South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until
Lutheranism is a major branch of western Christianity that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation; the reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity. The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation; the divide centered on two points: the proper source of authority in the church called the formal principle of the Reformation, the doctrine of justification called the material principle of Lutheran theology.
Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith. This is in contrast to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. Unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, divine grace, the purpose of God's Law, the concept of perseverance of the saints, predestination; the name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Roman Catholics followed the traditional practice of naming a heresy after its leader, thus labeling all who identified with the theology of Martin Luther as Lutherans.
Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, derived from εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "Gospel". The followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition used that term. To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed; as time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped. Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Anabaptists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church. Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway and the monarch of Sweden adopted Lutheranism.
Through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen. Under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark–Norway remained Catholic. Although Frederick pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, the most significant being Hans Tausen. During Frederick's reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark. At an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted. Frederick's son Christian was Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. However, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark–Norway; the constitution upon which the Danish Norwegian Church, according to the Church Ordinance, should rest was "The pure word of God, the Law and the Gospel". It does not mention the Augsburg Confession; the priests had to understand the Holy Scripture well enough to preach and explain the Gospel and the Epistles for their congregations.
The youths were taught from Luther's Small Catechism, available in Danish since 1532. They were taught to expect at the end of life: "forgiving of their sins", "to be counted as just", "the eternal life". Instruction is still similar; the first complete Bible in Danish was based on Martin Luther's translation into German. It was published with 3,000 copies printed in the first edition. Unlike Catholicism, the Lutheran Church does not believe that tradition is a carrier of the "Word of God", or that only the communion of the Bishop of Rome has been entrusted to interpret the "Word of God"; the Reformation in Sweden began with Olaus and Laurentius Petri, brothers who took the Reformation to Sweden after studying in Germany. They led elected king in 1523, to Lutheranism; the pope's refusal to allow the replacement of an archbishop who had supported the invading forces opposing Gustav Vasa during the Stockholm Bloodbath led to the severing of any official connection between Sweden and the papacy in 1523.
Four years at the Diet of Västerås, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was given possession of all church properties, as well as the church appointments and approval of the clergy. While this granted official sanction to Lutheran ideas, Lutheranism did not become official until 1593. At that time the Uppsa
Electoral district of Heysen
Heysen is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. It is named after a prominent South Australian landscape artist, it is a 1,074 km² electoral district that takes in some of the outer southern suburbs of Adelaide before fanning south-east to include most of the Adelaide Hills, as well as farming areas some distance from the capital. It includes the localities of Aldgate, Belvidere, Biggs Flat, Blackfellows Creek, Blewitt Springs, Bridgewater, Bugle Ranges, Bull Creek, Chapel Hill, Crafers, Dorset Vale, Flaxley, Green Hills Range, Highland Valley, Hope Forest, Jupiter Creek, Kuitpo, Kuitpo Colony, Longwood, Macclesfield, McHarg Creek, Montarra, Mount Magnificent, Paris Creek, Prospect Hill, Red Creek, Sandergrove, Scott Creek, Strathalbyn, The Range, Willunga Hill, Wistow, Yundi. Although geographically it is a hybrid urban-rural seat, it is counted as a metropolitan seat; as Heysen combines both wealthier suburbs in the foothills of the Adelaide Hills and rural areas further east, it has been a stronghold for the Liberal Party and its predecessor, the Liberal and Country League since its creation in the electoral redistribution of 1969 as a replacement for Stirling.
It was first contested at the 1970 election. It was abolished at the 1977 election, forcing then-member David Wotton to move to the seat of Murray. However, Wotton returned to Heysen, he subsequently held the seat until his retirement in 2002, when he was replaced by former opposition leader Isobel Redmond. Redmond was replaced by Josh Teague; the 1997 election saw the Democrats receive 47.9 percent of the two-candidate preferred vote, the closest they had come to a seat any Australian lower house. The 2002 election saw; the 2006 election saw their vote collapse with Labor being brought back into the two-candidate race. Out of 47 lower house seats, the SA Greens have polled strongest in Heysen. Greens candidate Lynton Vonow came within a few percent of winning the overlapping federal seat of Mayo at the 2008 by-election. Vonow contested Heysen for the Greens at the 2014 election and overtook the Labor candidate coming second after preferences with a 39 percent two-candidate preferred vote from a 19.7 percent primary vote.
