Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Australian Labor Party (South Australian Branch)
The Australian Labor Party known as South Australian Labor, is the South Australian Branch of the Australian Labor Party formed in 1891 as the United Labor Party of South Australia. It is one of two major parties in the bicameral Parliament of South Australia, the other being the Liberal Party of Australia. Since the 1970 election, marking the beginning of democratic proportional representation and ending decades of pro-rural electoral malapportionment known as the Playmander, Labor have won 11 of the 15 elections. Spanning 16 years and 4 terms, Labor was last in government from the 2002 election until the 2018 election. Jay Weatherill led the Labor government since a 2011 leadership change from Mike Rann. During 2013 it became the longest-serving state Labor government in South Australian history, in addition went on to win a fourth four-year term at the 2014 election. Labor's most notable historic Premiers of South Australia include Thomas Price in the 1900s, Don Dunstan in the 1970s and John Bannon in the 1980s.
A United Trades and Labor Council meeting with the purpose of creating an elections committee was convened on 12 December 1890, held on 7 January 1891. The elections committee was formed named the United Labor Party of South Australia with John McPherson the founding secretary. Four months Labor enjoyed immediate success, electing David Charleston, Robert Guthrie and Andrew Kirkpatrick to the South Australian Legislative Council. A week Richard Hooper won the 1891 Wallaroo by-election as an Independent Labor member in the South Australian House of Assembly. McPherson won the 1892 East Adelaide by-election on 23 January, becoming the first official Labor leader and member of the House of Assembly. Prior to party creation, South Australian politics had lacked parties or solid groupings, although loose liberal and conservative blocs had begun to develop by the end of the 1880s; the 1893 election was the first general election Labor would stand at, resulting in liberal and conservative leaning MPs beginning to divide, additionally with unidentified groupings and independents, as well as the subsequent formation of the staunchly anti-Labor National Defence League.
The voluntary turnout rate increased from 53 to 68 percent, with Labor on 19 percent of the vote, 10 Labor candidates including McPherson and Hooper were elected to the 54-member House of Assembly which gave Labor the balance of power. The Kingston liberal government was formed with the support of Labor, ousting the Downer conservative government. Kingston served as Premier for a then-record of six and a half years implementing legislation with Labor support. Thomas Price formed the state's first Labor minority government and the world's first stable Labor Party government at the 1905 election with the support of several non-Labor MPs to form the Price-Peake administration, re-elected at the 1906 double dissolution election, with Labor falling just two seats short of a majority. So successful, John Verran led Labor to form the state's first of many majority governments at the 1910 election, just two weeks after the 1910 federal election where their federal counterparts formed Australia's first elected majority in either house in the Parliament of Australia, the world's first Labor Party majority government at a national level, after the 1904 Chris Watson minority government the world's second Labor Party government at a national level.
Known as the United Labor Party of South Australia until 1917, the Australian Labor Party at both a state/colony and federal level pre-dates, among others, both the British Labour Party and the New Zealand Labour Party in party formation and policy implementation. Thirteen of the nineteen parliamentary Labor leaders have served as Premier of South Australia: Thomas Price, John Verran, Crawford Vaughan, John Gunn, Lionel Hill, Frank Walsh, Don Dunstan, Des Corcoran, John Bannon, Lynn Arnold, Mike Rann and Jay Weatherill. Robert Richards was Premier in 1933 while leading the rebel Parliamentary Labor Party of MPs, expelled in the 1931 Labor split. Bannon is Labor's longest-serving Premier of South Australia, ahead of Rann and Dunstan by a matter of weeks; every Labor leader for more than half a century has gone on to serve as Premier. Since the position's formal introduction in 1968, seven parliamentary Labor deputy leaders have served as Deputy Premier of South Australia: Des Corcoran, Hugh Hudson, Jack Wright, Don Hopgood, Frank Blevins, Kevin Foley and John Rau. Foley is the state's longest-serving Deputy Premier.
