Electoral district of Kaurna
Kaurna is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. Named after the Kaurna aboriginal tribe which inhabited the Adelaide plains, it is a 44.7 km² semi-urban electorate on Adelaide's far-southern beaches, taking in the suburbs of Hackham, Huntfield Heights, Maslin Beach, Noarlunga Downs, Old Noarlunga, Port Noarlunga South, Seaford Heights, Seaford Meadows and Seaford Rise, as well as part of Onkaparinga Hills. It is one of only two state districts named after South Australia's indigenous people. Replacing the abolished Electoral district of Baudin, Kaurna was created in the 1991 electoral distribution as a marginal Labor seat, it was first contested at the 1993 election, where it was won by Liberal candidate Lorraine Rosenberg as part of a large swing throughout the state. However, she was swept away with John Hill reclaiming the seat for Labor, he resigned from parliament at the 2014 election, replaced by Labor's Chris Picton. ECSA profile for Kaurna: 2018 ABC profile for Kaurna: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Kaurna: 2018
Kangaroo Island is Australia's third-largest island, after Tasmania and Melville Island. It lies in the state of South Australia 112 km southwest of Adelaide, its closest point to the mainland is Snapper Point in Backstairs Passage, 13.5 km from the Fleurieu Peninsula. Once occupied by Aboriginal Australians, the native population disappeared from the archaeological record when the land became an island following rising sea levels several thousand years ago, it was subsequently settled intermittently by sealers and whalers in the early 19th century, from 1836 on a permanent basis during the establishment of the colony of South Australia. Since the island's economy has been principally agricultural, with a southern rock lobster fishery and with tourism growing in importance; the largest town, the administrative centre, is Kingscote. The island has several nature reserves to protect the remnants of its natural vegetation and native animals, with the largest and best-known being Flinders Chase National Park at the western end.
The island is 145 kilometres long West/East and between 0.94 and 54 km from its narrowest to widest North/South points. Its area covers 4,405 km2, its coastline is 540 km long and highest point is Mount MacDonnell at 299 m above sea level. It is separated from Yorke Peninsula to the northwest by Investigator Strait and from Fleurieu Peninsula to the northeast by Backstairs Passage. A group of islets, the Pages, lie off the eastern end of the island. Kangaroo Island separated from mainland Australia around 10,000 years ago, due to rising sea level after the last glacial period. Known as Karta by the mainland Aboriginal tribes, the existence of stone tools and shell middens show that Aboriginal people once lived on Kangaroo Island, it is thought that they occupied it as long ago as 16,000 years before the present, may have only disappeared from the island as as 2000 years ago. A mainland Aboriginal dreaming story tells of the Backstairs Passage flooding: "Long ago, Ngurunderi's two wives ran away from him, he was forced to follow them.
He as he did so he crossed Lake Albert and went along the beach to Cape Jervis. When he arrived there he saw his wives wading half-way across the shallow channel which divided Naroongowie from the mainland, he was determined to punish his wives, angrily ordered the water to rise up and drown them. With a terrific rush the waters roared and the women were carried back towards the mainland. Although they tried frantically to swim against the tidal wave they were powerless to do so and were drowned." On 23 March 1802, British explorer Matthew Flinders, commanding HMS Investigator, named the land "Kanguroo Island", due to the endemic subspecies of the western grey kangaroo, Macropus fuliginosus fuliginosus, after landing near Kangaroo Head on the north coast of the Dudley Peninsula. He was followed by the French explorer Commander Nicolas Baudin, the first European to circumnavigate the Island and who mapped much of the island. Although the French and the British were at war at the time, the men met peacefully.
