Port Lincoln is a city on the Lower Eyre Peninsula in the Australian state of South Australia. It is situated on the shore of Boston Bay, it is the largest city in the West Coast region, is located 280 km as the crow flies from the State's capital city of Adelaide. The city is reputed to have the most millionaires per capita in Australia; the town claims to be the "Seafood Capital of Australia". The Eyre Peninsula has been home to Aboriginal people for over 40 thousand years, with the Barngarla, Nauo and Mirning being the predominant original cultural groups present at the time of the arrival of Europeans.. The original Barngarla name for Port Lincoln was Galinyala. Matthew Flinders was the first European to discover Port Lincoln under his commission by the British Admiralty to chart Australia's unexplored coastline. On 25 February 1802, Flinders sailed his exploration vessel HMS Investigator into the harbour, which he named Port Lincoln after the city of Lincoln in his native county of Lincolnshire in England.
A couple of months on 19 April, Nicolas Baudin entered the same port and named it Port Champagny. Sealers had visited the area around 1828 and the French whailing ships were fishing the local bays and island regions by the 1820s and up to the 1840s. In 1836 Governor Sir John Hindmarsh, the first Governor of South Australia, gave instructions to Colonel William Light of finding a capital for the'New British Province of South Australia'. He'd been in the colony for four months and in all that time he'd been trying to find a right place for a harbour, a right place for a settlement. With boatfuls of immigrants set to arrive and impatient settlers camping at Holdfast Bay, Rapid Bay and Kangaroo Island, Light was under immense pressure to identify a location with a suitable harbour, sufficient agricultural land and fresh water. After assessing a number of other potential locations, Light was ordered by England to consider Port Lincoln as a possible site for the capital. While Thomas Lipson had arrived in Port Lincoln earlier and approved of its'beautiful harbour' and'fertile land', Light was unconvinced from the beginning as he faced fierce westerly gales, ill-placed islands and rocky reefs on arrival.
Light decided it might be dangerous for merchant ships trying to enter the unfamiliar territory after a long voyage and that there was not enough of what he thought was good agricultural land, not enough fresh water to sustain a city so he decided to choose Adelaide as the most suitable place for settlement. Port Lincoln however, proved popular with pioneers and developers, with the first settlers arriving on 19 March 1839 aboard the ships Abeona and Dorset. On 3 October 1839 Governor George Gawler proclaimed the whole area from Cape Catastrophe to the head of the Spencer Gulf as one district, which he named the District of Port Lincoln. Local Government formally began on the Eyre Peninsula on 1 July 1880 with the establishment of the District Council of Lincoln; the township of Port Lincoln was included in that area. On 18 August 1921 the Municipality of Port Lincoln was formally proclaimed. In 1840 one year after settlement, the population of Port Lincoln was 270. There were a hotel, blacksmith's shop and a store in the Happy Valley area.
Around this time, Edward John Eyre explored the peninsula, subsequently named in his honour. In early 1842, local Aboriginal resistance to the British invasion and settlement became so successful that it prompted the near abandonment of Port Lincoln; as a result, Governor George Grey ordered a detachment of the 96th Regiment of the British Army under the command of Lieutenant Hugonin to enforce control in the area. After an initial defeat at Pillaworta, the 96th in combination with the Mounted Police and armed settlers were able to restore full British authority by the end of 1843. A section of Native Police were deployed to the area to maintain this control. By 1936 the population had grown to 3200 and the town had a first class water supply; the port had become the commercial pivot for the area, providing for its many agricultural and commercial requirements. City status was granted to Port Lincoln on 21 January 1971 and the proclamation was read at the opening of the tenth annual Tunarama Festival on the Australia Day weekend.
