The Kaurna people are a group of Indigenous Australians whose traditional lands include the Adelaide Plains of South Australia. Pronunciation of the word "Kaurna" varies by the background and origin of the speaker. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of the European settlement of South Australia in 1836. However, extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both language and culture; the early settlers of South Australia referred to the various indigenous tribes of the Adelaide Plains and Fleurieu Peninsula as "Rapid Bay tribe", "the Encounter Bay tribe", "the Adelaide tribe", the Kouwandilla tribe, "the Wirra tribe", "the Noarlunga tribe" and the Willunga tribe. The name Kaurna was not used until popularised by Norman B. Tindale in the 1920s. Most it is an exonym introduced from the Ramindjeri or Ngarrindjeri word kornar meaning "men" or "people". Kaurna'war:a belongs to the Thura-Yura branch of the Pama–Nyungan languages.
The first word lists taken down of the Kaurna language date to 1826. A knowledge of Kaurna language was keenly sought by many of the early settlers. William Williams and James Cronk were the first settlers to gain a working knowledge of the language, to publish a Kaurna wordlist, which they did in 1840; when George Gawler, South Australia's third Governor, arrived in October 1838, he gave a speech to the local Indigenous population through a translator, William Wyatt, assisted by Williams and Cronk. Gawler encouraged the settlers to learn Kaurna, advocated using the Kaurna names for geographic landmarks. Two German missionaries, Clamor Schurmann and Christian Teichelmann, arrived on the same ship as Gawler in 1838, set about learning and documenting the language in order to civilise and "Christianise" the natives. In December 1839, they opened a school at Piltawodli where the children were taught to read and write in Kaurna. Schurmann and Teichelmann translated the Ten Commandments and a number of German hymns into Kaurna, although they never achieved their goal of translating the entire bible, their recorded vocabulary of over 2,000 words was the largest wordlist registered by that time, pivotal in the modern revival of the language.
Kaurna territory extended from Cape Jervis at the bottom of the Fleurieu Peninsula to Port Wakefield on the eastern shore of Gulf St Vincent, as far north as Crystal Brook in the Mid North. Tindale claimed clans were found living in the vicinity of Snowtown, Hoyleton, Hamley Bridge, Clarendon and Myponga; the stringy bark forests over the back of the Mount Lofty Ranges have been claimed as a traditional boundary between Kaurna and Peramangk people. Tunkalilla Beach, 20 kilometres east of Cape Jervis, is the traditional boundary with the Ramindjeri; this is the most cited alignment of Kaurna territorial boundaries. However, according to Ronald and Catherine Berndt the neighboring Ramindjeri tribe assert a historical territory including the whole southern portion of the Fleurieu Peninsula and Kangaroo Island, extending as far north as Noarlunga or the River Torrens; this overlaps a significant portion of the territory claimed by both the Kaurna and the neighboring Ngarrindjeri to the east. However, linguistic evidence suggests that the aborigines encountered by Colonel Light at Rapid Bay in 1836 were Kaurna speakers.
The Berndt's ethnographic study, conducted in the 1930s, identified six Ngarrindjeri clans occupying the coast from Cape Jervis to a few kilometres south of Adelaide. Berndt posits that the clans may have expanded along trade routes as the Kaurna were dispossessed by colonists. A main Kaurna presence was in Tarndanyangga near the River Torrens and the creeks that flowed into it, an area which became the site of the Adelaide city centre. Kaurna resided in the suburb of Burnside, an early settler of the village of Beaumont described the local people thus: "At every creek and gully you would see their wurlies and their fires at night... as many as 500 to 600 would be camped in various places... some behind the Botanic Gardens on the banks of the river. The Kaurna people were a hunter-gatherer society, who changed their dwellings according to climatic conditions: in summer they would camp near the coastal springs fishing for mulloway. With the onset of winter, they would retire to the woodlands using hollowed out fallen redgums along creeks, with bark extensions with as shelters.