They both used the fresh water seeping at what is now known as Hog Bay near Frenchman's Rock and the site of present-day Penneshaw. Baudin named the Island Île Borda, in honour of Jean-Charles de Borda, although the French chart published by Louis de Freycinet after Baudin's death referred to the Island as Île Decres. A community of sealers and others existed on Kangaroo Island from 1802 to the time of South Australia's colonisation in 1836. A sealing gang led by Joseph Murrrell are reported landing at Harvey's Return in 1806–07 and they established a camp on the beach; the sealers were rough men and several kidnapped Aboriginal women from Tasmania and mainland South Australia. The women were kept prisoner as virtual slaves. At least two contemporary accounts report of reputed crossings of Backstairs Passage from Kangaroo Island to the mainland by kidnapped women seeking to escape from their captors.'A fine specimen of her race' was pointed out to J. W. Bull as having swum the passage in 1835, a woman and her baby were found dead on the beach after a presumed crossing in 1871.
In 1803 sealers from the American brig Union built the schooner Independence, the first ship constructed in South Australia, at what is now American River. In 1812 Richard Siddins reached Kangaroo Island with the ship Campbell Macquarie, engaged in salt harvesting on the island. Most ships of the "First Fleet of South Australia" that brought settlers for the new colony first stopped at Nepean Bay; the first was the Duke of York commanded by Captain Robert Clark Morgan on 27 or 28 July 1836. The arrival of the Africaine, under John Finlay Duff, in November that year, was notable for the deaths of E. W. Osborne and Dr. John Slater, who perished on an exploratory trek from Cape Borda to Kingscote. A number of shore-based bay whaling stations operated on the coast in the 1840s; these were located at D'Estrees Bay and Hog Bay. Numerous ships have been wrecked on the Kangaroo Island coastline, the largest being Portland Maru of 5,865 tons, which sank at Cape Torrens on 20 March 1935; the greatest loss of life occurred with the wreck of Loch Sloy on 24 April 1899 at Maupertuis Bay, when 31 people were drowned, one initial survivor subsequently perished.
Twenty-seven people drowned at West Bay in September 1905. The first lighthouse built was erected at Cape Willoughby in 1852.
South Australian House of Assembly
The House of Assembly, or lower house, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of South Australia. The other is the Legislative Council, it sits in Parliament House in Adelaide. The House of Assembly was created in 1857; the development of an elected legislature — although only men could vote — marked a significant change from the prior system, where legislative power was in the hands of the Governor and the Legislative Council, appointed by the Governor. In 1895, the House of Assembly granted women the right to vote and stand for election to the legislature. South Australia was the second place in the world to do so after New Zealand in 1893, the first to allow women to stand for election. From 1857 to 1933, the House of Assembly was elected from multi-member districts known as "seats," with each district returning between one and six members; the size of the Assembly varied during this time—36 members from 1857 to 1875, 46 members from 1875 to 1884, 52 members from 1884 to 1890, 54 members from 1890 to 1902, 42 members from 1902 to 1912, 40 members from 1912 to 1915, 46 members from 1915 to 1938.
In 1938, the Assembly was reduced to 39 members, elected from single-member districts. The House of Assembly has had 47 members since the 1970 election, elected from single-member districts: 34 in the Adelaide metropolitan area and 13 in rural areas; these seats are intended to represent the same population in each electorate. Voting is by preferential voting with complete preference allocation, as with the equivalent federal chamber, the Australian House of Representatives. All members face re-election every four years; the most recent election was held on 17 March 2018. Most legislation is initiated in the House of Assembly; the party or coalition with a majority of seats in the lower house is invited by the Governor to form government. The leader of that party becomes Premier of South Australia, their senior colleagues become ministers responsible for various portfolios; as Australian MPs always vote along party lines all legislation introduced by the governing party will pass through the House of Assembly.
