in office since 9 December 2011, in alliance with the Gibraltar Liberal Party, following the 2011 General Election; the Leader of the Opposition is the Hon. Daniel Feetham of the Gibraltar Social Democrats since 2013.
The composition of the Government of Gibraltar is the following: The Gibraltar Parliament consists of seventeen elected members, the Speaker. Under the electoral system of partial bloc voting used since 1969, voters could choose up to ten candidates, who do not need to be from the same party; the winning candidates are chosen by simple plurality. The last election was held on 26 November 2015. Queen Elizabeth II is represented by the Governor and Commander-in-Chief, presently Lieutenant General Edward Davis. After an election, the Governor appoints the leader of the largest party in the unicameral parliament, as Chief Minister; the Governor is not involved in the day-to-day administration of Gibraltar, his role is as a ceremonial head of state. The Governor is responsible for matters of security only. There are three political parties represented in the Gibraltar Parliament: Gibraltar Social Democrats. All parties support Gibraltar's right to self-determination, reject any concessions on the issue of sovereignty.
Since the 2003 election the Reform Party has dissolved, with the party leader and others now involved in Friends of the Earth. The Labour Party has merged with the Gibraltar Social Democrats. A new party, New Gibraltar Democracy, announced. NGD claimed that the two main parties were "Out of touch with people's expectations and make up for their lack of ideas through Orwellian style propaganda." At the 2007 election one candidate, Charles Gomez, stood for election for the party. It has subsequently ceased any activity. In June 2006 the Progressive Democratic Party was formed and announced it would be presenting a full slate of candidates and had entered the political arena as "a fresh and modern alternative," to both the ruling Gibraltar Social Democrats and the Opposition GSLP/Liberals. However. In the 2007 election it only presented six candidates. 1 These figures have been consolidated by party. Under the Gibraltar electoral system, all candidates are listed on the ballot paper individually. 2 Every voter has up to 10 votes to vote for their choice from all the candidates standing.
Accordingly, although there are more seats available, the main parties field 10 candidates and hope to secure'block votes'. Thus the total of 154,743 votes comes from 16,004 voters, an 81.4% turnout of the electorate. 1 These figures have been consolidated by party. Under the Gibraltar electoral system, all candidates are listed on the ballot paper individually.2 Every voter has up to 10 votes to vote for their choice from all the candidates standing. Accordingly although there are more seats available, the main parties field 10 candidates and hope to secure'block votes', thus the total of 174,757 votes comes from an 81.4 % turnout of the electorate. In August 2013, the PDP has dissolved after a series of disappointing election results. Although part of the EU under the British Treaty of accession, Gibraltar had not voted in elections for the European Parliament although its membership of the European Union meant it was affected by European Union law. A ten-year campaign to acquire the vote culminated in the case of Matthew
2015 Gibraltar general election
The Gibraltar general election of 2015 to elect all 17 members to the 3rd Gibraltar Parliament took place on Thursday, 26 November 2015. Chief Minister Fabian Picardo announced the date of the election on Monday 19 October 2015 during a speech on the Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation. Under section 38 of the Gibraltar Constitution Order 2006, the parliament must be dissolved by the Governor four years after its first meeting following the last election. Under section 37 of the Constitution, writs for a general election must be issued within thirty days of the dissolution and the general election must be held no than three months after the issuing of a writ. In October 2015, Chief Minister Fabian Picardo announced that the election would take place on 26 November. Following the British tradition, elections in Gibraltar conventionally take place on a Thursday; the UK-based UK Independence Party announced in 2014 that it was planning on fielding candidates for the first time in Gibraltar's next general election.
However they did not field any candidates. There were no independents, the first occasion on which no independents or members of any party outside of Parliament contested the elections. A GBC public opinion poll of 17 November predicted 67% for GSLP/Libs and 33% for GSD; the results saw the first occasion on which a party won over 100,000. Both the GSLP and LPG received more votes in the elections than in any other previous general elections, with the LPG receiving the highest percentage of votes in its history. Contrastingly, the GSD saw the largest drop in its vote share in its history. Voter turnout was the lowest since 1980; the figures above have been consolidated by party. Under the Gibraltar electoral system, all candidates are listed on the ballot paper individually; every voter has up to 10 votes to vote for their choice from all the candidates standing. Accordingly, although there are more seats available, the main parties field 10 candidates and hope to secure'block votes', thus the total of 147,495 votes comes from 16,475 voters, a 70.8% turnout of the electorate
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952; the monarch and their immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial and representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister; the monarch is commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces. Though the ultimate executive authority over the government is still formally by and through the monarch's royal prerogative, these powers may only be used according to laws enacted in Parliament and, in practice, within the constraints of convention and precedent; the British monarchy traces its origins from the petty kingdoms of early medieval Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England, which consolidated into the kingdoms of England and Scotland by the 10th century.
