Electoral district of Mundingburra
Mundingburra is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of Queensland. It is held by Labor Party MP Coralee O'Rourke; the seat is one of four within the Townsville urban area in North Queensland. Significant utilities within the Mundingburra electorate are the Townsville Hospital, the Douglas Campus of James Cook University and Stockland Shoppingcentre. Suburbs of the Electorate include. Mundingburra Electorate is bordered by the Burdekin and Thuringowa Electorates; the first incarnation of the Mundingburra electorate was created at the 1911 redistribution, encompassing parts of the former electorates of Herbert and Bowen. It was a Labor seat, but from 1944 onwards was held by North Queensland Labor Party MP Tom Aikens, it changed in a 1949 redistribution, was abolished in 1959, with most of the district becoming part of the new Townsville South electorate. The Mundingburra electoral district attracted national attention and headlines in early 1996 with a by-election called after the Court of Disputed Returns declared the result in the seat from July 1995 election void.
The result had taken over a week to determine and ended up with the incumbent member, Ken Davies of the Labor Party, winning by 16 votes. This gave the Goss government a one-seat majority in Parliament - 45 seats to the Coalition's 43 and one conservative-leaning independent, Liz Cunningham. Davies was subsequently appointed as Minister for Emergency Consumer Affairs; the Liberals challenged the result in August and on 8 December, the court ordered a new election on the basis that administrative difficulties had deprived several military personnel serving in Rwanda of their vote. It was understood that the fate of the Goss government rested on the result, Goss himself was prominent in it, announcing amongst other things a A$1 billion Korean zinc smelter for Townsville and asking voters to end the uncertainty "bedevilling" the Queensland political system. An expected federal election in March 1996 where the unpopular Keating Government would face the voters was a key feature in the background.
Things became somewhat chaotic when Labor, on the basis of internal polling data and a legal case between Davies and the Commonwealth Bank, decided to drop Davies as its endorsed candidate, selecting Tony Mooney, the mayor of Townsville in his place. Davies reacted angrily running as an independent and generating a considerable level of media publicity. A total of 12 candidates supporting a raft of causes ended up nominating by the draw of ballot papers on 12 January. On 25 January, Keating called the federal election for 2 March, which Goss described as an "outside distraction". Contradictory polls suggested the Coalition would win, although a late poll by AGB McNair two days before polling day suggested Labor could still win. However, on the day, a swing of 2.83% to the Liberals saw their candidate Frank Tanti, a shop manager and committed Christian who had run a low-level doorknocking campaign for months, win the by-election. Within days, it became clear that Independent Liz Cunningham would support the Coalition, the Goss government resigned, allowing Rob Borbidge to form a minority government which lasted until the 1998 election.
At that election, under Peter Beattie, won back both Mundingburra and governing party status. Electorate Profile
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Legislative Assembly of Queensland
The Legislative Assembly of Queensland is the sole chamber of the unicameral Parliament of Queensland. Elections are held every four years. Voting is by the full-preferential voting form of the alternative vote system; the Assembly has 93 members, who have used the letters MP after their names since 2000. There is the same population in each electorate; the Assembly first sat in May 1860 and produced Australia's first Hansard in April 1864. Following the outcome of the 2015 election, successful amendments to the electoral act in early 2016 include: adding an additional four parliamentary seats from 89 to 93, changing from optional preferential voting to full-preferential voting, moving from unfixed three-year terms to fixed four-year terms; the Legislative Assembly was the lower house of a typical Westminster-style bicameral parliament. The upper house was the Legislative Council, its members appointed for life by the government of the day; the first sitting, in May 1860, was held in the old converted convict barracks in Queen Street.
It consisted of 26 members from 16 electorates, nearly half of whom were squatters. Early sessions dealt with issues of land, railways, public works, immigration and gold discoveries. In April 1864, Australia's first Hansard was produced, it was the second Hansard to be made in the Commonwealth, after Nova Scotia in 1855. That year saw member numbers increased to 32, by 1868—as more redistributions occurred—the number grew to 42. Members were not paid until 1886 excluding the working class from state politics; the Assembly was elected under the'first-past-the-post' system 1860 to 1892. From until 1942 an unusual form of preferential voting called the'contingent vote' was used; this was introduced by a conservative government to hinder the emerging Labor Party from gaining seats with minority support. In 1942 the plurality system was reintroduced; the Labor government in power had seen its vote decline in the 1940s and sought to divide the opposition. In 1962, it was replaced with full preferential voting, as the governing conservatives wanted to take advantage of a split in Labor.
