Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate, in order to make a collective decision or express an opinion following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracies elect holders of high office by voting. Residents of a place represented by an elected official are called "constituents", those constituents who cast a ballot for their chosen candidate are called "voters". There are different systems for collecting votes. In a democracy, a government is chosen by voting in an election: a way for an electorate to elect, i.e. choose, among several candidates for rule. In a representative democracy voting is the method by the which the electorate appoints its representatives in its government. In a direct democracy, voting is the method by which the electorate directly make decisions, turn bills into laws, etc. A vote is a formal expression of an individual's choice against some motion. Many countries use a secret ballot, a practice to prevent voters from being intimidated and to protect their political privacy.
Voting takes place at a polling station. Different voting systems use different types of votes. Plurality voting does not require the winner to achieve a vote majority, or more than fifty percent of the total votes cast. In a voting system that uses a single vote per race, when more than two candidates run, the winner may have less than fifty percent of the vote. A side effect of a single vote per race is vote splitting, which tends to elect candidates that do not support centrism, tends to produce a two-party system. An alternative to a single-vote system is approval voting. To understand why a single vote per race tends to favor less centric candidates, consider a simple lab experiment where students in a class vote for their favorite marble. If five marbles are assigned names and are placed "up for election", if three of them are green, one is red, one is blue a green marble will win the election; the reason is. In fact, in this analogy, the only way that a green marble is to win is if more than sixty percent of the voters prefer green.
If the same percentage of people prefer green as those who prefer red and blue, to say if 33 percent of the voters prefer green, 33 percent prefer blue, 33 percent prefer red each green marble will only get eleven percent of the vote, while the red and blue marbles will each get 33 percent, putting the green marbles at a serious disadvantage. If the experiment is repeated with other colors, the color, in the majority will still win. In other words, from a purely mathematical perspective, a single-vote system tends to favor a winner, different from the majority. If the experiment is repeated using approval voting, where voters are encouraged to vote for as many candidates as they approve of the winner is much more to be any one of the five marbles, because people who prefer green will be able to vote for every one of the green marbles. A development on the'single vote' system is to have two-round elections, or repeat first-past-the-post; this system is most common around the world. In most cases, the winner must receive a majority, more than half.
And if no candidate obtains a majority at the first round the two candidates with the largest plurality are selected for the second round. Variants exist on these two points: the requirement for being elected at the first round is sometimes less than 50%, the rules for participation in the runoff may vary. An alternative to the Two-round voting system is the single round instant-runoff voting system as used in some elections in Australia and the USA. Voters rank each candidate in order of preference. Votes are distributed to each candidate according to the preferences allocated. If no single candidate has 50% of the vote the candidate with the fewest votes is excluded and their votes redistributed according to the voters nominated order of preference; the process repeating itself until a candidate has 50% or more votes. The system is designed to produce the same result as an exhaustive ballot but using only a single round of voting. In a voting system that uses a multiple vote, the voter can vote for any subset of the alternatives.
So, a voter might vote for Alice and Charlie, rejecting Daniel and Emily. Approval voting uses such multiple votes. In a voting system that uses a ranked vote, the voter has to rank the alternatives in order of preference. For example, they might vote for Bob in first place Emily Alice Daniel, Charlie. Ranked voting systems, such as those famously used in Australia, use a ranked vote. In a voting system that uses a scored vote, the voter gives each alternative a number between one and ten. See cardinal voting systems; some "multiple-winner" systems may have a single vote or one vote per elector per available position. In such a case the elector could vote for Charlie on a ballot with two votes; these types of systems can use ranked or unranked voting, are used for at-large positions such as on some city councils. Most of the time, when the citizens of a country are invited to vote, it is for an election. However, people can vote in referendums and initiatives. Since the end of the eighteenth century, more than five hundred national referendums were organised in the world.
Elizabeth, South Australia
Elizabeth is an outer northern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the City of Playford, it was the seat of the former local government body, the City of Elizabeth, which included Elizabeth as well as the adjacent suburbs on all sides except the west. Although the City of Elizabeth no longer exists, having been amalgamated into the much larger City of Playford in 1997, the term'Elizabeth', in the context of Adelaide refers to the historic municipality and the distinct community therein. Before the 1950s, most of the area surrounding today's suburb of Elizabeth was farming land. After the end of the Second World War with its shortage of materials, the state government decided that South Australia needed to grow and become industrialised. A satellite city was planned for northern metropolitan fringe of Adelaide between the existing townships of Salisbury and Smithfield; the South Australian Housing Trust initiated a housing development program in the area, with a purchase of 1,200 hectares at the site of the present suburb.