The Greens polled well in neighbouring seats such as Kavel and Davenport with primary votes over 15 percent. The 2018 election saw Nick Xenophon's SA-BEST receive 48.2 percent of the two-candidate preferred vote in Heysen, the closest they came to winning a lower house seat. ECSA profile for Heysen: 2018 ABC profile for Heysen: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Heysen: 2018
Animal Justice Party
Animal Justice Party is a political party in Australia founded in 2009. The party was registered under the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 by the Australian Electoral Commission on 3 May 2011, making the party eligible for federal funding, should the party achieve the funding threshold of 4%; the party is registered in New South Wales, South Australia, Western Australia, the Australian Capital Territory. The AJP is the first political party in Australia formed to advance animal welfare issues; the preamble of the AJP charter says the party "has been formed as a response to growing public concern about the neglect of animals and animal protection issues by political parties" and states its mission is "to promote and protect the interests and capabilities of animals by providing a dedicated voice for them in Australia's political system". The party aims to give animals constitutional protection based on their sentience, as opposed to their instrumental value; the sole purpose of the AJP is to provide a focal point for people who feel there is a lack of action taken by political figures that concerns the wellbeing of animals.
The AJP opposes the export of any live animals for profit slaughter. They want an international ban of all live animal hauling throughout the world. "We demand an end to the export of live animals from Australia at the earliest possible time, taking into consideration any domestic welfare issues exceeding those faced overseas, that the animals earmarked for live export would suffer in the event of a ban" says Steve Garlick, previous president of AJP. The group realises that their government will not put a ban on the live animal export because it brings in so much money for the country though countless instances of cruelty have been blatantly proven; the exported animals go to countries that have no animal welfare laws or protection codes that ensure their protection and well being. In 2011, following the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's television footage showing abuse and the slaughter of cattle from the Northern Territory in conditions that would not have been permitted in Australia, as well as the consequential nationwide protests by supporters of animal welfare, AJP, along with Animals Australia, the Australasian Meat Industry Employees Union, The Greens and a range of other NGOs sought a ban on live animal exports.
Steve Garlick, president of AJP, said that rural Australia has been adversely affected by the export of live animals and argued that the export ban would result in economic and social benefit in the country. At the 2013 federal election, the party was a member of Glenn Druery's Minor Party Alliance but failed to win a seat; the AJP recorded a 0.70% national Senate vote. It was criticised for preferencing the Liberal Party ahead of the Greens in the Senate for the ACT, they did this because the Greens had supported the culling of kangaroos in the ACT. This preferencing decision had no impact on the result. At the 2016 federal election, Lynda Stoner, the Chief Executive of Animal Liberation and a former television actress, was the party's candidate for the Senate in New South Wales, she was one of 55 AJP candidates across both houses in the election. The AJP recorded a 1.15% national Senate vote, an increase of 0.46%. At the 2015 New South Wales election, Mark Pearson gained 1.8% of the primary vote, winning a seat in the New South Wales Legislative Council on Druery's preference deals, giving the party its first parliamentary representation.
The party kept its seat at the 2019 New South Wales election, increasing its primary vote to 1.95% of the state total. The AJP won its first seat in the Victorian Legislative Council at the 2018 Victorian election, using preference deals arranged by Druery. List of animal advocacy parties List of political parties in Australia Official website Animal Justice Party
The Australian Conservatives is an Australian political party formed and led by Cory Bernardi as a breakaway from the Liberal Party of Australia. The party had been established as a conservative political activist group in July 2016, as response to the results of the 2016 federal election, it was formed as a political party after Bernardi's resignation from the Liberals, following disagreements with the Liberal/National Coalition, its policies and leadership under Malcolm Turnbull. The Family First Party and their two state incumbents Dennis Hood and Robert Brokenshire joined and merged with the Australian Conservatives in April 2017. Brokenshire was not re-elected at the 2018 state election; the Australian Conservatives were established by Senator Bernardi as a conservative political activist group on 6 July 2016. The group was announced by Bernardi on his personal blog as a conservative "movement" to "help change politics and to give common sense a united voice". Bernardi cited the results of the 2016 federal election as a motivator for the group's establishment, stating that "over 1.7m votes were cast for right-of-centre or conservative parties rather than the Liberals", that "the clear mission now is to bring people together for the good of the country."
Despite contemporary media speculation when he created the group, following numerous public expressions of disappointment towards the Liberals, its policies, leader Malcolm Turnbull, he stated that its establishment did not signal any breakaway from the Liberals, of which he was a senator, that its intent was to "make the Liberals stronger". Within a month, the group's online newsletter reached over 50,000 subscribers. Queensland Liberal National Party of Queensland MP George Christensen was one of the first Coalition members of Parliament to support Bernardi and the Australian Conservatives, following his shared dissatisfaction with the election results. Despite this, Bernardi hinted otherwise in the months following going against Coalition policy and criticising the government, in particular over the Racial Discrimination Act debate 18C. In late December 2016, Bernardi held controversial meetings with members of the United States presidential campaign of Donald Trump in preparation for forming a breakaway party after continued dissatisfaction with the party and its policies, While he refrained from commenting on renewed speculation that he would split, he was met with negative reception from fellow party colleagues, including former Prime Minister and Liberal leader Tony Abbott.