The lack of a reliable surface water supply was a factor preventing Port Lincoln from being proclaimed the colony's capital city in the 1830s. As a small town, Port Lincoln outgrew its fresh water supplies, it is now dependent on water drawn from groundwater basins in the south of the peninsula. The southern and western parts of the Eyre Peninsula region share this resource via the Tod-Ceduna pipeline; the Iron Knob to Kimba pipeline completed in 2007 provides limited transfer capacity of River Murray water into the Tod-Ceduna system. Following the development of a long term water supply plan for Eyre Peninsula, the South Australian government is progressing detailed investigation of augmentation options; these including seawater desalination. A potable water resource fed by the Tod River, the Tod Reservoir was taken offline in 2001–2002 due to concerns about rising levels of agricultural chemical contamination and salinity. Port Lincoln has a number of places listed on the South Australian Heritage Register, including: Dorset Place: Old Mill Lookout Hawson Place: Hawson's Grave 152 Proper Bay Road: Arrandale Railway Terrace: Port Lincoln railway station 36 Washington Street: Port Lincoln Police Station and Courthouse 20 Windsor Avenue: Ravendale House At June 2015 Port Lincoln had an esti
Nullarbor, South Australia
Nullarbor is a locality in the Australian state of South Australia located 295 kilometres to the west of the town of Ceduna in the western part of the state adjoining the border with Western Australia. The name and extent of the locality was established on 26 April 2013 in respect to "the long established local name." Its name is derived from the use of "Nullarbor" in geographic features such as the Nullarbor Plain and protected areas such as the Nullarbor Regional Reserve. Nullarbor is bounded in the west by the Western Australia - South Australian state border, in the south by the coastline adjoining the Great Australian Bight, to the east by the localities of Yalata and Yellabinna and to the north by the Trans-Australian Railway; the land use within Nullarbor is concerned with the following protected areas which cover its extent - the Nullarbor Regional Reserve to the north of the locality, the Nullarbor National Park which occupies a strip running from the border and the Nullarbor Wilderness Protection Area which adjoins the coastline with the Great Australian Bight.
Uses included tourism and research associated with the locality’s natural features, mineral exploration in the Regional Reserve, use by indigenous communities for purposes such as cultural activities. The Eyre Highway is the major road passing through the locality to Western Australia. Settlements located along the Highway include one known as "Nullarbor" at the eastern boundary of the locality and Border Village at the western boundary of the locality at the Western Australian border; these provide services for travellers such as accommodation and vehicle fuel. Nullarbor contains two heritage-listed sites - the Koonalda Cave and the Koonalda Homestead Complex which are both listed on the South Australian Heritage Register while the former is listed on the Australian National Heritage List. Nullarbor is located within the federal Division of Grey, the state electoral districts of Flinders and Giles, the Pastoral Unincorporated Area of South Australia where municipal services are provided to communities such as Border Village by a South Australian government agency, the Outback Communities Authority.
List of cities and towns in South Australia Bunda cliffs Murrawijinie Cave Nullarbor Links Wilson Bluff and South Australian border Cook, South Australia
Augustine Stow, J. P. was a politician in colonial South Australia, member of the South Australian House of Assembly for West Torrens from November 1862 to 1864, for Flinders from October 1866 to 1868. Stow was born in Halstead, England, the son of the Rev. Thomas Quentin Stow and his wife Elizabeth, née Eppes; the family arrived in South Australia in the Hartley in 1837. On 19 March 1869, Stow was elected to the South Australian Legislative Council, resigning in September 1871. Stow was Chief Secretary in Henry Strangways' Ministry for 18 days in May 1870. In 1877 he entered the Government service, in April 1884 was appointed Registrar of Probates, Chief Clerk in the Supreme Court, he was Commissioner of Inland Revenue without salary. Stow was a member of the board of governors of Public Library and Museum. Stow died on 29 May 1903 at Unley, South Australia
William Ranson Mortlock
William Ranson Mortlock was a grazier and politician in colonial South Australia. Mortlock was born at Moat House, Cambridgeshire, England. Mortlock arrived in South Australia on the Imaum of Muscat on 9 November 1843. In 1850 at Port Lincoln he married Margaret, 18-year-old daughter of John Tennant who had arrived in South Australia from Scotland in 1839, he was a veterinary sheep inspector in Adelaide for a period. In 1847, he occupied land near Port Lincoln that would subsequently become Yalluna Station, he resigned his inspector role in 1856, he acquired three more leases in 1867-68: the Mount Arden, Pichi Richi, Yudnapinna Stations. He was elected to the South Australian House of Assembly at the 1868 election, representing Flinders, but did not contest the 1870 election, he was elected for Flinders a second time at the 1871 election, but again declined to recontest at the 1875 election, advertised that he was leaving the colony soon afterwards. He was elected for a third time at the 1878 election and re-elected in 1881, before being defeated in 1884, just weeks before his death.