England was conquered by the Normans in 1066, after which Wales too came under control of Anglo-Normans. The process was completed in the 13th century when the Principality of Wales became a client state of the English kingdom. Meanwhile, Magna Carta began a process of reducing the English monarch's political powers. From 1603, the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, which followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms; the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married them, from succession to the English throne. In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, in 1801, the Kingdom of Ireland joined to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the British monarch was the nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the world's surface at its greatest extent in 1921. In the early 1920s the Balfour Declaration recognised the evolution of the Dominions of the Empire into separate, self-governing countries within a Commonwealth of Nations.
After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent bringing the Empire to an end. George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states; the United Kingdom and fifteen other independent sovereign states that share the same person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. Although the monarch is shared, each country is sovereign and independent of the others, the monarch has a different and official national title and style for each realm. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the monarch is the head of state; the Queen's image is used to signify British sovereignty and government authority—her profile, for instance, appearing on currency, her portrait in government buildings. The sovereign is further both mentioned in and the subject of songs, loyal toasts, salutes. "God Save the Queen" is the British national anthem. Oaths of allegiance are made to her lawful successors.
The monarch takes little direct part in government. The decisions to exercise sovereign powers are delegated from the monarch, either by statute or by convention, to ministers or officers of the Crown, or other public bodies, exclusive of the monarch personally, thus the acts of state done in the name of the Crown, such as Crown Appointments if performed by the monarch, such as the Queen's Speech and the State Opening of Parliament, depend upon decisions made elsewhere: Legislative power is exercised by the Queen-in-Parliament, by and with the advice and consent of Parliament, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Executive power is exercised by Her Majesty's Government, which comprises ministers the prime minister and the Cabinet, technically a committee of the Privy Council, they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services. Judicial power is vested in the various judiciaries of the United Kingdom, who by constitution and statute have judicial independence of the Government.
The Church of England, of which the monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are granted to other public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council, Royal Commission or otherwise; the sovereign's role as a constitutional monarch is limited to non-partisan functions, such as granting honours. This role has been recognised since the 19th century; the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the "dignified part" rather than the "efficient part" of government. Whenever necessary, the monarch is responsible for appointing a new prime minister. In accordance with unwritten constitutional conventions, the sovereign must appoint an individual who commands the support of the House of Commons the leader of the party or coalition that has a majority in that House; the prime minister takes office by attending the monarch in private audience, after "kissing hands" that appointment is effective without any other f
1967 Gibraltar sovereignty referendum
The Gibraltar sovereignty referendum of 1967 was held on 10 September 1967, in which Gibraltarian citizens were asked whether they wished to pass under Spanish sovereignty, with Gibraltarians keeping their British citizenship and a special status for Gibraltar within Spain. Upon the request of resolution 2070 of the United Nations General Assembly, in 1966 the governments of Spain and the United Kingdom started formal talks on Gibraltar. On 18 May 1966, the Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs, Fernando Castiella made a formal proposal to Her Majesty's Government comprising three clauses: The cancellation of the Treaty of Utrecht and the subsequent return of Gibraltar to Spain; the presence of the British in the Royal Navy base in Gibraltar, its use being subject to a specific Anglo-Spanish agreement. A "Personal Statute" for Gibraltarians, under United Nations guarantee, protecting their cultural and economic interest in Gibraltar or anywhere else in Spain, including their British nationality.
" appropriate administrative formula" should be agreed on. The Spanish proposal was made by the Spanish government while the Francoist regime was in power, which did not allow its own citizens the civil liberties that the British government guaranteed to the Gibraltarians. Furthermore, the Spanish economy, though growing, was weaker than the British, working-class people across the frontier were living in a state of great poverty; the options presented to Gibraltarians were: To pass under Spanish sovereignty in accordance with the terms proposed by the Spanish Government. Britain retaining its present responsibilities. A new constitution was passed in 1969. Gibraltar National Day has been celebrated annually on 10 September since 1992 to commemorate Gibraltar's first sovereignty referendum of 1967. In 1969 the Francoist regime closed the border between Spain and Gibraltar, cutting off all contacts and restricting movement; the border was not reopened until February 1985, ten years after Franco's death.