As with the federal parliament and Australian other states and territories, voting in the Assembly is compulsory for all those over the age of 18. Voting in the House of Assembly had been voluntary, but this was changed in 1942. While South Australia's total population is 1.7 million, 1.3 million of them live in Adelaide. Uniquely, over 75% of the state's population resides in the metropolitan area, making South Australia the most centralised state in the nation; as a result, Adelaide accounts for 72% of the seats in the chamber. The dominance of Adelaide, combined with a lack of comparatively-sized rural population centres, results in the metropolitan area deciding election outcomes. At the 2014 election for example, although the state-wide two-party vote was 47.0% Labor v 53.0% Liberal, the metropolitan area recorded a 2PP of 51.5% Labor v 48.5% Liberal. 24 votes as a majority are required to pass legislation. South Australian state election, 2018 List of elections in South Australia List of South Australian state by-elections Members of the South Australian House of Assembly Parliaments of the Australian states and territories South Australian Electoral Districts House of Assembly Homepage General Hansard Information
Electoral district of Finniss
Finniss is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. It is named after the first Premier of South Australia, it covers a 1,004 km2 regional area which includes the localities of Back Valley, Currency Creek, Encounter Bay, Goolwa, Goolwa Beach, Goolwa North, Goolwa South, Hindmarsh Island, Hindmarsh Tiers, Hindmarsh Valley, Lower Inman Valley, McCracken, Mosquito Hill, Mount Compass, Mount Observation, Mundoo Island, Port Eliot and Victor Harbor. Finniss has been a safe seat for the Liberal Party since its creation at the 1991 electoral redistribution as a replacement for the safe Alexandra. Dating to its time as part of Alexandra, the area now in Finniss has been held by Liberals or their predecessor, the Liberal and Country League, without interruption since 1941. For most of that time, it has been a comfortably safe LCL/Liberal seat, it was contested for the first time at the 1993 election by newly elected Liberal leader Dean Brown, who had returned to parliament after a seven-year absence by winning the 1992 Alexandra state by-election.
Brown had little difficulty winning Finniss, subsequently became Premier after the election. Brown was toppled as Premier by Liberal rival John Olsen in 1996, was expected to retire, but remained in parliament as a senior member of consecutive Liberal ministries and shadow ministries, served as deputy leader of the Liberal Party from 2001 to 2005—the first six months of that tenure as Deputy Premier. Brown retired at the 2006 election, was succeeded by Liberal candidate Michael Pengilly, who held off a concerted attempt by the SA Nationals to take the seat. Pengilly held the seat until retiring at the 2018 election. David Basham retained the seat for the Liberals, despite a spirited challenge from SA-BEST. Indeed, SA-BEST's showing in Finniss was strong enough to make the seat marginal for the first time in its current configuration. However, Finniss remains a comfortably safe Liberal seat in a "traditional" two-party matchup with Labor. Most of Finniss is located within the Nick Xenophon Team-held federal Division of Mayo.
ECSA profile for Finniss: 2018 ABC profile for Finniss: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Finniss: 2018
Greens South Australia
Australian Greens SA is a green political party located in the Australian state of South Australia. It is a member of the federation of the Australian Greens party; the party has three members in the federal and state parliaments: Sarah Hanson-Young in the Senate and Mark Parnell and Tammy Franks in the South Australian Legislative Council. Prior to 1995, a small local Green party not connected to the emerging Australian Greens contested a number of State and Federal elections; this party was more or less non-functioning by the time Mark Parnell called the first meetings to establish a new Green Party in 1995. It took a number of attempts to get the new party off the ground, however a visit to Adelaide by Bob Brown in late 1995 provided the necessary impetus to register the new party; the Australian Greens first ran in the 1997 state election. In both elections they received around two percent of the statewide upper house vote. Since that time, the Greens SA have built up a support base at state and federal elections due to the demise of the Democrats.
The Greens SA now have two MLCs and two Senators, with polling for the 2013 federal and 2014 state elections by Newspoll showing the Green vote above 10 percent. The Greens SA lost their second Senate seat in the 2016 federal election, following a 1.22% decline in the Greens' Senate vote. Kris Hanna, the member for Mitchell, was elected as a Labor member in 1997, but changed to The Greens in 2003. Hanna left the party in February 2006, citing constituents' wishes for him not to be bound to any party. At the 2006 state election, Environmental lawyer Mark Parnell became the first Green candidate to be elected in South Australia, securing a position in the Legislative Council on a primary vote of 4.3 percent. A vote of 6.5 percent was achieved in the House of Assembly. The best lower house result was in the electoral district of Heysen, on a primary vote of 17.7 percent. Heysen was the Democrats closest lower house win, coming as close as 1.9 percent at the 1997 state election on a primary vote of 29.2 percent, finishing at 48.1 percent after preferences.