He died in 1884 at Avenel House, aged 63. His son, William Tennant Mortlock and expanded his pastoral empire and was elected to parliament for his old seat. Along with his son, daughter-in-law Rosina, John Andrew Tennant Mortlock, John's wife Dorothy Elizabeth Mortlock, the Mortlock family left the Waite Agricultural Research Institute, the University of Adelaide, the State Library of South Australia, the City of Adelaide and the State of South Australia with many significant and lasting legacies
The Nullarbor Plain is part of the area of flat treeless, arid or semi-arid country of southern Australia, located on the Great Australian Bight coast with the Great Victoria Desert to its north. It is the world's largest single exposure of limestone bedrock, occupies an area of about 200,000 square kilometres. At its widest point, it stretches about 1,100 kilometres from east to west across the border between South Australia and Western Australia; the Nullarbor Plain was thought to have been formed 20 million years ago during the Miocene Epoch, as a result of the glacial event that left it high and dry. The Nullarbor, considered by Europeans to be uninhabitable, was used by the semi-nomadic Aborigines, the Spinifex and Wangai peoples; the first Europeans known to have sighted and mapped it were an expedition led by Pieter Nuyts in 1626–27. While the interior remained little known to Europeans over the next two centuries, the name Nuytsland was applied to the area adjoining the Great Australian Bight.
It survives as two geographical names in West Australia: Nuytsland Nature Reserve and Nuyts Land District. Despite the hardships created by the nature of the Nullarbor, European settlers were determined to cross the plain. Edward John Eyre became the first European to make the crossing in 1841. In writing about Eyre's voyages in 1865, Henry Kingsley wrote that the area across the Nullarbor and Great Australian Bight was a "hideous anomaly, a blot on the face of Nature, the sort of place one gets into in bad dreams". Eyre departed Fowler's Bay on 17 November 1840 with a party of three Aboriginal men; when three of his horses died of dehydration, he returned to Fowler's Bay. He departed with a second expedition on 25 February 1841. By 29 April, the party had reached Caiguna. Lack of supplies and water led to a mutiny. Two of the Aborigines took the party's supplies. Eyre and the third Aborigine, continued on their journey, surviving through bushcraft and some fortuitous circumstances, such as receiving some supplies from a French whaling vessel anchored at Rossiter Bay.
They completed their crossing in June 1841. In August 1865, while travelling across the Nullarbor, E. A. Delisser in his journal named both Nullarbor and Eucla for the first time. A proposed new state of Auralia would have comprised the Goldfields, the western portion of the Nullarbor Plain and the port town of Esperance, its capital would have been Kalgoorlie. During the British nuclear tests at Maralinga in the 1950s, the government forced the Wangai to abandon their homeland. Since they have been awarded compensation, many have returned to the general area. Others never left; some agricultural interests are on the fringe of the plain including the 2.5 million acres Rawlinna Station, the largest sheep station in the world, on the Western Australian side of the plain. The property was established in 1962 by Hugh G. MacLachlan, of the South Australian pastoral family, the station has a comparatively short history compared to other properties of its type around Australia. An older property is Madura Station, situated closer to the coast, it has a size of 1.7 million acres and is stocked with sheep.
