Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
. Clayfield is an inner northern suburb in the City of Brisbane, Australia, it is 7 kilometres from the Brisbane CBD. Clayfield is bordered to the north by Nundah, to the east by Ascot and Hendra, to the west by Wooloowin and to the south by Albion, its name derives from the fine white-grey sedimentary clay mined in Albion, between Morgan and Sykes Street, used in the brickworks that once existed between Oriel Road and Reeve Street near Sandgate Road. This industry, once known as "the clay fields", was instrumental in the residential surge of European settlement of inner-north Brisbane. Kalinga Park and the Kalinga locality lay on the northern limit. Clayfield encompasses the locality of Eagle Junction. In the 2011 census, Clayfield recorded a population of 10,006 people, 47.4 % male. The median age of the Clayfield population was 34 years of age, 3 years below the Australian median. 70.3% of people living in Clayfield were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 69.8%. 81.9% of people spoke only English at home.
In February 1888,'Isleton Estate' made up of 236 allotments were auctioned by R. R. Cottell. A map advertising the auction states the Estate was opposite Eagle Junction Railway Station with 30 trains passing a day. Clayfield has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 3 London Road: Lyndhurst 8 London Road: Turrawan 18 Tarranalma Avenue: Tarranalma 25 Enderley Road: Stanley Hall 40 Enderley Road: Ralahyne Clayfield was served by an electric tram line which ran along Sandgate Road until its closure on 13 April 1969, it is now served by bus and train services from the nearby Clayfield railway station and Eagle Junction railway station. Along the capital road, a canopy of poinciana and oak trees produce a'New England' canopy effect. Schools located within Clayfield include: Aviation High Clayfield College Eagle Junction State Primary School St Rita's CollegeOther schools that serve the Clayfield area include: Ascot State Primary School Hendra State Primary School Holy Cross School, Wooloowin Kedron State High School Mary MacKillop College, Nundah Nundah State Primary School Our Lady Help of Christians, Hendra St Margaret's Anglican Girls' School, Ascot Wooloowin State Primary School Churches that are located in Clayfield include: Clayfield Baptist Church Clayfield Gospel Hall Clayfield Uniting Church St Agatha's Catholic Church St Mark's Anglican Church Scots Presbyterian Church Timothy Joseph O'Leary, flying doctor Richard Frank Tunley, developer of educational resources for blind children Mary Hyacinthe Petronel White, women's rights campaigner and local government councillor University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Clayfield "Clayfield".
BRISbites. Brisbane City Council. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. "Clayfield". Our Brisbane. Brisbane City Council. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007
Liberal National Party of Queensland
The Liberal National Party of Queensland is a political party in Queensland, Australia. It was formed in 2008 by a merger of the Queensland divisions of the Liberal Party and the National Party. At a federal level and in most other states the two parties remain distinct and operate as a more or less permanent Coalition; the LNP is a full member of the Liberal Party of Australia, has observer status within the National Party of Australia. After suffering defeat at its first election in 2009 the LNP won government for the first time at the 2012 election, winning 78 out of 89 seats, a record majority in the unicameral Parliament of Queensland. Campbell Newman became the first LNP Premier of Queensland; the Newman Government was subsequently defeated by the opposition Labor Party at the 2015 election. Prior to the merger the National Party and Liberal Party had found themselves in frequent competition with one another for seats in Queensland since the 1970s; the Liberal Party and the National Party have been in a coalition at the federal level for all but a few years since 1923.
In most parts of Australia the Liberal Party is the larger party, concentrated in urban areas, with the Nationals a junior partner operating in rural and regional areas. Competition between the two is thus minimised as the two attempt to win more seats combined than the Australian Labor Party. However, Queensland is Australia's most decentralised state. Brisbane is by far the largest city in Queensland. However, only around 45% of the population lives in the Brisbane area, with a greater portion of the state's population distributed either in regional cities like Toowoomba, Townsville, Mackay and Cairns, or in rural areas; as such, the urban-rural divide is not as pronounced in Queensland as in the rest of Australia. The Country/National Party was stronger in these regional centres than the Liberals; as a result, the Nationals had more seats than the Liberals and their predecessors, had been the senior partner in the non-Labor Coalition since 1924. This division into urban and rural areas was, for most of the twentieth century, reflected in a system of different electoral weighting that made it easier for rural-based parties to win more seats in Parliament.