Sudden downpours could quench their fires, maintaining, old women's work, with deadly consequences. At times they would have to impose themselves on otherwise despised tribes, such as the Ngaiawang and Nganguruku to trade goods like their cloaks, quartz flints and red ochre in order to obtain firesticks. Among their customs was the practice of fire-stick farming in the Adelaide Hills, which the early European settlers spotted before the Kaurna were displaced; these fires were part of a scrub clearing process to encourage grass growth for Kangaroo. This tradition led to conflict with the colonists as the fires tended to cause considerable damage to farmland. In an official report, Major Thomas O'Halloran claimed the Kaurna used this as a weapon against the colonists by lighting fires to deliberately destroy fences, survey pegs and to scatter livestock. Due to this regular burning by the time the first Europeans arrived, the foothills' original Stringybark forests had been lar
South Australian House of Assembly
The House of Assembly, or lower house, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of South Australia. The other is the Legislative Council, it sits in Parliament House in Adelaide. The House of Assembly was created in 1857; the development of an elected legislature — although only men could vote — marked a significant change from the prior system, where legislative power was in the hands of the Governor and the Legislative Council, appointed by the Governor. In 1895, the House of Assembly granted women the right to vote and stand for election to the legislature. South Australia was the second place in the world to do so after New Zealand in 1893, the first to allow women to stand for election. From 1857 to 1933, the House of Assembly was elected from multi-member districts known as "seats," with each district returning between one and six members; the size of the Assembly varied during this time—36 members from 1857 to 1875, 46 members from 1875 to 1884, 52 members from 1884 to 1890, 54 members from 1890 to 1902, 42 members from 1902 to 1912, 40 members from 1912 to 1915, 46 members from 1915 to 1938.
In 1938, the Assembly was reduced to 39 members, elected from single-member districts. The House of Assembly has had 47 members since the 1970 election, elected from single-member districts: 34 in the Adelaide metropolitan area and 13 in rural areas; these seats are intended to represent the same population in each electorate. Voting is by preferential voting with complete preference allocation, as with the equivalent federal chamber, the Australian House of Representatives. All members face re-election every four years; the most recent election was held on 17 March 2018. Most legislation is initiated in the House of Assembly; the party or coalition with a majority of seats in the lower house is invited by the Governor to form government. The leader of that party becomes Premier of South Australia, their senior colleagues become ministers responsible for various portfolios; as Australian MPs always vote along party lines all legislation introduced by the governing party will pass through the House of Assembly.
As with the federal parliament and Australian other states and territories, voting in the Assembly is compulsory for all those over the age of 18. Voting in the House of Assembly had been voluntary, but this was changed in 1942. While South Australia's total population is 1.7 million, 1.3 million of them live in Adelaide. Uniquely, over 75% of the state's population resides in the metropolitan area, making South Australia the most centralised state in the nation; as a result, Adelaide accounts for 72% of the seats in the chamber. The dominance of Adelaide, combined with a lack of comparatively-sized rural population centres, results in the metropolitan area deciding election outcomes. At the 2014 election for example, although the state-wide two-party vote was 47.0% Labor v 53.0% Liberal, the metropolitan area recorded a 2PP of 51.5% Labor v 48.5% Liberal. 24 votes as a majority are required to pass legislation. South Australian state election, 2018 List of elections in South Australia List of South Australian state by-elections Members of the South Australian House of Assembly Parliaments of the Australian states and territories South Australian Electoral Districts House of Assembly Homepage General Hansard Information
Electoral district of Narungga
Narungga is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. It was created by the redistribution of 2016, was contested for the first time at the 2018 state election, it is named for the Narungga people who are the traditional owners of the lands in most of the electorate. It is one of only two state districts named after South Australia's indigenous people. Narungga is renamed from the former seat of Goyder, which itself was a replacement for the former seat of Yorke Peninsula. At its creation, it drew 21,993 electors from 2,325 from Frome. Of the remaining electors from Goyder, 999 were lost to Frome, 422 to Schubert, 1,619 to Taylor. Steven Griffiths had been the member for Goyder since 2006, he announced on 14 February 2017. Narungga is held by the Liberal Party with a comfortable 13.8% notional margin on the new boundaries. Counting its time as Goyder and Yorke Peninsula, the seat has been held by the Liberals and their predecessors, the Liberal and Country League, for all but seven years since the institution of single-member seats in 1938.