On 7 February 2017, Bernardi announced his resignation from the Liberals through a speech in the Senate, opting to advance the Australian Conservatives as a political party, sit on the Senate crossbench as its leader. In his speech, Bernardi claimed that "the level of public disenchantment with the major parties, the lack of confidence in our political process and the concern about the direction of our nation is very strong," and rationalised the creation of the Conservatives as a political party with the "need to find a better way". Bernardi cited the resurgence and rise of conservative parties such as Pauline Hanson's One Nation as proof of such. Although dissatisfaction with the leadership of the Coalition was still shared by many in Parliament, numerous members have since denied any intention to join the Australian Conservatives, with most of them criticising Bernardi — some described his move as a "betrayal". Tony Pasin, in particular, described Bernardi's move as unsurprising, "given the way that conservatives from South Australia are treated by the leadership of the Liberals".
On 7 April 2017, Kirralie Smith — a former candidate for the Australian Liberty Alliance and a member of the Q Society of Australia and Senate candidate for New South Wales in 2016—joined the party. The Australian Liberty Alliance discussed the prospect of merging with the Australian Conservatives, but declined the offer. Australian Conservatives was registered as a political party with the Australian Electoral Commission on 12 April 2017; that month, the party formed a Senate voting bloc with the Liberal Democratic Party Senator David Leyonhjelm. The party issued a policy release in April, 2017 urging party members to petition major chocolate companies to oppose Easter Eggs being renamed Holiday Eggs; the release caused confusion on the grounds that there was no evidence any major chocolate company had done that in Australia, or that anyone had asked them to. In May 2017, Bernardi met the national and Victorian state leadership of the Australian Christians to discuss a merger between the two parties.
On 26 June 2017 it was revealed that Victorian MLC Rachel Carling-Jenkins was leaving the Democratic Labour Party to join the Australian Conservatives. The Democratic Labour Party declined an offer to merge with the Australian Conservatives. On 11 August 2017, former federal Liberal MP Dennis Jensen announced that he was defecting to the Australian Conservatives, urged Liberal Party members in Western Australia to join him. In September 2017, the Victoria state leadership of the Australian Christians merged between the two parties. In February 2018, Lyle Shelton resigned from his lobbying position at Australian Christian Lobby to enter party politics, joining the Australian Conservatives as federal communications director, it has been speculated. That month, former One Nation Senator Fraser Anning joined the party's voting bloc in the Senate, but remained an independent Senator. On 25 April 2017, it was announced that the Family First Party would merge with the Australian Conservatives, with its two members of the
Thomas Playford IV
Sir Thomas Playford was an Australian politician from the state of South Australia. He served continuously as Premier of South Australia and leader of the Liberal and Country League from 5 November 1938 to 10 March 1965. Though controversial, it was the longest term of any elected government leader in the history of Australia, his tenure as premier was marked by a period of population and economic growth unmatched by any other Australian state. He was known for his parochial style in pushing South Australia's interests, was known for his ability to secure a disproportionate share of federal funding for the state as well as his shameless haranguing of federal leaders, his string of election wins was enabled by a system of a malapportionment gerrymander that bore his name, the'Playmander' − which saw the Labor Party win clear majorities of the statewide two-party vote whilst failing to form government in 1944, 1953, 1962 and 1968. Born into an old political family, Playford was the fifth Thomas Playford and the fourth to have lived in South Australia.
He grew up on the family farm in Norton Summit before enlisting in the Australian Imperial Force in World War I, fighting in Gallipoli and Western Europe. After serving, he continued farming until his election as a Liberal and Country League representative for Murray at the 1933 state election. In his early years in politics, Playford was an outspoken backbencher who lambasted LCL colleagues and ministers and their policies, had a maverick strategy defying party norms and advocating unadulterated laissez faire economics and opposing protectionism and government investment, in stark contrast to his actions as premier. With the resignation of the LCL's leader, Richard Layton Butler, Playford ascended to the premiership in 1938, having been made a minister just months earlier in an attempt to dampen his insubordination. Playford inherited a minority government and many independents to deal with, instability was expected. However, Playford dealt with the independents adroitly and went on to secure a one-seat majority at the next election.