The township of Elizabeth was established on 16 November 1955, being named after Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. In 1964, a new local government body, the municipality of Elizabeth called City of Elizabeth, was created by severance from the District Council of Salisbury; this allowed the local government to focused explicitly on the newly-developed land and distinct local growing community centred at Elizabeth. Elizabeth is the seat of the Playford local government area and thus acts as a central business district for the surrounding suburbs, it lies between Main North Road. DSTO Edinburgh is located to the west of Elizabeth. In the 2016 Census, there were 1,024 people in Elizabeth. 65.2% of people were born in Australia and 76.3% of people spoke only English at home. The most common response for religion was No Religion at 37.8%. As at the 2006 census, the population encompassing postcodes 5112, 5113 and 5114, was about 60,000; the majority of residents were Australian born, with 13.2% born in England.
The age distribution of Elizabeth residents was similar to that of the greater Australian population. 67.5% of residents were aged 25 or over in 2006, compared to the Australian average of 66.5%. The local newspaper is the News Review Messenger. Other regional and national newspapers such as The Advertiser and The Australian are available; the Bunyip Newspaper covers the Elizabeth area in its Playford Times section. Playford International College is on Philip Highway. Kaurna Plains School is on Ridley Road. Elizabeth is the home of the Central District Bulldogs, an Australian rules football team in the South Australian National Football League; the team has won nine SANFL premierships, all in the period from 2000 to 2010. They play all of their home games at Elizabeth Oval. Elizabeth has an association football club, the Playford City Patriots, who play in the South Australian State League. However, their home stadium is Ramsay Park in Edinburgh North, westerly adjacent to Elizabeth; the City of Playford civic centre houses the council chambers, the Elizabeth branch of the Playford Library and the Shedley Theatre.
Westerly adjacent to the civic centre is the Elizabeth Shopping Centre at the heart of the suburb. Known as Elizabeth Town Centre, it has been progressively expanded since the 1960s. In its early days it featured open air malls, but today it comprises a single storey undercover mall. A major renovation and extension was completed in 2004. Dauntsey Reserve is located between Woodford Road. Ridley Reserve is located on the suburb's southern boundary. There are other reserves in the suburb. Elizabeth is serviced by Main North Road, connecting the suburb to Adelaide city centre, by Philip Highway. Elizabeth is serviced by public transport run by the Adelaide Metro; the Gawler railway line passes beside the suburb. The closest station is Elizabeth. Elizabeth is serviced by buses run by the Adelaide Metro. List of Adelaide suburbs "City of Playford". Official website. City of Playford. Retrieved 20 April 2011
Electoral district of Elizabeth (South Australia)
Elizabeth is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. It first existed from 1970 to 2006, when its boundaries were moved south and it was renamed to Little Para; the 2016 redistribution moved it further north and renamed it back to Elizabeth for the 2018 election. The district is in the northern suburbs of Adelaide, named for the suburb of Elizabeth; the 2016 redistribution which took effect with the 2018 state election renamed Little Para back to Elizabeth, moved the boundaries further north. It consists of the suburbs of Blakeview, Elizabeth, Elizabeth Downs, Elizabeth East, Elizabeth Grove, Elizabeth Park, Elizabeth South, Elizabeth Vale; the district of Elizabeth was first created in 1970 and abolished in 2006. Though Elizabeth was a safe Labor seat, it was held for a time by independent-turned-Labor MP Martyn Evans. Elizabeth was renamed Little Para. Elizabeth state by-election, 1994 Elizabeth state by-election, 1984 ECSA profile for Elizabeth: 2018 ABC profile for Elizabeth: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Elizabeth: 2018 1985 & 1989 election boundaries, page 18 & 19
Electoral district of Bright
Bright is a former electorate for the South Australian House of Assembly. It was named in honour of Charles Bright, at various times South Australian Supreme Court Judge, Flinders University Chancellor, Health Commission chairman, Electoral Boundaries Commission chairman. Prior to its 2018 abolition, the seat covered southern coastal suburbs of Adelaide including Brighton, North Brighton, South Brighton, Hallett Cove, Kingston Park, Seacliff, Seacliff Park, part of Somerton Park; the electorate was created at the 1983 redistribution, to replace the abolished seat of Brighton, as a marginal Liberal seat with a notional one percent two-party margin. However, it was won by the Labor's Derek Robertson at the 1985 election, before being won by Liberal Wayne Matthew at the 1989 election, he held the seat until his retirement at the 2006 election. Liberal shadow minister Angus Redford left the South Australian Legislative Council to contest the seat but was defeated by Labor's Chloë Fox from a 14.4 percent swing, the largest in the state, amidst a statewide landslide averaging a 7.7 percent swing.
