Queensland Government Gazette
The Queensland Government Gazette is the government gazette of the Government of Queensland in Australia. It lists appointments and public notices including new legislation. Traditionally, publication in the gazette was a legal requirement for an announcement to be official, it is published weekly, but extraordinary editions can be published in between the regular weekly issues if there is an urgent need. The first Queensland Government Gazette was published on Saturday 10 December 1859 following the separation of Queensland, proclaimed on 9 December 1859 with the arrival of the first Queensland Governor George Bowen with the Letters Patent signed by Queen Victoria; the first issue of the Gazette includes the Letters Patent. The 1859 to 1900 editions of the Queensland Government Gazette have been digitised and are available online. Since 2003, the Gazette has been published online; the last printed edition of the gazette was published on Friday 30 November 2012 with only online and CD-ROM formats being available since then.
List of government gazettes Digitised editions from 1859 to 1900 Online gazettes from 2003
Legislative Assembly of Queensland
The Legislative Assembly of Queensland is the sole chamber of the unicameral Parliament of Queensland. Elections are held every four years. Voting is by the full-preferential voting form of the alternative vote system; the Assembly has 93 members, who have used the letters MP after their names since 2000. There is the same population in each electorate; the Assembly first sat in May 1860 and produced Australia's first Hansard in April 1864. Following the outcome of the 2015 election, successful amendments to the electoral act in early 2016 include: adding an additional four parliamentary seats from 89 to 93, changing from optional preferential voting to full-preferential voting, moving from unfixed three-year terms to fixed four-year terms; the Legislative Assembly was the lower house of a typical Westminster-style bicameral parliament. The upper house was the Legislative Council, its members appointed for life by the government of the day; the first sitting, in May 1860, was held in the old converted convict barracks in Queen Street.
It consisted of 26 members from 16 electorates, nearly half of whom were squatters. Early sessions dealt with issues of land, railways, public works, immigration and gold discoveries. In April 1864, Australia's first Hansard was produced, it was the second Hansard to be made in the Commonwealth, after Nova Scotia in 1855. That year saw member numbers increased to 32, by 1868—as more redistributions occurred—the number grew to 42. Members were not paid until 1886 excluding the working class from state politics; the Assembly was elected under the'first-past-the-post' system 1860 to 1892. From until 1942 an unusual form of preferential voting called the'contingent vote' was used; this was introduced by a conservative government to hinder the emerging Labor Party from gaining seats with minority support. In 1942 the plurality system was reintroduced; the Labor government in power had seen its vote decline in the 1940s and sought to divide the opposition. In 1962, it was replaced with full preferential voting, as the governing conservatives wanted to take advantage of a split in Labor.
In 1992, this was changed to the optional preferential system used. After 1912, electorates elected only a single member to the Assembly. In 1922, the Legislative Council was abolished, with the help of members known as the "suicide squad", who were specially appointed to vote the chamber out of existence; this left Queensland with a unicameral parliament—currently the only Australian state with this arrangement. From 1948 until the reforms following the end of the Bjelke-Petersen era, Queensland used an electoral zoning system, tweaked by the government of the day to maximise its own voter support at the expense of the opposition, it has been called a form of gerrymander, however it is more referred to as an electoral malapportionment. In a classic gerrymander, electoral boundaries are drawn to take advantage of known pockets of supporters and to isolate areas of opposition voters so as to maximise the number of seats for the government for a given number of votes and to cause opposition support to be "wasted" by concentrating their supporters in fewer electorates.
The Queensland "gerrymander", first introduced by the Labor Party government of Ned Hanlon in 1949 used a series of electoral zones based on their distance from Brisbane. Queensland was divided into three zones—the metropolitan zone, the provincial cities zone and the rural zone. While the number of electors in each seat in a zone was equal, there was considerable variation in the number of electors between zones, thus an electorate in the remote zone might have as few as 5,000 electors, while a seat in the metropolitan zone might have as many as 25,000. Using this system the Labor government was able to maximise its vote in its power base of the provincial city zone. With the split in the party in the late 1950s the ALP lost office and a conservative Coalition government led by the Country Party under Frank Nicklin came to power, which, as discussed above modified the voting system to introduce preferential voting, to take advantage of Labor's split, it separated the provincial cities from their hinterlands.