In 1992, this was changed to the optional preferential system used. After 1912, electorates elected only a single member to the Assembly. In 1922, the Legislative Council was abolished, with the help of members known as the "suicide squad", who were specially appointed to vote the chamber out of existence; this left Queensland with a unicameral parliament—currently the only Australian state with this arrangement. From 1948 until the reforms following the end of the Bjelke-Petersen era, Queensland used an electoral zoning system, tweaked by the government of the day to maximise its own voter support at the expense of the opposition, it has been called a form of gerrymander, however it is more referred to as an electoral malapportionment. In a classic gerrymander, electoral boundaries are drawn to take advantage of known pockets of supporters and to isolate areas of opposition voters so as to maximise the number of seats for the government for a given number of votes and to cause opposition support to be "wasted" by concentrating their supporters in fewer electorates.
The Queensland "gerrymander", first introduced by the Labor Party government of Ned Hanlon in 1949 used a series of electoral zones based on their distance from Brisbane. Queensland was divided into three zones—the metropolitan zone, the provincial cities zone and the rural zone. While the number of electors in each seat in a zone was equal, there was considerable variation in the number of electors between zones, thus an electorate in the remote zone might have as few as 5,000 electors, while a seat in the metropolitan zone might have as many as 25,000. Using this system the Labor government was able to maximise its vote in its power base of the provincial city zone. With the split in the party in the late 1950s the ALP lost office and a conservative Coalition government led by the Country Party under Frank Nicklin came to power, which, as discussed above modified the voting system to introduce preferential voting, to take advantage of Labor's split, it separated the provincial cities from their hinterlands.
The hinterlands were added to the rural zone. As the divisions in the ALP abated in the early 1970s, tensions in the conservative coalition grew, the conservative government, now led by Joh Bjelke-Petersen, modified the zoning system to add a fourth zone—a remote zone, comprising seats with fewer electors, thus the conservative government was able to isolate Labor support in provincial cities and maximise its own rural power base. On average, the Country Party needed only 7,000 votes to win a seat, compared with 12,800 for a typical Labor seat; the entrenchment of a Coalition government was caused by socio-economic and demographic changes associated with mechanisation of farms and urbanisation which led to a drift of working class population from rural and remote electorates to the cities. By the late 1980s the decline in the political fortunes of the National Party, together with rapid growth in south east Queensland meant that the zonal system was no longer able to guarantee a conservative victory.
In addition, in 1988 the Federal Labor Government held four constitutional referendums—one of, for the adoption of fair electoral systems around
The Burdekin River is a river located in North and Far North Queensland, Australia. The river rises on the northern slopes of Boulder Mountain at Valley of Lagoons, part of the western slope of the Seaview Range, flows into the Coral Sea at Upstart Bay over 200 kilometres to the southeast of the source, with a catchment area of 130,000 square kilometres; the Burdekin River is Australia's largest river by discharge volume. The river was first encountered by Europeans during the expedition led by Ludwig Leichhardt in 1845 and named in honour of Thomas Burdekin, one of the sponsors of the expedition; the Burdekin River rises on the western slopes of the Seaview Range, part of the Great Dividing Range, west of Ingham. In the river's upper catchment, from its source the river flows west and south out of the Girringun National Park, part of the UNESCO Wet Tropics World Heritage Area; this area, now part of Basalt was the location of one of the earliest inland settlements in northern Australia and was known as Dalrymple.