At its creation, Narungga covered nearby areas. It includes the Yorke Peninsula Council, District Council of the Copper Coast, District Council of Barunga West and included the western parts of the Wakefield Regional Council and Adelaide Plains Council. ECSA profile for Narungga: 2018 ABC profile for Narungga: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Narungga: 2018
1997 South Australian state election
State elections were held in South Australia on 11 October 1997. All 47 seats in the South Australian House of Assembly were up for election; the incumbent Liberal Party of Australia led by Premier of South Australia John Olsen defeated the Australian Labor Party led by Leader of the Opposition Mike Rann, forming a minority government with the SA Nationals and independent MPs. Following the 1993 landslide to the Liberals, ending 11 years of Labor government, Labor now led by Mike Rann held just 11 seats in the House of Assembly; the Liberals held 36 seats and there were no independent or minor party members in the House of Assembly. They lost one at the 1994 Torrens by-election; however the Liberals were suffering from heightened internal tensions. Premier Dean Brown had been toppled by Industry Minister and factional rival John Olsen in a 1996 party-room coup. Olsen had been in office for just over 10 months on election day. Labor needed a 13-seat swing to make Rann premier, a deficit thought insurmountable before the election.
However, to the surprise of most observers, Olsen lost the massive majority he'd inherited from Brown. Labor polled exceptionally well, regaining much of what it had lost in its severe defeat of four years earlier. Indeed, on election night many Liberal observers feared that Labor had managed the swing it needed to regain government. Labor picked up 10 seats, three seats short of victory; the Liberals lost a massive 13 seats: 10 to Labor, 1 to the Nationals, 2 to conservative independents. Labor received a record two-party swing of 9.4 percent, as opposed to the previous record of 8.9 percent to the Liberals at the last election. Olsen was forced to seek the support of the Nationals and the independents to stay in office at the helm of a minority government; the Liberals regained a majority when Mitch Williams rejoined the Liberal Party in 1999, but lost it again in 2000 when it expelled Peter Lewis from the party in 2000, Bob Such resigned from the Liberal Party in 2000. However they continued to govern with the support of the Nationals and independents until the 2002 election.
In the Legislative Council, the Australian Democrats won two seats for the first time. Elected were 4 Liberal, 4 Labor, 2 Australian Democrats, No Pokies candidate Nick Xenophon. Carrying over from the 1993 election were 6 Liberal, 4 Labor, 1 Democrat; the election was notable for the Australian Democrats' strongest performance in South Australia, winning two Legislative Council two seats at an election for the only time in their history.. The Democrats finished second after preferences in seven seats lower house seats. However, it marked the peak for Democrats' influence in South Australia. From here on they would lose numbers and influence, winning only one more seat, losing their remaining parliamentary representation as of the 2010 election. Labor upper house members Terry Cameron and Trevor Crothers would resign from the party in 1998 and 1999 in order to support the Liberals over the Privatisation of ETSA; this meant the Democrats lost sole balance of power for the first time since 1985.