The hinterlands were added to the rural zone. As the divisions in the ALP abated in the early 1970s, tensions in the conservative coalition grew, the conservative government, now led by Joh Bjelke-Petersen, modified the zoning system to add a fourth zone—a remote zone, comprising seats with fewer electors, thus the conservative government was able to isolate Labor support in provincial cities and maximise its own rural power base. On average, the Country Party needed only 7,000 votes to win a seat, compared with 12,800 for a typical Labor seat; the entrenchment of a Coalition government was caused by socio-economic and demographic changes associated with mechanisation of farms and urbanisation which led to a drift of working class population from rural and remote electorates to the cities. By the late 1980s the decline in the political fortunes of the National Party, together with rapid growth in south east Queensland meant that the zonal system was no longer able to guarantee a conservative victory.
In addition, in 1988 the Federal Labor Government held four constitutional referendums—one of, for the adoption of fair electoral systems around
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate, in order to make a collective decision or express an opinion following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracies elect holders of high office by voting. Residents of a place represented by an elected official are called "constituents", those constituents who cast a ballot for their chosen candidate are called "voters". There are different systems for collecting votes. In a democracy, a government is chosen by voting in an election: a way for an electorate to elect, i.e. choose, among several candidates for rule. In a representative democracy voting is the method by the which the electorate appoints its representatives in its government. In a direct democracy, voting is the method by which the electorate directly make decisions, turn bills into laws, etc. A vote is a formal expression of an individual's choice against some motion. Many countries use a secret ballot, a practice to prevent voters from being intimidated and to protect their political privacy.
Voting takes place at a polling station. Different voting systems use different types of votes. Plurality voting does not require the winner to achieve a vote majority, or more than fifty percent of the total votes cast. In a voting system that uses a single vote per race, when more than two candidates run, the winner may have less than fifty percent of the vote. A side effect of a single vote per race is vote splitting, which tends to elect candidates that do not support centrism, tends to produce a two-party system. An alternative to a single-vote system is approval voting. To understand why a single vote per race tends to favor less centric candidates, consider a simple lab experiment where students in a class vote for their favorite marble. If five marbles are assigned names and are placed "up for election", if three of them are green, one is red, one is blue a green marble will win the election; the reason is. In fact, in this analogy, the only way that a green marble is to win is if more than sixty percent of the voters prefer green.
If the same percentage of people prefer green as those who prefer red and blue, to say if 33 percent of the voters prefer green, 33 percent prefer blue, 33 percent prefer red each green marble will only get eleven percent of the vote, while the red and blue marbles will each get 33 percent, putting the green marbles at a serious disadvantage. If the experiment is repeated with other colors, the color, in the majority will still win. In other words, from a purely mathematical perspective, a single-vote system tends to favor a winner, different from the majority. If the experiment is repeated using approval voting, where voters are encouraged to vote for as many candidates as they approve of the winner is much more to be any one of the five marbles, because people who prefer green will be able to vote for every one of the green marbles. A development on the'single vote' system is to have two-round elections, or repeat first-past-the-post; this system is most common around the world. In most cases, the winner must receive a majority, more than half.
And if no candidate obtains a majority at the first round the two candidates with the largest plurality are selected for the second round. Variants exist on these two points: the requirement for being elected at the first round is sometimes less than 50%, the rules for participation in the runoff may vary. An alternative to the Two-round voting system is the single round instant-runoff voting system as used in some elections in Australia and the USA. Voters rank each candidate in order of preference. Votes are distributed to each candidate according to the preferences allocated. If no single candidate has 50% of the vote the candidate with the fewest votes is excluded and their votes redistributed according to the voters nominated order of preference; the process repeating itself until a candidate has 50% or more votes. The system is designed to produce the same result as an exhaustive ballot but using only a single round of voting. In a voting system that uses a multiple vote, the voter can vote for any subset of the alternatives.
So, a voter might vote for Alice and Charlie, rejecting Daniel and Emily. Approval voting uses such multiple votes. In a voting system that uses a ranked vote, the voter has to rank the alternatives in order of preference. For example, they might vote for Bob in first place Emily Alice Daniel, Charlie. Ranked voting systems, such as those famously used in Australia, use a ranked vote. In a voting system that uses a scored vote, the voter gives each alternative a number between one and ten. See cardinal voting systems; some "multiple-winner" systems may have a single vote or one vote per elector per available position. In such a case the elector could vote for Charlie on a ballot with two votes; these types of systems can use ranked or unranked voting, are used for at-large positions such as on some city councils. Most of the time, when the citizens of a country are invited to vote, it is for an election. However, people can vote in referendums and initiatives. Since the end of the eighteenth century, more than five hundred national referendums were organised in the world.
An electoral district, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body. Only voters who reside within the district are permitted to vote in an election held there. From a single district, a single member or multiple members might be chosen. Members might be chosen by a first-past-the-post system or a proportional representative system, or another voting method entirely. Members might be chosen through a direct election under universal suffrage, an indirect election, or another form of suffrage; the names for electoral districts vary across countries and for the office being elected. The term constituency is used to refer to an electoral district in British English, but it can refer to the body of eligible voters or all the residents of the represented area or only those who voted for a certain candidate; the terms precinct and election district are more common in American English. In Australia and New Zealand, electoral districts are called electorates, however elsewhere the term electorate refers to the body of voters.
In India electoral districts are referred to as "Nirvachan Kshetra" in Hindi, which can be translated to English as "electoral area" though the official English translation for the term is "constituency". The term "Nirvachan Kshetra" is used while referring to an electoral district in general irrespective of the legislature; when referring to a particular legislatorial constituency, it is referred to as "Kshetra" along with the name of the legislature, in Hindi. Electoral districts for municipal or other local bodies are called "wards". In Canada, districts are colloquially called ridings. Local electoral districts are sometimes called wards, a term which designates administrative subdivisions of a municipality. In local government in the Republic of Ireland voting districts are called "electoral areas". District magnitude is the number of representatives elected from a given district to the same legislative body. A single-member district has one representative. Voting systems that seek proportional representation inherently require multi-member districts, the larger the district magnitude the more proportional a system will tend to be Non-proportional systems may use multi-member districts, as in the House of Commons until 1950, Singapore's Group Representation Constituency, or the New Hampshire House of Representatives.
Under proportional representation systems, district magnitude is an important determinant of the makeup of the elected body. With a larger number of winners, candidates are able to represent proportionately smaller minorities; the geographic distribution of minorities affects their representation - an unpopular nationwide minority can still secure a seat if they are concentrated in a particular district. District magnitude can sometimes vary within the same system during an election. In the Republic of Ireland, for instance, national elections to Dáil Éireann are held using a combination of 3, 4, 5 member districts. In Hong Kong, the magnitude ranged from 3 to 5 in 1998, when the current electoral system was introduced for Legislative Council geographical constituency elections, will range from 5 to 9 in the forthcoming election in September 2012; the only democracies with one single nationwide electoral district and no other territorial correctors are Fiji, The Netherlands, Mozambique, South Africa and Serbia.