The formation of the LNP was the third attempt to unite the non-Labor side in Queensland. In 1925, the United Party — the Queensland branch of the urban-based Nationalist Party — and the Country Party merged as the Country and Progressive National Party; this party won government in 1929 under former Queensland Country leader Arthur Edward Moore, but was defeated in 1932 and split apart in 1936. In 1941, the Queensland divisions of the United Australia Party and Country Party merged as the Country-National Organisation, under Frank Nicklin of the Country side. However, this merger only lasted until 1944. During the 1970s, the Country Party began running candidates in the more urbanised south-east corner of the state, including the Brisbane area, in direct competition with the Liberals; this was part of a larger strategy by the federal party to expand its base outside of rural areas — reflected in successive name changes to the National Country Party in 1975 and the National Party in 1982. The state party had changed its name to the National Party in 1974 as part of its effort to broaden its reach.
After more than a decade of fraught relations, the Liberals pulled out of the Coalition in 1983. The Nationals came up one seat short of a majority in their own right in the election held that year; the Nationals persuaded two Liberals to defect to them, governed alone until their defeat in 1989. In 1992 the electoral system was changed to Optional Preferential Voting, meaning that three-cornered contests between Liberal and Labor candidates became much more to see Labor candidates win; the other change in 1992 was the end of the old zonal electoral system for the Legislative Assembly, the sole chamber of the state's parliament. As a result, 40 of the 89 seats—almost half of the seats in the legislature—were now based in Brisbane; the Liberals and Nationals signed a renewed Coalition agreement in November 1992, two months after Labor won a second term. However, it was all but impossible to win a majority government without a substantial base in Brisbane, something, difficult for the Coalition to do since the Nationals were the senior partner.
Brisbane's increased share of the legislature made it politically difficult to win a minority government without winning a significant share of the capital's seats. Labor was in government for all but three years from 1989 to 2012 in large part because it won at least 30 seats in greater Brisbane at every election; when it was consigned to opposition by the Rob Borbidge-led Coalition from 1996 to 1998, Labor still won 31 seats in Brisbane. The 1995 state election proved. While it won a slim majority of the two-party vote, much of that margin was wasted on landslides in the Nationals' heartland; as mentioned above, Labor won 31 seats in Brisbane. The Labor majority was lost altogether a few months in a by-election, but the Coalition was only able to form a minority government by a margin of one seat with the support of independent Liz Cunningham; this underscored how difficult the 1992 reforms
Santo Santoro is a former Australian politician and a former deputy leader of the Liberal Party in Queensland. He was a member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland from 1989 to 2001, he resigned from John Howard's ministry and from the Senate in the wake of a number of breaches of the Ministerial Code of Conduct and of the Register of Senators' Interests. He now works as a lobbyist and provides paid "Introductory services". Born in Sicily, Italy in 1956, Santoro emigrated to Australia with his family at the age of 5, he was educated at Marist College Rosalie in Brisbane before attending the University of Queensland, where he was awarded the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Economics with honours. Santoro was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Queensland as Liberal member for Merthyr in Brisbane from 13 May 1989 until 19 September 1992, he was elected as member for Clayfield from 19 September 1992 until he was defeated on 17 February 2001 by Liddy Clark. From 26 February 1996 to 26 June 1998, he was the State Minister for Training and Industrial Relations.
He was the deputy leader of the State Liberal Party from 1992 to 1995. On 29 October 2002, Santoro was selected by the Queensland Parliament to replace Liberal Party of Australia Senator John Herron, who had resigned from the Senate to become Australia's Ambassador to Ireland; as a senator, Santoro was a strident critic of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, using parliamentary privilege in 2003 to accuse the national broadcaster of "sloppy and shoddy" journalism, disloyalty to Australian soldiers serving in Iraq, after an internal memo to ABC news staff instructed them to refrain from referring to soldiers as "our troops". Santoro was sworn in as Federal Minister for Ageing in John Howard's government on 27 January 2006. On 14 March 2007, Senator Santoro disclosed that he had breached the government's ministerial code of conduct by holding shares in CBio, a biotechnology company related to his portfolio. Santoro claimed he had received the shares in January 2006, had failed to declare or divest them when he became Minister for Ageing, until he sold them in January 2007 after realising three months earlier that there might be a conflict of interest.