The 1997 result put Labor within striking distance of winning government at the next election in 2002. John Olsen was left with internal disquiet over the leadership challenge and poor election result while his opponent, Mike Rann, was seen to have'won' the campaign despite losing the election. On 6 February 2007, Mike Rann told parliament that some in the Liberal party had leaked information to him before and during the election campaign; the following quote by Rann is from Hansard on 6/2/2007: "You asked me a question and I will give you a 55-minute answer, because you will remember one day when I came into this place and I had, I think, 880 pages of cabinet and other documents... I remember being telephoned and told to go to a certain cafe, not in a white car but in a taxi, to walk in a zigzag fashion through the streets of a suburb, where I was to be handed cabinet documents. So much for their cabinet solidarity and cabinet confidentiality! There was a queue on the telephone telling us, it was the same during the 1997 election campaign.
People thought, `How does this guy know intuitively what John Olsen is doing the next day?' It was because I was being phoned and told! So, do not talk to me about cabinet solidarity lest I come in here and start naming names, which will set off another generation of disputation on the other side of the house. Anyway, cabinet approved, among other things, on 20 December 2006 minister Lomax-Smith's proposed statement and approved her to announce publicly that she opposed the proposal in cabinet, she did. Somehow I do not think that John Olsen agreed to what happened when I was getting the phone call at 6 o'clock in the morning and at midnight, walking in a zigzag pattern through suburbs to be handed a cabinet bag and cabinet documents. We have a different approach. We agreed to it, it was a cabinet decision to agree to it. So, ask me some more questions, because there were two different camps involved in this leaking to the poor unpopular leader of the opposition, I am more than happy to name names."
Candidates of the South Australian state election, 1997 Members of the South Australian House of Assembly, 1997-2002 Members of the South Australian Legislative Council, 1997-2002 Results of the South Australian state election, 1997 (House of
2018 South Australian state election
The 2018 South Australian state election to elect members to the 54th Parliament of South Australia was held on 17 March 2018. All 47 seats in the House of Assembly or lower house, whose members were elected at the 2014 election, 11 of 22 seats in the Legislative Council or upper house, last filled at the 2010 election, were contested; the record-16-year-incumbent Australian Labor Party government led by Premier Jay Weatherill was seeking a fifth four-year term, but was defeated by the opposition Liberal Party of Australia, led by Opposition Leader Steven Marshall. Nick Xenophon's new SA Best party unsuccessfully sought to obtain the balance of power. Like federal elections, South Australia has compulsory voting, uses full-preference instant-runoff voting for single-member electorates in the lower house and optional preference single transferable voting in the proportionally represented upper house; the election was conducted by the Electoral Commission of South Australia, an independent body answerable to Parliament.
^a: Results final as of 5 April. Independents: Frances Bedford, Troy Bell, Geoff Brock The Liberal opposition formed a two-seat majority government with 25 of 47 seats, after retaining three of the four redistributed notionally Liberal seats won by Labor at the previous election and winning the newly-created notionally ultra marginal Labor seat of King; the Labor government went in to opposition with 19 seats. Despite the change of government, there was a statewide two-party-preferred swing away from the Liberals toward Labor; the seats of Colton, Elder and Newland were won by Labor at the previous election, but the 2016 redistribution made them notionally Liberal seats. Colton and Newland were won by the Liberals. ^b: Results final as of 23 April. The 11 of 22 seats up for election were 4 Labor, 1 Green, 1 Conservative and 1 Dignity; the final outcome was 4 Labor, 2 SA Best and 1 Green. Conservative MLC Dennis Hood, elected as a Family First MLC in 2014, defected to the Liberals nine days after the 2018 state election.
The 22 seat upper house composition is therefore 9 Liberal on the government benches, 8 Labor on the opposition benches, 5 to minor parties on the crossbench, consisting of 2 SA Best, 2 Green, 1 Advance SA. The government therefore requires at least three additional non-government members to form a majority and carry votes on the floor. Four hours after the close of polls, at 10pm ACDT, incumbent Premier Jay Weatherill telephoned Steven Marshall and conceded defeat. Weatherill subsequently publicly announced that he had conceded, saying, "I'm sorry I couldn't bring home another victory, but I do feel like one of those horses that has won four Melbourne Cups and I think the handicap has caught up with us on this occasion." Marshall claimed victory saying, "A massive thank you to the people of South Australia who have put their trust, their faith in me and the Liberal team for a new dawn, a new dawn for South Australia!" After the SA Best party failed to win a seat including Hartley, Nick Xenophon ruled out a return to federal politics.