Main articles: Apportionment and RedistrictingApportionment is the process of allocating a number of representatives to different regions, such as states or provinces. Apportionment changes are accompanied by redistricting, the redrawing of electoral district boundaries to accommodate the new number of representatives; this redrawing is necessary under single-member district systems, as each new representative requires their own district. Multi-member systems, vary depending on other rules. Ireland, for example, redraws its electoral districts after every census while Belgium uses its existing administrative boundaries for electoral districts and instead modifies the number of representatives allotted to each. Israel and the Netherlands avoid the need for apportionment by electing legislators at-large. Apportionment is done on the basis of population. Seats in the United States House of Representatives, for instance, are reapportioned to individual states every 10 years following a census, with some states that have grown in population gaining seats.
By contrast, seats in the Cantonal Council of Zürich are reapportioned in every election based on the number of votes cast in each district, only made possible by use of multi-member districts, the House of Peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by contrast, is apportioned without regard to population. Malapportionment occurs when voters are under- or over-represented due to variation in district population. Given the complexity of this process, softwa
Alderley is a northern suburb of the City of Brisbane, Australia. Alderley is 7 kilometres north-west of the Brisbane CBD, it is surrounded by Newmarket in the south and Enoggera in the west and Stafford in the east and Kedron and Everton Park in the north. At the 2006 census, it had a population of 5,068. Alderley has several warehouses, a police station and a community-based shopping complex that includes a Coles supermarket and Liquorland bottleshop. In the 2011 census, Alderley recorded a population of 5,679 people, 48.9 % male. The median age of the Alderley population was 33 years, 4 years below the national median of 37. 78.5% of people living in Alderley were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 69.8%. 88.4% of people spoke only English at home. In prehistory, the area was inhabited by the Turrbal Aboriginal clan. Corroborees were held at Sedgeley Park estate; the name Alderley derives from Alderley Edge in England. Alderley is an older suburb, having had a post office since 1878 and a railway station since 1899.
Trams operated by the Brisbane City Council ran to the suburb between 1949 and 1968. Alderley has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 16 Quarry Road: Strathearn 39 David Street: Farrington House 117 Mina Parade: Newmarket Brickworks Chimney University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Alderley "Alderley". BRISbites. Brisbane City Council. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. "Alderley". Our Brisbane. Brisbane City Council. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Alderley Theatre This image is held by the State Library of Queensland image number 20340
Premier of Queensland
The Premier of Queensland is the head of government in the Australian state of Queensland. By convention the Premier is the leader of the party with a parliamentary majority in the unicameral Legislative Assembly of Queensland; the Premier is appointed by the Governor of Queensland. The incumbent Premier of Queensland since the 2015 election is Annastacia Palaszczuk of the Labor Party. Under section 42 of the Constitution of Queensland the Premier and other members of Cabinet are appointed by the Governor and are collectively responsible to Parliament; the text of the Constitution assigns to the Premier certain powers, such as the power to assign roles to Assistant Ministers, to appoint Ministers as acting Ministers for a period of 14 days. In practice, under the conventions of the Westminster System followed in Queensland, the Premier's power is derived from two sources: command of a majority in the Legislative Assembly, the Premier's role as chair of Cabinet, determining the appointment and roles of Ministers.
Although ministerial appointments are the prerogative of the Governor of Queensland, in normal circumstances the Governor will make these appointments under the "advice" of the Premier. Following an election for the Legislative Assembly, the Governor will call on the leader of the party which commands a majority in the Legislative Assembly, ask them to commission a government. A re-elected government will be resworn, with adjustments to the ministry as determined by the Premier; the Premier has an office in the Executive Annexe of Parliament House, used while Parliament is sitting. At other times the Premier's ministerial office is in 1 William Street, across the road from the Executive Annexe. Before the 1890s, there was no developed party system in Queensland. Political affiliation labels. Before the end of the first decade of the twentieth century, political parties were more akin to parliamentary factions, were fluid and disorganised by modern standards; as of February 2015, six former premiers are alive.
The most recent premier to die was Wayne Goss, on 10 November 2014. List of Premiers of Queensland by time in office Government of Queensland Politics of Queensland