Fourth on the 2006 state ticket, Sarah Hanson-Young was first on the ticket at the 2007 federal election, became South Australia's first Greens Senator. She won the final South Australian Senate position with a primary vote of 6.5 percent. The strongest Green votes in the Senate came from Adelaide and Mayo. Sparked by the resignation of Liberal Party MP Alexander Downer, a Mayo by-election was held in 2008. Labor chose not to contest the by-election. Greens candidate Lynton Vonow finished second, on a primary vote of 21.35 percent amongst a field of 11 candidates, a swing of 10.39 percent, finished on a final vote of 46.97 percent after the distribution of preferences, falling narrowly short of taking the seat from the Liberals. Prior to the 2010 state election, the Greens had gone from four to ten percent and above in state Newspolls. In the lower house, the vote increased to 8.1 percent, with the upper house vote to 6.6 percent which elected Tammy Jennings. At the 2010 federal election, polls showed a similar substantial increase.
The Greens SA received a swing of 6.8 percent in South Australia for the Australian Senate, to finish with 13.3 percent of the statewide vote. Penny Wright was subsequently elected, joining Hanson-Young and 7 other Green Senators from July 2011. Hanson-Young was re-elected at the 2013 federal election with a statewide primary vote of 7.1 percent. The Greens polled strongest in the seat of Mayo with over 14 percent of the primary vote. Parnell was re-elected at the 2014 election with the upper house statewide primary vote at 6.5 percent. The lower house statewide primary vote was 8.7 percent. Lynton Vonow contested the seat of Heysen for the Greens and came second after preferences with a 39 percent two-candidate preferred vote from a 19.7 percent primary vote. The Greens have polled strongest in Heysen but with preferences overtook the Labor candidate; the Greens polled well in seats such as Kavel and Davenport with primary votes over 15 percent. Penny Wright resigned from the Senate due to family reasons in September 2015.
That month, Robert Simms was appointed to the casual vacancy by a joint sitting of the Parliament of South Australia. When Prime Minister Turnbull announced in March 2016 that a double dissolution would be taking place in May and an election in July, the party was forced for the first time to choose between their two senators, preselected Sarah Hanson-Young to the number 1 preference on the Senate ballot, with Robert Simms at number 2. Only Hanson-Young was reelected; the party's State Council meets. The party has a Policy and Campaigning Council, which includes representatives from branches and member action groups and meets every two months to shape the party’s strategic priorities Branches are where new members first meet other Greens, talk politics and policy, get involved in local campaigning and fundraising, find out about what else is going on. A variety of member action groups have been established by the State Council, which are directly accessible to all Greens members. Working groups perform an advisory function by developing policy, conducte issues-based campaigns, or by performing other tasks assigned by the State Council.
These groups include: Indigenous Issues Animal welfare Greenhouse and nuclear Queer Greens Young Greens Penny Wright Robert Simms Kris Hanna, elected in 1997 for the Labor Party, defected to the Greens in 2003 and sat as an independent until 2010. 2008 Parnell–Bressington filibuster Greens South Australia
Kingscote, South Australia
Kingscote is a town in the Australian state of South Australia located on Kangaroo Island about 119 kilometres south-west of the state capital of Adelaide. It is the island's largest town. At the 2011 census, Kingscote had a population of 1,763, it is the administrative and communications centre. It is home to a colony of the smallest penguins in the little penguin; the South Australia Company established its colony at Kingscote at Reeves Point on 27 July 1836, as South Australia's first official European settlement, the first settlers having arrived on the Duke of York, named for Henry Kingscote, one of the founding directors of the South Australian Company. It was early suggested that Kingscote could serve as the capital of South Australia, but the island's resources were insufficient to support such a large community. There was a shore-based bay whaling station operating on the shore D’Estrees Bay by 1843; the history of the area is displayed to the north of the town. Hope Cottage was one of the three earliest houses built in Kingscote, circa 1850, with the adjoining cottages of Faith and Charity.