The river is joined by Lucy Creek, the Running River, Star River and Keelbottom Creek, above Charters Towers. From the west in the Dry Tropics to the west of the river, the river is joined by the Clarke and Dry rivers. South of Charters Towers, the upper catchment of the Burdekin River is joined by the Fanning River, continues to flow south through wetlands before entering Lake Dalrymple, the reservoir created by the Burdekin Dam. Within Lake Dalrymple, the Burdekin River is joined by Suttor/Belyando rivers; the source of the Belyando River in central western Queensland is 500 kilometres from the mouth of the Burdekin River, extends into the typical black-soil grassland of Central Queensland, with the Belyando draining the Drummond and Galilee Basins and flowing north for over 1,000 kilometres. Below the dam wall, in the river's lower catchment, is northern Australia's largest irrigation area with 80,000 hectares under irrigation, predominantly for growing sugarcane, it consists of two broad regions, the earlier established delta region located on the coarse sedimentary deposits of the Burdekin River Delta, a groundwater dominated scheme, the Burdekin Haughton Water Supply Scheme – a more developed surface water dominated scheme on alluvial floodplains of the Burdekin River.
Here the Burdekin is joined by the Bogie rivers. The Burdekin River descends 620 metres over its 886-kilometre course. Four DIWA wetlands can be found along the course of the river; the first is at the Valley of Lagoons in the upper region of the catchment, the next is a Lake Dalrymple at the junction of the Burdekin and Bowen rivers known as the Burdekin-Bowen Junction and Blue Valley Weir Aggregation and the last is at the river delta which forms a 342.5 square kilometres wetland. Apart from the Murray River, the Burdekin River is economically the most important river in Australia, has the fourth-largest watershed of any exorheic drainage system in Australia, it is the fourth-largest river in Australia by volume of flow, but is so erratic that its discharge can reach the mean discharge of the Yangtze River or have as many as seven months with no flow whatsoever. This exceedingly erratic flow is due to the extreme variability of precipitation throughout the entire basin. Annual rainfall at most gauges within the basin can range from 200 to 1,600 millimetres depending on the monsoon and the number of cyclones that cross the coast.
On the coast itself, the variability is higher: at Bowen not far from the river's mouth, the annual rainfall has ranged from 216 millimetres in 1915 to over 2,200 millimetres in 1950. It has the highest mean annual flow for any river adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef; the river was first discovered by Europeans by John Clements Wickham aboard HMS Beagle in 1839 who named it the Wickham River. In 1849, Ludwig Leichhardt named the river after Thomas Burdekin, one of the sponsors of Leichhardt's expedition; because he was inland away from the coast he was not aware it was the same watercourse named by Wickham. The town of Wickham was established on Rita Island at the river mouth but was soon swept away during a flood in the 1860s. Pastoralists had established runs along the river during the 1860s, with some along the lower reached taken for selection in the 1880s. In 1899, the Burdekin River Rail Bridge was built over the river about 24 km NE of Charters Towers to carry the Great Northern railway.
Although replaced by a new bridge in 1964, the old bridge remains and is listed on the Queensland Heritage Register. The townships of Ayr and Brandon were established in 1882 with many sugarmills being erected; the North Coast railway between Ayr and Townsville with a bridge built over the Burdekin to Home Hill in 1913 followed by bridge for road traffic in 1930. Both were too low and damaged during flooding and the decision was made to replace them with a higher dual level bridge known as the Silver Link. Construction was not completed until 1957 when the bridge opened. A weir was constructed in a gorge in the Leichhardt Range for settlement farms near Clare and Dalbeg in 1953 for growing tobacco. In 1984 construction of the Burdekin Falls Dam commenced and was completed by 1987 when the dam started to fill forming Lake Dalrymple. Floods events occur on average from no floods to three per year between March. Heavy flooding occurred in 1875 with the Dawson, Fitzroy and Burdekin Rivers rising up to 60 feet in a few hours.
The waters washed away dwellings and livestock and effects downstream included the loss of the steamer SS
Home Hill, Queensland
Home Hill is a town and locality in the Burdekin Shire, Australia at the delta of the Burdekin River. It is a sugarcane growing area with underground water supplies to irrigate crops. In the 2011 census, Home Hill had a population of 3,027 people. Home Hill lies 98 kilometres south of Townsville and 1,269 kilometres north of the state capital Brisbane on the Bruce Highway, it is a part of the Burdekin Region. Both towns are governed by the Burdekin Shire Council; the Burdekin River forms the locality's north-western boundary. The urban area is situated centrally within the locality surrounded by crop farming; the Bruce Highway passes through the town from the south-east to the north-west crossing the river via the Burdekin Bridge to Ayr. The North Coast railway line runs parallel and south of the highway with the Home Hill railway station located in the town centre. To the west of the town is Gardiner's Lagoon. Despite its name, the land in the locality is flat; the town relies on its primary industries.