After the enactment of the "fairness clause," Bright's boundaries were altered by the Electoral Commission of South Australia in order to produce "fairer" electoral boundaries. A shift of a few kilometres along O'Halloran Hill altered the seat's political landscape. Moving the seat to the south shifted the margin in favour of Labor, while moving it to the north benefited the Liberals; as evidence of this, the redistribution ahead of the 2010 election pared Fox's margin from a safe 9.2 percent to a safe 6.6 percent. At that election, the Liberals picked up a 6.2 percent swing, just short of picking up the seat, with Labor retaining the seat on a 0.4 percent margin, making Bright Labor's most marginal seat following the 2010 election. Liberal David Speirs won the seat from a 3.7 percent swing at the 2014 election. Speirs decided to contest the electoral district of Black at the 2018 state election. ABC profile for Bright: 2014 ECSA profile for Bright: 2014 Poll Bludger profile for Bright: 2014
Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election. Eligibility varies by country, the voting-eligible population should not be confused with the total adult population. Age and citizenship status are among the criteria used to determine eligibility, but some countries further restrict eligibility based on sex, race, or religion. After increasing for many decades, there has been a trend of decreasing voter turnout in most established democracies since the 1980s. In general, low turnout is attributed to indifference, or a sense of futility. According to Stanford University political scientists Adam Bonica and Michael McFaul, there is a consensus among political scientists that "democracies perform better when more people vote."Low turnout is considered to be undesirable. As a result, there have been many efforts to increase voter turnout and encourage participation in the political process. In spite of significant study into the issue, scholars are divided on the reasons for the decline.
Its cause has been attributed to a wide array of economic, cultural and institutional factors. Different countries have different voter turnout rates. For example, turnout in the United States 2012 presidential election was about 55%. In both Belgium, which has obligatory attendance, Malta, which does not, participation reaches about 95%. In Belgium there is obligatory attendance, misinterpreted as compulsory voting The chance of any one vote determining the outcome is low; some studies show that a single vote in a voting scheme such as the Electoral College in the United States has an lower chance of determining the outcome. Other studies claim that the Electoral College increases voting power. Studies using game theory, which takes into account the ability of voters to interact, have found that the expected turnout for any large election should be zero; the basic formula for determining whether someone will vote, on the questionable assumption that people act rationally, is P B + D > C, where P is the probability that an individual's vote will affect the outcome of an election, B is the perceived benefit that would be received if that person's favored political party or candidate were elected, D stood for democracy or civic duty, but today represents any social or personal gratification an individual gets from voting, C is the time and financial cost involved in voting.
Since P is zero in most elections, PB is near zero, D is thus the most important element in motivating people to vote. For a person to vote, these factors must outweigh C. Experimental political science has found that when P is greater than zero, this term has no effect on voter turnout. Enos and Fowler conducted a field experiment that exploits the rare opportunity of a tied election for major political office. Informing citizens that the special election to break the tie will be close has little mobilizing effect on voter turnout. Riker and Ordeshook developed the modern understanding of D, they listed five major forms of gratification that people receive for voting: complying with the social obligation to vote. Other political scientists have since added other motivators and questioned some of Riker and Ordeshook's assumptions. All of these concepts are inherently imprecise, making it difficult to discover why people choose to vote. Several scholars have considered the possibility that B includes not only a personal interest in the outcome, but a concern for the welfare of others in the society.
In particular, experiments in which subject altruism was measured using a dictator game showed that concern for the well-being of others is a major factor in predicting turnout and political participation. Note that this motivation is distinct from D, because voters must think others benefit from the outcome of the election, not their act of voting in and of itself. There are philosophical and practical reasons that some people cite for not voting in electoral politics. Robert LeFevre, Francis Tandy, John Pugsley, Frank Chodorov, George H. Smith, Carl Watner, Wendy McElroy, Lysander Spooner are some moderately well-known authors who have written about these reasons. High voter turnout is considered to be desirable, though among political scientists and economists specializing in public choice, the issue is still debated. A high turnout is seen as evidence of the legitimacy of the current system. Dictators have fabricated high turnouts in showcase elections for this purpose. For instance, Saddam Hussein's 2002 plebiscite was claimed to have had 100% participation.