In office, Playford turned his back on laissez faire economics and used his negotiating skills to encourage industry to relocate to South Australia during World War II, as the state was far from the battlefield. He built upon this in the post-war boom years, particular in automotive manufacturing. Playford had more dissent from within his own party than the opposition centre-left Labor Party; the Labor leader Mick O'Halloran worked cooperatively with Playford and was known to be happy being out of power, quipping that Playford could better serve his left-wing constituents. Playford's policies allowed for the supply of cheap electricity to factories, minimal business taxes, low wages to make the state more attractive to industrial investment. Playford kept salaries low by using the South Australian Housing Trust to building vast amounts of public housing and using government price controls to keep housing and other costs of living low to attract workers and migrants, angering the landlord class.
Implemented in the 1940s, these policies were seen as dangerous to Playford's control of his party, but they proved successful and he cemented his position within the LCL. During the 1950s, Playford and the LCL's share of the vote declined continually despite the economic growth, they clung to power due to the Playmander. Playford became less assured in parliament as Labor became more aggressive, their leading debater Don Dunstan combatively disrupting the collaborative style of politics, targeting the injustice of the Playmander in particular. Playford's successful economic policies had fuelled a rapid expansion of the middle class, which wanted more government attention to education, public healthcare, the arts, the environment and heritage protection. However, Playford was an unrelenting utilitarian, was unmoved by calls to broaden policy focus beyond economic development; this was exacerbated by Playford and his party's failure to adapt to changing social mores, remaining adamantly committed to restrictive laws on alcohol and police powers.
A turning point in Playford's tenure was the Max Stuart case in the 1950s, when Playford came under heavy scrutiny for his hesitation to grant clemency to a murderer on death row amid claims of judicial wrongdoing. Although Playford commuted the sentence under heavy criticism of the judicial review process, the controversy was seen as responsible for his government losing its assurance, he lost office in the 1965 election, he relinquished the party leadership to Steele Hall and retired at the next election, serving on various South Australian company boards until his death in 1981. The Playford family heritage can be traced back to 1759, when a baby boy was left at the door of a house in Barnby Dun, England, with a note to christen the child'Thomas Playford'; the occupants of the house, who were to raise the child, were given instructions to receive money from a bank account for the deed. The child grew up to be a simple farmer in the village, had a son in 1795 whom he christened'Thomas Playford'.
The tradition of naming the firstborn son in the family in this way has continued since. The second Playfor
Electoral district of Bragg
Bragg is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. The seat is named after the eminent physicists Bragg -- his son, William Lawrence; the electorate is suburban and encompasses a significant portion of the City of Burnside, stretching from the east parklands of Adelaide into the Adelaide Hills. After the redistribution following the 2006 election, the boundary moved eastwards to include suburbs, in the electorate of Heysen and now borders Kavel. Bragg includes the metropolitan suburbs of Auldana, Beulah Park, Cleland, Greenhill, Hazelwood Park, Horsnell Gully, Kensington Park, Kensington Gardens, Leawood Gardens, Linden Park, Mount Osmond, Rosslyn Park, Skye, St Georges, Toorak Gardens, Waterfall Gully, Wattle Park and part of Glen Osmond; the electorate was first contested at the 1970 election as a replacement for the abolished, larger electorate of Burnside, one of fifteen new electorates created in Adelaide to give the metropolitan area fairer representation.
It has been held by the Liberals and their predecessors, the Liberal and Country League for its entire existence, for most of that time has been the safest Liberal seat in the metropolitan area. The Liberals have never won less than 60 percent of the two-party preferred vote, have always won an outright majority on first preference votes alone; as a measure of the strong Liberal support in this seat, the Liberals retained it in the Labor landslides of 1977, 1985 and 2006, each time winning outright majorities on the first count. For example, in 2006 the Liberals suffered a swing of 6.8 percent in Bragg, but still comfortably retained it with a majority of 12.6 percent–the only safe metropolitan Liberal seat and one of only four safe Liberal seats statewide. The seat has been held by only three members in its present incarnation, all of whom have gone on to serve in cabinet. Bragg's best-known member was its first, David Tonkin, who served as Premier of South Australia from 1979 to 1982, he resigned shortly.
At the ensuing 1983 Bragg by-election fellow Liberal Graham Ingerson retained the seat without serious difficulty. Ingerson went on to become a minister under Dean Brown and John Olsen and served as Deputy Premier under Olsen from 1996 to 1998. Ingerson retired in 2002 and was succeeded by incumbent Vickie Chapman, two time Liberal leadership challenger and two time Liberal deputy leader from 2006 until 2009 and again since 2013. In 2018 Chapman became Deputy Premier. ECSA profile for Bragg: 2018 ABC profile for Bragg: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Bragg: 2018