The major crop grown in Home Hill is sugarcane. Other crops include various vegetables. Home Hill was part of the Inkerman Downs Cattle Station. In August 1910, the Inkerman estate was resumed by the Queensland Government under the Closer Settlement Act, it was subdivided into farming allotments. Although the town of Ayr was close by, there was no bridge across the Burdekin River and hence it was necessary to establish a separate town to support the new farming community; the first blocks of town land were offered for sale in December 1912 under the name of Home Hill. The origin of the name Home Hill is much disputed; the Queensland Government claims it was named after Home Hill, a hilltop defended by the British Army in the Battle of Inkerman in the Crimean War. However it has been claimed that it was named after Colonel Home who lived in the district and had fought in the Crimea. Another claim is that the name was Holme Hill, corrupted into Home Hill by a signwriter painting the name at the railway station.
A newspaper report in September 1912 calls the proposed town Holme Hill but makes the connection with the Battle of Inkerman. There are numerous early references to the town as Holm Hill; the Hill part of the name does not relate to the local geography, quite flat with the nearest hill is about 10 kilometres away. Home Hill Post Office opened by 1913. In the 1990s there were rumours; however the decision was made to privatise it in 1997. A tent school was opened in the district on 23 March 1913 but was replaced by the Inkerman State School on 25 October 1913, renamed Home Hill State School on 19 January 1914. Another Inkerman State School was opened in 1915 and was closed on 31 December 1974. A low-level railway bridge was built across the river in 1913 enabling a railway link between Ayr and Bowen via Home Hill. A low-level road bridge was built in 1923. However, the frequent flooding of the Burdekin River made these bridges unusable and damaged. Due to the lack of rock in the sandy soil to use as foundations, for many years it was not believed possible to build a high-level bridge across the Burdekin River.
However, by copying construction techniques used in India for sand-footing bridges, work began on the Burdekin Bridge in April 1947 but it was not opened until 15 June 1957. At 1097 metres in length, the Burdekin Bridge is one of the longest multi-span bridges in Australia and the only one in Australia without a firm footing; the farming allocations were taken up to grow sugar cane and the town developed quite after the establishment of the Inkerman sugar mill in 1914. The earliest recorded burials in Home Hill cemetery were in 1917. In 2007 a lawn cemetery section was added. In 1922, a power station was built enabling electricity to be supplied for the first time in Home Hill. In 1923, the first courthouse in Home Hill opened, operating from a timber building, used as Jensen's Boot Palace; the building was relocated to the present courthouse site, where it was replaced by the extant brick structure in 1937. The court house closed in 1991 after which it was occupied by a tourist information centre and local radio station Sweet FM.
Home Hill's own newspaper the"Home Hill Observer" commenced in 1923 under proprietor and editor Thomas Jackson, relocating offices a number of times over the years. In June 2014, the newspaper ceased publication; the Home Hill Agricultural and Industrial Society held its first show on 20 November 1926. In 1935 the society erected pavilions; the shows were held annually until 2001. On 16 February 1959, Cyclone Connie struck Home Hill. No building escaped damage with every window broken in the main street. One hundred people were made homeless; the first Home Hill Harvest Festival was held in 1963. It continues to be held annually in November to celebrate the end of the sugar cane crushing season. Home Hill State High School opened on 28 January 1964; some farmers began to experiment with rice in the 1960s with a local rice mill opening in 1968. However, the rice industry collapsed in Queensland in 1994 when the Queensland Rice Marketing Board experienced financial difficulties bringing this crop to an end in the Home Hill area.
However, other crops found their niche in the economy.