Gibraltar Constitution Order 1969 History of Gibraltar
2002 Gibraltar sovereignty referendum
The Gibraltar sovereignty referendum of 2002 was a referendum, called by the Government of Gibraltar and was held on 7 November 2002 within the British overseas territory on a proposal by the UK Government to share sovereignty of the territory between Spain and the United Kingdom. The result was a rejection of the proposal by a landslide majority, with only just over one per cent of the electorate in favour. Although Gibraltar was ceded to the British Crown under Article X of the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain has wished to recover the territory, first by force and by restrictions and diplomacy. Recovering sovereignty remains a stated objective of successive Spanish Governments. In July 2001, Foreign Secretary Jack Straw began discussing the future of Gibraltar with Spain, a year in July 2002, following secret talks with Spain announced that "the UK was willing to share sovereignty of Gibraltar with Spain" and that "the final decision would rest with the people of Gibraltar in a referendum."HM Government of Gibraltar decided to hold its own referendum on 7 November 2002 regarding the proposal of shared sovereignty with Spain, which it opposed.
This pre-empted any referendum planned to be held after the negotiations between Britain and Spain had concluded. Jack Straw described the Gibraltar referendum as "eccentric", Britain's Foreign Office announced it would not recognise its results. Although Straw had felt confident enough to announce that there had been talks on joint sovereignty, a number of issues still remained to be resolved. Firstly, Spain was insisting on a time element for a full transfer of sovereignty to Spain. Secondly, Spain would not agree to give Gibraltar a referendum on either joint sovereignty or self-determination. Spain wanted a greater role than joint use of Gibraltar as a military base. Researcher Peter Gold argued in a 2009 paper that these disagreements made the possibility of an agreement being finalised remote; the Gibraltar Referendum 2002 asked the voters of Gibraltar their opinion in the following words: On 12 July 2002 the Foreign Secretary, Jack Straw, in a formal statement in the House of Commons, said that after twelve months of negotiation the British Government and Spain are in broad agreement on many of the principles that should underpin a lasting settlement of Spain's sovereignty claim, which included the principle that Britain and Spain should share sovereignty over Gibraltar.
Do you approve of the principle that Britain and Spain should share sovereignty over Gibraltar? Permitting a simple YES / NO answer. Peter Caruana, the Chief Minister of Gibraltar, said of the result: "We say to the British Government: Take stock of this referendum result, it's the will of the people of Gibraltar", that the planned path to joint sovereignty was a "dead end road for everyone"; the Government of Gibraltar invited a panel of observers headed by Gerald Kaufman MP. Their report stated that "The observers were impressed with the organisation of the referendum and welcome that the role of the observers was integral to the process, as distinct from the more passive role of observers in other elections; the meticulous way in which votes were counted exceeded requirements and went beyond requirements adopted for UK elections". Reaction in Spain was negative, with El País calling the referendum a "dishonest consultation", while Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs Ana Palacio described it as "illegal" and "against all the UN resolutions".
However, El País said that "no Spanish Government, neither this one or its predecessors, has done enough to make joint sovereignty or integration with Spain an attractive prospect". In London, Jack Straw was criticised by the Commons foreign affairs committee, whose report stated that he was wrong to agree to joint sovereignty with Spain, when this was unacceptable to the people of Gibraltar; the report emphasised the importance of the referendum, which represented the views of Gibraltarians. The Telegraph said "the people of Gibraltar today overwhelmingly rejected the principle of Britain sharing sovereignty of the Rock with Spain". Prior to the referendum the British Government stated that it would not recognise the outcome. After the referendum Gibraltar's Government felt it could demand a say in its future in any talks with Spain. Under an initiative started in 1999, the Government of Gibraltar together with opposition parties negotiated a new constitution for Gibraltar; the major sticking point in negotiations was the desire by Gibraltar politicians for a preamble whereby the "British Government ought to commit itself to the question of self-determination in unequivocal terms."
The British Government sought to avoid doing so but when there was a cabinet reshuffle and a new foreign secretary, the new incumbent was more willing to listen to the views of Gibraltar officials. There was a shift in the British Government policy on Gibraltar that recognised the preamble to the 1969 constitution was sacrosanct, that any discussions on sovereignty would involve Gibraltar and future discussions on sovereignty with Spain would require an improved relationship between Spain and Gibraltar; the British Government compromised recognising its commitment in the 1969 constitution that it would not negotiate with Spain without the consent of people of Gibraltar. The compromise lead to the Gibraltar Constitution Order 2006 in which the powers of the Governor were reduced and transferred to local officials and a bill of "fundamental rights and freedoms" enshrined in the constitution. Although this had cross-party support in Gibraltar, when submitted to a referendum on adoption a significant no vote emerged.
Although reasons were diverse, there wer