Prime Minister John Howard and other government ministers defended the breach on the grounds that it was inadvertent. However, further controversy arose over the fate of the profits derived from the sale of the shares in question. Santoro claimed he had donated the proceeds of the sale to a "charity", the Family Council of Queensland. Although this organization is registered as a non-profit entity, it is not registered as a charity, it was subsequently found during an audit of his finances that Santoro had failed to declare 72 other share trades, he resigned from the ministry on 16 March 2007 and was replaced as Minister for Ageing by Christopher Pyne. The failures to declare his share trading were in breach of Australian Senate's requirement that Senators' interests be registered, viz: "Any alteration to a senator’s registrable interests, or those of the senator’s spouse or partner, or dependent children, must be notified to the registrar within 35 days of the change occurring."On 20 March, Santoro announced he would resign from the Senate, federal politics altogether.
This meant that he had served as a Commonwealth Minister without facing election. He was replaced in the Senate by Sue Boyce. Santo Santoro was federal Liberal Party vice-president until resigning in 2014 when he was forced to choose between that and being a paid lobbyist, he owns Santo Santoro Consulting and is registered as a lobbyist on both the Queensland and federal registers. Santoro has provided "Introductory services" for access to politicians, he has boasted having a direct line to the immigration minister Peter Dutton who can help expedite immigration applications. Santoro charged at least $20,000 for this service. In 2016, suspected Chinese agent and billionaire businessman, Huang Xiangmo put Santoro on a retainer during which time he arranged a lunch with Dutton to discuss his application for Australian citizenship. Senator The Honourable Santo Santoro's Parliamentary Webpage Senator Santoro's website
2017 Queensland state election
The 2017 Queensland state election was held on 25 November 2017 to elect all 93 members of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland, the unicameral Parliament of Queensland. The first-term incumbent Labor government, led by Premier Annastacia Palaszczuk, won a second term in government, they were challenged by the Liberal National opposition, led by Opposition Leader Tim Nicholls and minor parties One Nation, Katter's Australian Party and the Greens. The 2015 election outcome had delivered a hung parliament with 44 seats to the Labor opposition, 42 seats to the one-term Liberal National government, three to the crossbench including two to Katter's Australian Party. Just one seat short of majority government, Labor was able to form minority government with confidence and supply support from sole independent MP Peter Wellington, while retaining the right to otherwise vote on conscience. During the parliamentary term, Labor MPs Billy Gordon and Rob Pyne became independent MPs, however they both indicated they would provide confidence and supply support for the government.
Amendments to electoral laws increased the number of seats by four from 89 to 93 and changed the optional preferential voting system to compulsory full-preferential voting. A 2016 referendum replaced the state's unfixed maximum three-year terms with fixed four-year terms, but these will not apply until the 2020 election; the day after the election, ABC election analyst Antony Green predicted that Labor would win up to 48 seats and was to form government in its own right. By 6 December, several news agencies reported that Labor had won a majority of seats in the Parliament. With the redistribution increasing the size of parliament from 89 seats to 93 seats, Labor increased its representation by a net seven seats to a total of 48 seats, an increase of four since the last election and a notional increase of one since the redistribution, allowing it to form government in its own right by two seats; the Liberal National opposition decreased their representation by a net three seats to a total of 39 seats, a decrease of two seats since the last election and a notional decrease of five since the redistribution.
On the crossbench, Katter's Australian Party won three seats, an increase of one since the last election and a notional increase of two since the redistribution, one new independent candidate won a seat while all the incumbent independents lost their seats. One Nation won its first seat since 2009 and the Greens won a seat at a state election for the first time. On 8 December 2017, Opposition Leader Tim Nicholls conceded defeat and announced he would step down as leader of the party; that day, Palaszczuk visited Government House and was invited to form a majority government by the Governor. The Second Palaszczuk Ministry was subsequently sworn in by the Governor on 12 December 2017; this marked the ninth time in the last ten elections. Independent: Sandy Bolton The seats of Burdekin and Mount Ommaney were won by the LNP at the 2015 election, but redistributions in 2016 made them notionally Labor seats; the 2017 election saw the ALP continue its Queensland general election streak of successes, which it had managed since 1989, with the notable exception of the 2012 LNP landslide.
Katter's Australia Party, by winning a third seat in Hinchinbrook, achieved its largest swag of seats, since its inception in 2011. The Greens party recorded its highest vote in a Queensland state election, polling double figures for the first time and winning its first Queensland seat at an election, Maiwar. One Nation polled a significant 13.7% of the vote and won its first seat in 9 years. However the party lost its state leader, Steve Dickson, its tally of a single seat fell well below expectations; the election gave the LNP the least cause to rejoice: it performed poorly in South-East Queensland as well as in the north of the state. This election resulted in a number of historical milestones being achieved for the representation in the Queensland Parliament; these include: the first Australian woman premier to win government from Opposition and be re-elected, Annastacia Palaszczuk. Prior to the election, the Shooting Industry Foundation of Australia used $550,000 to launch an advertising campaign, named Flick’em, in an effort to urge voters to put both major parties last in ballot paper preferences.