Liberal National Party of Queensland
The Liberal National Party of Queensland is a political party in Queensland, Australia. It was formed in 2008 by a merger of the Queensland divisions of the Liberal Party and the National Party. At a federal level and in most other states the two parties remain distinct and operate as a more or less permanent Coalition; the LNP is a full member of the Liberal Party of Australia, has observer status within the National Party of Australia. After suffering defeat at its first election in 2009 the LNP won government for the first time at the 2012 election, winning 78 out of 89 seats, a record majority in the unicameral Parliament of Queensland. Campbell Newman became the first LNP Premier of Queensland; the Newman Government was subsequently defeated by the opposition Labor Party at the 2015 election. Prior to the merger the National Party and Liberal Party had found themselves in frequent competition with one another for seats in Queensland since the 1970s; the Liberal Party and the National Party have been in a coalition at the federal level for all but a few years since 1923.
In most parts of Australia the Liberal Party is the larger party, concentrated in urban areas, with the Nationals a junior partner operating in rural and regional areas. Competition between the two is thus minimised as the two attempt to win more seats combined than the Australian Labor Party. However, Queensland is Australia's most decentralised state. Brisbane is by far the largest city in Queensland. However, only around 45% of the population lives in the Brisbane area, with a greater portion of the state's population distributed either in regional cities like Toowoomba, Townsville, Mackay and Cairns, or in rural areas; as such, the urban-rural divide is not as pronounced in Queensland as in the rest of Australia. The Country/National Party was stronger in these regional centres than the Liberals; as a result, the Nationals had more seats than the Liberals and their predecessors, had been the senior partner in the non-Labor Coalition since 1924. This division into urban and rural areas was, for most of the twentieth century, reflected in a system of different electoral weighting that made it easier for rural-based parties to win more seats in Parliament.
The formation of the LNP was the third attempt to unite the non-Labor side in Queensland. In 1925, the United Party — the Queensland branch of the urban-based Nationalist Party — and the Country Party merged as the Country and Progressive National Party; this party won government in 1929 under former Queensland Country leader Arthur Edward Moore, but was defeated in 1932 and split apart in 1936. In 1941, the Queensland divisions of the United Australia Party and Country Party merged as the Country-National Organisation, under Frank Nicklin of the Country side. However, this merger only lasted until 1944. During the 1970s, the Country Party began running candidates in the more urbanised south-east corner of the state, including the Brisbane area, in direct competition with the Liberals; this was part of a larger strategy by the federal party to expand its base outside of rural areas — reflected in successive name changes to the National Country Party in 1975 and the National Party in 1982. The state party had changed its name to the National Party in 1974 as part of its effort to broaden its reach.
After more than a decade of fraught relations, the Liberals pulled out of the Coalition in 1983. The Nationals came up one seat short of a majority in their own right in the election held that year; the Nationals persuaded two Liberals to defect to them, governed alone until their defeat in 1989. In 1992 the electoral system was changed to Optional Preferential Voting, meaning that three-cornered contests between Liberal and Labor candidates became much more to see Labor candidates win; the other change in 1992 was the end of the old zonal electoral system for the Legislative Assembly, the sole chamber of the state's parliament. As a result, 40 of the 89 seats—almost half of the seats in the legislature—were now based in Brisbane; the Liberals and Nationals signed a renewed Coalition agreement in November 1992, two months after Labor won a second term. However, it was all but impossible to win a majority government without a substantial base in Brisbane, something, difficult for the Coalition to do since the Nationals were the senior partner.
Brisbane's increased share of the legislature made it politically difficult to win a minority government without winning a significant share of the capital's seats. Labor was in government for all but three years from 1989 to 2012 in large part because it won at least 30 seats in greater Brisbane at every election; when it was consigned to opposition by the Rob Borbidge-led Coalition from 1996 to 1998, Labor still won 31 seats in Brisbane. The 1995 state election proved. While it won a slim majority of the two-party vote, much of that margin was wasted on landslides in the Nationals' heartland; as mentioned above, Labor won 31 seats in Brisbane. The Labor majority was lost altogether a few months in a by-election, but the Coalition was only able to form a minority government by a margin of one seat with the support of independent Liz Cunningham; this underscored how difficult the 1992 reforms