Madura was established prior to 1927, the extent of the property at that time was reported as two million acres. In 2011 South Australian Premier Mike Rann announced that a huge area of the Nullarbor, stretching 200 km from the WA border to the Great Australian Bight, would be given formal Wilderness Protection Status. Rann said the move would double the area of land in South Australia under environmental protection, to 1.8 million ha. The area contains 390 species of plants and a large number of habitats for rare species of animals and birds. "Crossing the Nullarbor", for many Australians, is a quintessential experience of the "Australian Outback". Stickers bought from roadhouses on the highway show "I have crossed the Nullarbor", can be seen on vehicles of varying quality or capacity for long distance travel; the process of "beating the crowds" on overbooked and overpriced air services at the time of special sporting events can see significant numbers of vehicles on the road. Crossing the Nullarbor in the 1950s and earlier was a significant achievement, as most of the route was a dirt track of variable quality, presenting real hazards to the motorist.
It presented one of the major challenges in Round-Australia car trials and gave photographers many opportunities for shots of daring driving and motoring misfortune. The Nullarbor Plain is a former shallow seabed, as indicated by the presence of bryozoans, foraminifera and red algae calcareous skeletons that make up the limestone; the region is the location of "Nullarbor limestone" and it has a reputation as a significant karst region with Oligocene and Miocene cave formations. The sequence within the limestone includes five formations: the upper formation is the Nullarbor Limestone, early middle Miocene in age. One theo
Electoral district of Mawson
Mawson is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. It covers the entirety of Kangaroo Island, parts of the local government areas of Alexandrina Council, the City of Onkaparinga, the District Council of Yankalilla. Major localities in the district include Cape Jervis, Kingscote, McLaren Vale, Port Willunga, Sellicks Beach and Yankalilla; the electorate was created in the 1969 redistribution. It is named after Sir Douglas Mawson, a geologist and explorer who made several expeditions to Antarctica. For the first three decades of its existence, it was a bellwether seat held by the party of government; this pattern was broken at the 2002 election, when Robert Brokenshire held the seat for the Liberals amidst a Labor election victory. Although it was thought that Brokenshire had established a base in Mawson, it reverted to form at the 2006 election, when Labor candidate and former journalist Leon Bignell won amid that year's massive Labor landslide. Bignell went on to increase his seat margins at the 2010 and 2014 elections against the statewide trend, at odds with decades of voting patterns in the electorate.
The 2016 redistribution ahead of the 2018 election redistributed Mawson from a 5.6 percent Labor seat to a notional 3.2 percent Liberal seat, taking in areas down the coast as far as and including Kangaroo Island. However, Bignell picked up a swing of over four percent to narrowly retain the seat as Labor lost government. ECSA profile for Mawson: 2018 ABC profile for Mawson: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Mawson: 2018
District Council of Streaky Bay
The District Council of Streaky Bay is a local government area in South Australia located on the Eyre Peninsula. Streaky Bay is the main population centre of about 1200 people serving an agricultural district based on farming wheat and other cereal crops, supplemented by fishing and tourism industries; the district covers an area of 6,251.1 square kilometres with a population of 2,074 people in 2016, according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The council was established by the District Councils Act 1887 on 5 January 1888; the bounds were defined in the act as "All that portion of the County of Robinson not included in the district of Elliston." This meant that the Hundred of Downer, Hundred of Wallis, a large part of Hundred of Wright south of Venus Bay, an unincorporated area 100 square miles between the three within Robinson county were excluded from Streaky Bay council and proclaimed as part of Elliston council instead. It was, until the creation of the neighbouring District Council of Murat Bay in 1925, the farthest outpost of local government in South Australia.
In the same year, the District Council of Wudinna was established to the east, annexing the hundreds of Condada, Carina and Travers from Streaky Bay council to form the north western flank of the new council. While the town of Streaky Bay was named Flinders until 1940, the municipality has been titled Streaky Bay since its inception. In 1936, it was the largest local government area in South Australia, covering 6,532.6 square kilometres. The district's focal point is the town of Streaky Bay. Peter Calder Anderson William John Williams Gregory John Cash Arthur Donald Andrew Dodgson Frederick Allen Bellinger Alec Malcolm Baldock Peter John Dodgson Thomas Aiden McCormack Murphys Haystacks List of parks and gardens in rural South Australia Council Website District Council of Streaky Bay on Facebook @StreakyBayDC on Twitter LGA Site