This campaign boosted votes for Pauline Hanson's One Nation and the Katter's Australian Party and achieved lowest major party votes in QLD history. The Firearm Owners United, a new gun rights group which in 2017 made its first financi
Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate, in order to make a collective decision or express an opinion following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracies elect holders of high office by voting. Residents of a place represented by an elected official are called "constituents", those constituents who cast a ballot for their chosen candidate are called "voters". There are different systems for collecting votes. In a democracy, a government is chosen by voting in an election: a way for an electorate to elect, i.e. choose, among several candidates for rule. In a representative democracy voting is the method by the which the electorate appoints its representatives in its government. In a direct democracy, voting is the method by which the electorate directly make decisions, turn bills into laws, etc. A vote is a formal expression of an individual's choice against some motion. Many countries use a secret ballot, a practice to prevent voters from being intimidated and to protect their political privacy.
Voting takes place at a polling station. Different voting systems use different types of votes. Plurality voting does not require the winner to achieve a vote majority, or more than fifty percent of the total votes cast. In a voting system that uses a single vote per race, when more than two candidates run, the winner may have less than fifty percent of the vote. A side effect of a single vote per race is vote splitting, which tends to elect candidates that do not support centrism, tends to produce a two-party system. An alternative to a single-vote system is approval voting. To understand why a single vote per race tends to favor less centric candidates, consider a simple lab experiment where students in a class vote for their favorite marble. If five marbles are assigned names and are placed "up for election", if three of them are green, one is red, one is blue a green marble will win the election; the reason is. In fact, in this analogy, the only way that a green marble is to win is if more than sixty percent of the voters prefer green.
If the same percentage of people prefer green as those who prefer red and blue, to say if 33 percent of the voters prefer green, 33 percent prefer blue, 33 percent prefer red each green marble will only get eleven percent of the vote, while the red and blue marbles will each get 33 percent, putting the green marbles at a serious disadvantage. If the experiment is repeated with other colors, the color, in the majority will still win. In other words, from a purely mathematical perspective, a single-vote system tends to favor a winner, different from the majority. If the experiment is repeated using approval voting, where voters are encouraged to vote for as many candidates as they approve of the winner is much more to be any one of the five marbles, because people who prefer green will be able to vote for every one of the green marbles. A development on the'single vote' system is to have two-round elections, or repeat first-past-the-post; this system is most common around the world. In most cases, the winner must receive a majority, more than half.
And if no candidate obtains a majority at the first round the two candidates with the largest plurality are selected for the second round. Variants exist on these two points: the requirement for being elected at the first round is sometimes less than 50%, the rules for participation in the runoff may vary. An alternative to the Two-round voting system is the single round instant-runoff voting system as used in some elections in Australia and the USA. Voters rank each candidate in order of preference. Votes are distributed to each candidate according to the preferences allocated. If no single candidate has 50% of the vote the candidate with the fewest votes is excluded and their votes redistributed according to the voters nominated order of preference; the process repeating itself until a candidate has 50% or more votes. The system is designed to produce the same result as an exhaustive ballot but using only a single round of voting. In a voting system that uses a multiple vote, the voter can vote for any subset of the alternatives.
So, a voter might vote for Alice and Charlie, rejecting Daniel and Emily. Approval voting uses such multiple votes. In a voting system that uses a ranked vote, the voter has to rank the alternatives in order of preference. For example, they might vote for Bob in first place Emily Alice Daniel, Charlie. Ranked voting systems, such as those famously used in Australia, use a ranked vote. In a voting system that uses a scored vote, the voter gives each alternative a number between one and ten. See cardinal voting systems; some "multiple-winner" systems may have a single vote or one vote per elector per available position. In such a case the elector could vote for Charlie on a ballot with two votes; these types of systems can use ranked or unranked voting, are used for at-large positions such as on some city councils. Most of the time, when the citizens of a country are invited to vote, it is for an election. However, people can vote in referendums and initiatives. Since the end of the eighteenth century, more than five hundred national referendums were organised in the world.