The Old Mulberry Tree at Reeves Point still bears fruit. Reeves Point has been placed on the Australian Heritage Places List; the current town of Kingscote is now to the south of the original Kingscote settlement at Reeves Point in the area known as Queenscliffe. Kingscote contains the following places which are listed on the South Australian Heritage Register: Hope Cottage The Bluff Cottage Barrett's Store Reeves Point Settlement Site being the site of the first official settlement in the Colony of South Australia Old Government Quarry Kingscote has a school offering years reception to 12, a hospital, post office and government offices, it is the administrative centre for the Kangaroo Island Council, whose offices have undergone a significant upgrade. Recreational facilities include adjoining oval and netball courts. A wharf and jetty stand at the waterfront, they were used by the roll-on, roll-off vessels and Island Seaway and now serve smaller vessels. The jetty is accessible for recreational fishing and scuba diving and pelican feeding and nocturnal penguin tours are offered at the Penguin Centre, adjacent to the jetty.
The Aurora Ozone Seafront Hotel, with its mermaid statue, is a well-known landmark on the Kingscote foreshore. The hotel opened in 1907, it was destroyed by fire 27 Aug 1918, but was rebuilt and opened for business again on 29 December 1920. A shark-proof tidal swimming pool is open to the public. Fundraising commenced in 1947 and plans were drafted by the South Australian Harbours Board; the Harbours Board estimated the total construction cost for the pool to be £607 and Mr W. S. Myers, won the contract for its construction. A subscription list was started and maintained to update local residents on fundraising progress and matching funding was offered by the South Australian Tourist Bureau. Construction commenced in 1949. Work continued following delays owing to labor shortages and inclement weather. In 2007, the Kingscote colony of little penguins' population was 868 adults and fell to 706 in 2010. In 2011, it was believed to be stable. In 2012, the population fell to 300 adults according to DEW figures.
In 2013, the Kingscote colony of little penguins had dropped to 20 birds, according to tour operator John Ayliffe. Official 2013 census figures were greater, estimating 154 breeding adults, down 48 per cent from the previous year and 82 per cent since the population peak in 2007. Increasing populations of long-nosed fur seals are believed to be a factor in the decline. Other predators of penguins on Kangaroo Island include rats, cats, sea lions and sea eagles. Since the 1990s, penguin tour operators have improved the nesting habitat in the visitation area at Kingscote, through vegetation, habitat protection and constructing boardwalks for tourists. Disease and declining fish stocks have been blamed for declines in Little penguin numbers. Other colonies in South Australia have experienced dramatic declines since the 1990s; the nearest examples of colonies in decline are found in Encounter Bay and at Penneshaw on Kangaroo Island. Accounts of little penguins at Kingcote exist from the 1930s. Little penguins have been observed in burrows on The Spit which lies across the mouth of Bay of Shoals.
Observations of penguins at this location were published in 1888, 1911, 1915, 1934 and 1938. A child visiting in 1947 found at least six penguin burrows; the species did not appear in the list of birds observed at Busby Islet Conservation Park, published in 1987. Kingscote has a Mediterranean climate. Kingscote Kingscote Airport List of little penguin colonies Hope Cottage Kangaroo Island
District Council of Yankalilla
The District Council of Yankalilla is a local government area centred on the town of Yankalilla on the Fleurieu Peninsula in South Australia. It was created on 23 October 1856, when the District Council of Yankalilla and Myponga was divided into two, it absorbed two other councils: the District Council of Myponga on 5 January 1888, one of a number of amalgamations mandated under the District Councils Act 1887, the District Council of Rapid Bay on 12 May 1932. The district has a rich history, as one of the earliest South Australian coastal settlements, a wide range of agricultural activities having taken place. Today the district remains agricultural in nature, supplemented by forestry; the Fleurieu Peninsula was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna people, who met with the Ramindjeri and other peoples for trade and exchanges. Aboriginal myth credits the formation of the land forms of the Fleurieu Peninsula to the travels of Tjilbruke as he grieved carrying the body of his nephew from the Sturt River to Cape Jervis.