Following the election outcome, Weatherill resigned as state Labor leader and returned to the backbench. Outgoing Minister for Health Peter Malinauskas became Leader of the Opposition, with outgoing Education Minister Susan Close as deputy, following a Labor caucus meeting on 9 April 2018. Notably, the Liberals won 16 of the 33 metropolitan seats, their best showing in the Adelaide area since their landslide victory in 1993, when they took all but nine seats in the capital. Labor had spent all but 12 of the 48 years since the end of the Playmander in government due to its traditional dominance of Adelaide. South Australia is Australia's most centralised state. To a greater extent than other state capitals, Adelaide is decisive in deciding state election outcomes. Since the end of the Playmander, most elections have seen Labor win most of the metropolitan seats, with most of the Liberal vote locked up in safe rural seats. In 2010, for instance, the Liberals won 51 percent of the two-party vote on a swing that should have been large enough to deliver them government.
However, they only won nine seats in Adelaide. In 2014, while picking up a two percent two-party swing, the Liberals were only able to win an additional three seats in Adelaide. Nick Xenophon announced a few SA Best lower house candidates. Polls had included Xenophon's party as one of the four parties they monitored explicitly since February 2016. SA Best planned to only contest 12 seats; this was increased to 20. On 27 January, a landmark was passed when Xenophon announced eight new candidates, making a total of 24; this was the minimum number to be theoretically capable of forming majority government in the 47-seat house. On 1 February, Xenophon said it was the total number of SA Best lower house candidates would be around 30. After early opinion polls indicated that it could outperform other parties, the party contested 36 seats in the House of Assembly and put forward four candidates for the upper house. Opinion polling indicated; the party failed to secure any lower house seats, although there was a close contest in the seat of Heysen.
Xenophon lost the seat of Hartley, with un-finalised results indicating a two-party preferred vote of around 42%. The party came second on primary votes in ten seats. SA Best did, secure two upper house positions, with the successful election of Connie
Hackham, South Australia
Hackham is an outer metropolitan suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It lies within the City of Onkaparinga; the Coast to Vines rail trail passes through the suburb. The post code within the Hackham suburb is "5163"; the township of Hackham was surveyed for Edward Castle on Section 25 Hundred of Noarlunga in 1856. Castle had arrived in South Australia in 1839 and it is thought named the new settlement after his former home in Gloucestershire. Another version of the naming of the place states that J. B. Hack, an early colonist, lent his name to it and yet another has it that James Kingdon, the first owner of the section prior to Castle, named it. One contemporary account stated that town of Hackham was ‘peculiarly adapted for its purpose, being in the centre of a large agricultural district; the land is sloping and dry in winter’. By 1866, Hackham was linked by a daily coach to Adelaide and it contained a post office, licensed school, a hotel, the Golden Pheasant; the town did not flourish however and during the 1880s dwindled to nothing more than gardens and wattle plantations.
One of those gardens, a plant nursery maintained by F. W. Hutchinson, became well known for its seed production; the Craig, Hutchinson, Humphris and Sparrow families were just some of those that pioneered the place. It was predominately a farming region, specialising in cereal production until the 1960s and 1970s when the encroachment of suburban subdivisions changed land use; the Coast to Vines rail trail passes through the suburb. Heading north the trail finishes at Marino and heading south the trail finishes at Willunga. Huntfield Heights Primary School C. P. C - 7 Primary School Hackham West R-7 School Home Child Care, Family Day Care Provider, Alexander Street, Hackham Mick O'Shea Hotel Holly reserve Forsyth reserve Hackham East Jnr & Pmy School ^ Hackham - European History and Heritage
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo