1996 Victorian state election
The 1996 Victorian state election, held on Saturday, 30 March 1996, was for the 53rd Parliament of Victoria. It was held in the Australian state of Victoria to elect all 88 members of the state's Legislative Assembly and 22 members of the 44-member Legislative Council; the election took place four weeks after the 1996 federal election which swept the Labor Party from power nationally. The Liberal–National Coalition led by Jeff Kennett and Pat McNamara was returned for a second term. A swing against the government did not produce a significant seat transfer to the Labor Party, now led by John Brumby and still recovering from its landslide defeat at the October 1992 state election. While Labor obtained significant swings in safe Coalition seats, the marginal outer suburban electorates swung further towards the government; the overall two party preferred swing was 2.8% to Labor. The first signs of rural discontent with the Kennett government began to appear at this election. Independent candidate Russell Savage won Mildura from the Liberals, while other independents polled in the Coalition-held electorates of Benalla, Gippsland East and Rodney.
Candidates of the Victorian state election, 1996 Members of the Victorian Legislative Assembly, 1992–1996 Members of the Victorian Legislative Assembly, 1996–1999
Electoral district of Altona
The electoral district of Altona is one of the electoral districts of Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. It covers an area of 79 square kilometres in western Melbourne, includes the suburbs of Altona, Altona Meadows, Point Cook and Seaholme, it includes the RAAF Williams airbase and the Point Cook Coastal Park. It lies within the Western Metropolitan Region of the Legislative Council; the Altona seat was created in an electoral redistribution for the 1992 election, has been a safe seat for the Labor Party throughout its history. It was won in 1992 by Carole Marple, associated with the party's Pledge Left faction, a hard-left splinter from the Socialist Left. In 1993, a broad "peace deal" was struck between the Socialist Left and the right-wing Labor Unity faction, which saw both factions agree to deliver the Altona preselection for the 1996 election to Socialist Left candidate Lynne Kosky instead of Marple; as a result, Kosky defeated Marple for Labor preselection, succeeded her as member for Altona at the 1996 election, while Marple instead contested and lost the marginal Legislative Council seat of Geelong Province.
Kosky served as a minister throughout the 1999–2010 Labor government under Steve Bracks and John Brumby, holding the positions of Minister for Post Compulsory Education and Employment, Minister for Finance, Minister for Education and Training, Minister for Public Transport and Minister for the Arts. Kosky resigned mid-term on 18 January 2010; this necessitated a February by-election, won by former Labor state president Jill Hennessy. Hennessy was re-elected at 2014 election. Following the Labor victory at the 2014 election, she was appointed Minister for Health and Minister for Ambulance Services in the Andrews Ministry. Electorate profile: Altona District, Victorian Electoral Commission
2014 Victorian state election
The 2014 Victorian state election, held on Saturday, 29 November 2014, was for the 58th Parliament of Victoria. All 88 seats in the Victorian Legislative Assembly and 40 seats in the Victorian Legislative Council were up for election; the incumbent centre-right Coalition minority government, led by Liberal Party leader and Premier Denis Napthine and National Party leader and Deputy Premier Peter Ryan, was defeated by the centre-left Labor Party opposition, led by Daniel Andrews. The Greens won two lower house seats, their first Legislative Assembly seats in a Victorian state election, whilst increasing their share of upper house seats; the new Andrews Ministry was sworn in on 4 December 2014. Voting is compulsory in Victoria. Elections for the Legislative Assembly use instant-runoff voting in single-member electorates. Elections for the Legislative Council use partial proportional representation, using single transferable vote in multi-member electorates. Members of the Legislative Council are elected from eight electoral regions each returning five members, making the quota for election in each region 16.67%.
The election was conducted by the Victorian Electoral Commission. The election marked the first time since 1955 that a Victorian state government had been defeated after only one parliamentary term. Furthermore, the Nationals were reduced to a total of ten seats in the Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council, one short of official status in the legislature. Following the election, both Napthine and Ryan resigned as leaders of the Liberal and National parties, respectively. Legislative Council Seats Table Following the election, the seats of Frankston and Prahran were too close to call, with around a hundred votes separating candidates. Prahran was a three-way contest between Labor and the Greens, this seat proved to be the tightest contest among all the lower house seats; the VEC declared Prahran had been won by the Greens on 9 December, whereby the Greens overtook the ALP from third place, to defeat the Liberal incumbent in the final distribution of preferences. The Greens' win was confirmed in the recount held the following day.