Evidence of Megafauna, including bones attributed to Diprotodon, Maesopus – the giant kangaroo and Thylacoleo – a marsupial lion, were discovered in the 1890s. A Diprotodon leg bone was found in a swamp in the 1890s and conjecture surrounds the possibility that the animals were hunted by local aboriginal groups; the Fleurieu Peninsula was first mapped by Europeans in 1802 with both the French Nicholas Baudin and the English Matthew Flinders travelling the coastline, with Baudin giving Fleurieu Peninsula its name. William Light was the first to land on the mainland, at Rapid Bay in 1836, declared the area "rich beyond expectation", his report resulted in the early intensive settlement of the area and the District was considered for the site of the new settlement of South Australia, before further surveying showed the site of Adelaide to be superior. Governor Hindmarsh recorded the aboriginal pronunciation of "Yoongalilla", as applied to the District and noted this in dispatches of 1837. Other legends as to the origin of the name exist, with some claims that the area was named after an American "Yankie" whaler, whose kind frequented the area at the time.
There is little evidence for most of these theories however. In 1911, the town was proclaimed Yankalilla, to become the name of the district. Whalers and sealers became the first Europeans to establish semi-permanently in the district in the early 19th century, with a whaling station established at Fisheries Beach, but a combination of ship wrecks, decreasing whale numbers and the petroleum industry forced its closure in 1855. Farming land in the District was surveyed for purchase in 1838, with land released in 1840 and communities established at Myponga, Second Valley, Rapid Bay and at Yankalilla. Sheep and wheat were the first produce, with a variety of other crops grown including milling and the extraction of tannins from wattle bark prevalent in the district. Second Valley and Yankalilla all had jetties constructed to serve the increasing demand for export. In 1852 the South Australian Government proclaimed an Act of Parliament appointing District Councils to administer local affairs; the District Council of Yankalilla was constituted on 5 April 1854.
The district has remained an important one to the state, transforming from the early days of European settlement as a vital connection for resources, to an integral part of South Australia's tourism interests and links between main land and Kangaroo Island. A number of industries have come and gone in the district, including whaling and sealing, but agriculture now remains the staple source of the areas economy. In the past, a number of products were farmed, including sheep, wheat, flax, oats and barley, as well as the aforementioned flour milling, timber milling and mining. Dairy farming has become a major part of the districts economy, along with cereal crops and sheep, is the districts main source of economy. More recent developments include the trials of vineyards in the district, as well as land based aquaculture and sustainable forestry. Tourism plays a minor role in the area, with its close proximity to Adelaide drawing large crowds to the seaside towns during summer; the District Council includes the following localities - Back Valley, Bald Hills, Cape Jervis, Deep Creek, Hay Flat, Inman Valley, Mount Compass, Myponga Beach, Pages Flat, Rapid Bay, Second Valley, Sellicks Hill, Torrens Vale, Waitpinga, Wattle Flat, Willow Creek, Wirrina Cove and Yankalilla.
Mayor: Glen Rowlands CEO: Nigel Morris Councillors: Janet Jones Simon Rothwell Peter O'Neil David Olsson Rachel Preston Bruce Spilsbury Leonie Fitzgerald Rick Williams Council meets once a month on the third Tuesday of the month, commencing at 4.00pm List of parks and gardens in rural South Australia Lady Bay, South Australia LGA page for District Council of Yankalilla Official council site