Opposition parties sometimes boycott votes they feel are unfair or illegitimate, or if the election is for a government, considered illegitimate. For example, the Holy See instructed Italian Catholics to boycott national elections for several decades after the creation of the state of Italy. In some countries, there are threats of violence against those who vote, such as during the 2005 Iraq elections, an example of voter suppression. However, some political scientists question the view that high turnout is an implicit endorsement of the system. Mark
The Adelaide Plains is a plain in South Australia lying between the coast on the west and the Mount Lofty Ranges on the east. The southernmost tip of the plain is in the southern seaside suburbs of Adelaide around Brighton at the foot of the O'Halloran Hill escarpment with the south Hummocks Range and Wakefield River approximating the northern boundary. Traditionally occupied by the Kaurna people, the Adelaide Plains are crossed by a number of rivers and creeks, but several dry up during summer; the rivers include: the Onkaparinga River, River Torrens, Dry Creek, Little Para River, Gawler River, Light River and Wakefield River. The plains are fertile with annual rainfall of about 460 mm per year; the plain can be divided into three parts. The southern area is now covered by the city of the capital of South Australia; the central area is considered the breadbasket of South Australia with many market gardens and wineries around the towns of Virginia and Angle Vale. The northern area is predominantly used for growing cereal grains such as wheat and canola, farming sheep.
Adelaide Plains Football League Adelaide Plains wine region Adelaide and Adelaide Plains Wine Region official tourism page Wine Diva - Adelaide Plains
South Australian House of Assembly
The House of Assembly, or lower house, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of South Australia. The other is the Legislative Council, it sits in Parliament House in Adelaide. The House of Assembly was created in 1857; the development of an elected legislature — although only men could vote — marked a significant change from the prior system, where legislative power was in the hands of the Governor and the Legislative Council, appointed by the Governor. In 1895, the House of Assembly granted women the right to vote and stand for election to the legislature. South Australia was the second place in the world to do so after New Zealand in 1893, the first to allow women to stand for election. From 1857 to 1933, the House of Assembly was elected from multi-member districts known as "seats," with each district returning between one and six members; the size of the Assembly varied during this time—36 members from 1857 to 1875, 46 members from 1875 to 1884, 52 members from 1884 to 1890, 54 members from 1890 to 1902, 42 members from 1902 to 1912, 40 members from 1912 to 1915, 46 members from 1915 to 1938.
In 1938, the Assembly was reduced to 39 members, elected from single-member districts. The House of Assembly has had 47 members since the 1970 election, elected from single-member districts: 34 in the Adelaide metropolitan area and 13 in rural areas; these seats are intended to represent the same population in each electorate. Voting is by preferential voting with complete preference allocation, as with the equivalent federal chamber, the Australian House of Representatives. All members face re-election every four years; the most recent election was held on 17 March 2018. Most legislation is initiated in the House of Assembly; the party or coalition with a majority of seats in the lower house is invited by the Governor to form government. The leader of that party becomes Premier of South Australia, their senior colleagues become ministers responsible for various portfolios; as Australian MPs always vote along party lines all legislation introduced by the governing party will pass through the House of Assembly.
As with the federal parliament and Australian other states and territories, voting in the Assembly is compulsory for all those over the age of 18. Voting in the House of Assembly had been voluntary, but this was changed in 1942. While South Australia's total population is 1.7 million, 1.3 million of them live in Adelaide. Uniquely, over 75% of the state's population resides in the metropolitan area, making South Australia the most centralised state in the nation; as a result, Adelaide accounts for 72% of the seats in the chamber. The dominance of Adelaide, combined with a lack of comparatively-sized rural population centres, results in the metropolitan area deciding election outcomes. At the 2014 election for example, although the state-wide two-party vote was 47.0% Labor v 53.0% Liberal, the metropolitan area recorded a 2PP of 51.5% Labor v 48.5% Liberal. 24 votes as a majority are required to pass legislation. South Australian state election, 2018 List of elections in South Australia List of South Australian state by-elections Members of the South Australian House of Assembly Parliaments of the Australian states and territories South Australian Electoral Districts House of Assembly Homepage General Hansard Information