The seats of Bellarine, Monbulk and Yan Yean were won by Labor at the 2010 election, but redistributions in 2013 made them notionally Liberal seats. The redistribution replaced Ballarat West with Wendouree. Terms are fixed at four years; the election occurred in line with the fixed-term provisions laid out in the Electoral Act 2002. Key dates for the election were: 4 November: Writs issued by the Governor of Victoria 5 November: Opening of nominations for all candidates 13 November: Close of nominations for party candidates 14 November: Close of nominations for independents 29 November: Election day The Coalition won the 2010 Victorian state election, winning 45 seats in the 88-member lower house, a swing of 12 seats, defeating the 11-year Labor government which won 43 seats. Labor suffered a swing of 5.96 percent, a larger swing than the 1992 landslide that brought the Jeff Kennett-led Coalition to power. This led Paul Austin of the Sydney Morning Herald to speculate that Labor was headed for a long period in the political wilderness.
However, by 2012, Labor had whittled away a large Coalition advantage in opinion polling. By the time the writs were dropped, Labor had been leading most opinion polls for two years, though Andrews trailed as preferred premier. With a Coalition MP as Speaker, the government operated with a one-seat margin of 44 seats, until the resignation of Geoff Shaw, the member for Frankston, from the Liberal Party on 6 March 2013; this meant. Due to Shaw's defection, Premier Ted Baillieu resigned on 6 March and was succeeded as Liberal leader and Premier by Ports Minister Denis Napthine. Shaw guaranteed the Napthine Government support on matters of supply and confidence, allowing it to stay in office as a minority government, although statements indicated that he had rescinded that earlier statement and was considering assisting an ALP Opposition vote of no confidence in the Napthine administration. If this had happened, his actions could have precipitated an early state election; the government operated with a two-seat margin in the 40-member upper house where all members are up for re-election every term, with 21 Coalition, 16 Labor and 3 Greens members.
Labor retained seats at the Broadmeadows, Niddrie and Lyndhurst by-elections. Casual vacancies were created in various Legislative Council seats by the departures of Labor MPs Martin Pakula and Candy Broad, Liberal MPs Donna Petrovich and Philip Davis, their seats were filled by Cesar Melhem, Marg Lewis, Amanda Millar, Andrew Ronalds each being appointed by a joint sitting of Parliament. Twenty-one parties were registered with the Victorian Electoral Commission, all fielded candidates at the 2014 state election: Additionally, two other parties applied for registration prior to the election, but failed to achieve registration by the deadline: No East West Link and Save the Planet. A redistribution of Victoria's state electoral boundaries took place from 2012 to 2013; the final boundaries were used for the 2014 state election. Fifteen electorates were abolished, namely Ballarat East, Ball
Electoral district of Albert Park
The electoral district of Albert Park is one of the electoral districts of Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. It covers an area of 22 square kilometres in inner suburban Melbourne, includes the suburbs of Albert Park, Middle Park, Port Melbourne, St Kilda West, South Melbourne, South Wharf, parts of St Kilda, it lies within the Southern Metropolitan Region of the Legislative Council. It was first proclaimed in 1889, has been held by the Labor Party without interruption since the 1950 election. John Thwaites was the member from 1992 to 2007, serving as deputy leader of Victorian Labor from 1996 to 2007 and as Deputy Premier of Victoria from 1999 to 2007, he and Premier Steve Bracks, the member for neighbouring Williamstown, both resigned on 30 July 2007. A by-election was held on 15 September 2007, which resulted in Martin Foley retaining the seat for Labor. Electorate profile: Albert Park District, Victorian Electoral Commission
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Electoral district of Bayswater
The electoral district of Bayswater is one of the electoral districts of Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. It covers an area of 40 square kilometres in outer eastern Melbourne, includes the suburbs of Bayswater, Kilsyth South and The Basin, parts of Bayswater North, Boronia and Wantirna, it lies within the Eastern Metropolitan Region of the Legislative Council. Bayswater was created as a notionally marginal Labor seat in a redistribution for the 1992 state election, it replaced the abolished electorate of Ringwood, held by Labor MP and Kirner government Minister for Community Services Kay Setches since 1982. The area had been traditionally Liberal prior to Setches' election. Setches contested Bayswater at the election, but was resoundingly defeated by Liberal candidate and personnel consultant Gordon Ashley in the Liberal landslide victory that year, one of several ministers to lose their seats. Ashley was re-elected at the 1996 election and 1999 election, but was unexpectedly defeated by Labor candidate Peter Lockwood in the Labor landslide victory at the 2002 election.
Lockwood only lasted one term before being defeated by Liberal Heidi Victoria in 2006. Victoria served as Minister for the Arts, Minister for Women's Affairs and Minister for Consumer Affairs in the Napthine Ministry from 2013 to 2014; the seat was won back by Labor somewhat unexpectedly in the 2018 Victorian state election, with Jackson Taylor serving as the current Labor MP for the district. Electorate profile: Bayswater District, Victorian Electoral Commission
Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election. Eligibility varies by country, the voting-eligible population should not be confused with the total adult population. Age and citizenship status are among the criteria used to determine eligibility, but some countries further restrict eligibility based on sex, race, or religion. After increasing for many decades, there has been a trend of decreasing voter turnout in most established democracies since the 1980s. In general, low turnout is attributed to indifference, or a sense of futility. According to Stanford University political scientists Adam Bonica and Michael McFaul, there is a consensus among political scientists that "democracies perform better when more people vote."Low turnout is considered to be undesirable. As a result, there have been many efforts to increase voter turnout and encourage participation in the political process. In spite of significant study into the issue, scholars are divided on the reasons for the decline.
Its cause has been attributed to a wide array of economic, cultural and institutional factors. Different countries have different voter turnout rates. For example, turnout in the United States 2012 presidential election was about 55%. In both Belgium, which has obligatory attendance, Malta, which does not, participation reaches about 95%. In Belgium there is obligatory attendance, misinterpreted as compulsory voting The chance of any one vote determining the outcome is low; some studies show that a single vote in a voting scheme such as the Electoral College in the United States has an lower chance of determining the outcome. Other studies claim that the Electoral College increases voting power. Studies using game theory, which takes into account the ability of voters to interact, have found that the expected turnout for any large election should be zero; the basic formula for determining whether someone will vote, on the questionable assumption that people act rationally, is P B + D > C, where P is the probability that an individual's vote will affect the outcome of an election, B is the perceived benefit that would be received if that person's favored political party or candidate were elected, D stood for democracy or civic duty, but today represents any social or personal gratification an individual gets from voting, C is the time and financial cost involved in voting.
Since P is zero in most elections, PB is near zero, D is thus the most important element in motivating people to vote. For a person to vote, these factors must outweigh C. Experimental political science has found that when P is greater than zero, this term has no effect on voter turnout. Enos and Fowler conducted a field experiment that exploits the rare opportunity of a tied election for major political office. Informing citizens that the special election to break the tie will be close has little mobilizing effect on voter turnout. Riker and Ordeshook developed the modern understanding of D, they listed five major forms of gratification that people receive for voting: complying with the social obligation to vote. Other political scientists have since added other motivators and questioned some of Riker and Ordeshook's assumptions. All of these concepts are inherently imprecise, making it difficult to discover why people choose to vote. Several scholars have considered the possibility that B includes not only a personal interest in the outcome, but a concern for the welfare of others in the society.
In particular, experiments in which subject altruism was measured using a dictator game showed that concern for the well-being of others is a major factor in predicting turnout and political participation. Note that this motivation is distinct from D, because voters must think others benefit from the outcome of the election, not their act of voting in and of itself. There are philosophical and practical reasons that some people cite for not voting in electoral politics. Robert LeFevre, Francis Tandy, John Pugsley, Frank Chodorov, George H. Smith, Carl Watner, Wendy McElroy, Lysander Spooner are some moderately well-known authors who have written about these reasons. High voter turnout is considered to be desirable, though among political scientists and economists specializing in public choice, the issue is still debated. A high turnout is seen as evidence of the legitimacy of the current system. Dictators have fabricated high turnouts in showcase elections for this purpose. For instance, Saddam Hussein's 2002 plebiscite was claimed to have had 100% participation.
Opposition parties sometimes boycott votes they feel are unfair or illegitimate, or if the election is for a government, considered illegitimate. For example, the Holy See instructed Italian Catholics to boycott national elections for several decades after the creation of the state of Italy. In some countries, there are threats of violence against those who vote, such as during the 2005 Iraq elections, an example of voter suppression. However, some political scientists question the view that high turnout is an implicit endorsement of the system. Mark