John McPherson Lee Batchelor Thomas Price John Verran Crawford Vaughan Andrew Kirkpatrick John Gunn Lionel Hill Edgar Dawes Andrew Lacey Robert Richards Mick O'Halloran Frank Walsh Don Dunstan Des Corcoran John Bannon Lynn Arnold Mike Rann Jay Weatherill Peter Malinauskas Kate Ellis – Adelaide MP since 2004 Mark Butler – Port Adelaide MP since 2007 Nick Champion – Wakefield MP since 2007 Amanda Rishworth – Kingston MP since 2007 Tony Zappia – Makin MP since 2007 Steve Georganas – Hindmarsh MP since 2016 Penn
University of Adelaide
The University of Adelaide is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia. Established in 1874, it is the third-oldest university in Australia; the university's main campus is located on North Terrace in the Adelaide city centre, adjacent to the Art Gallery of South Australia, the South Australian Museum and the State Library of South Australia. The university has five campuses throughout the state, it has the Ngee Ann -- Adelaide Education Centre, in Singapore. The university operates independent research institutes and groups; these include the South Australian Centre for Economic Studies, the Hanson Institute for Medical Research, the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute. The University of Adelaide is composed with each containing constituent schools; these include the Faculty of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, the Faculty of Arts, the Faculty of the Professions, the Faculty of Sciences. It is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities.
The university is a member of the Sandstone universities, which consist of colonial-era universities within Australia. The university is associated with five Nobel laureates, constituting one-third of Australia's total Nobel laureates, 109 Rhodes scholars; the university has had a considerable impact on the public life of South Australia, having educated many of the state's leading businesspeople, medical professionals and politicians. The university has been associated with many notable achievements and discoveries, such as the discovery and development of penicillin, the development of space exploration, the military tank, Wi-Fi, polymer banknotes and X-ray crystallography, the study of viticulture and oenology; the University of Adelaide was established on 6 November 1874 after a £20,000 donation by grazier and copper miner Walter Watson Hughes, along with support and donations from Thomas Elder. The first Chancellor was Sir Richard Hanson and the first vice-chancellor was Augustus Short.
The first degree offered was the Bachelor of Arts and the university started teaching in March 1876. John Davidson was the first Hughes professor of mental and moral philosophy; the University has a long history of championing the rights of women in higher education. It was the second University in the English-speaking world to admit women on equal terms with men, though women studied alongside men from the commencement of classes in 1876, were eligible for all academic prizes and honours, its first female graduate was Edith Emily Dornwell, the first person in Australia to receive the degree of Bachelor of Science. The university graduated Australia's first female surgeon Laura Fowler. Ruby Davy was the first Australian woman to receive a doctorate in music; the University was the first to elect a woman to a University Council in Australia, Helen Mayo, in 1914. The great hall of the University, Bonython Hall, was built in 1936 following a donation from the owner of The Advertiser newspaper, Sir John Langdon Bonython, who left £40,000 for a Great Hall for the University.
On 2 July 2010, the University implemented its "Smoke-Free Policy". This move was the culmination of an anti-smoking agenda headed by Professor Konrad Jamrozik and subsequently, following Jamrozik's death, the Executive Dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences, Professor Justin Beilby. Security have the right to eject people smoking within the University buildings and fine people smoking in the gardens or walkways, it is the first higher education institution in South Australia to institute a smoke-free policy. The North Terrace campus has been smoke-free since July 2010, it was planned that the Waite and Roseworthy campuses would be smoke-free by 2011, the University's residential facilities have been made smoke-free. In June 2018, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia began discussions regarding the possibility of a merger; the proposition was described as the formation of a "super uni" by Steven Marshall and Simon Birmingham, but the merger was called off in October 2018.
The main campus of the University is on North Terrace. It is bordered by the Art Gallery of South Australia, the State Library of South Australia, the South Australian Museum and the "City East" campus of the University of South Australia; the Adelaide University Medical and Dental Schools were located across Frome Road, behind the old Royal Adelaide Hospital. The hospital moved and so have the schools; the vast majority of students and staff of the University are based at the North Terrace campus, where the majority of courses are taught and schools are based. The central administration of the University and the main library, the Barr Smith Library, are both located on this campus. While many other universities have law and business schools or satellite campuses within the central business district, the University of Adelaide is unique among Australian sandstone universities for having its main presence adjacent to the main business and shopping precinct. Bonython Hall, the Mitchell Building, the Elder Hall, the Napier building and the Ligertwood building, form the North Terrace street frontage of the campus.
Bonython Hall is one of the many historic and heritage listed buildings located at the North Terrace campus. Others include the Mitchell Building
Hackney, South Australia
Hackney is an inner-eastern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia, in the City of Norwood Payneham St Peters. It is adjacent to the Adelaide city centre and North Adelaide; the O-Bahn Busway passes along Hackney Road, part of the City Ring Route, which forms its western boundary. Its other boundaries are the River Torrens, the continuation of North Terrace through Kent Town, a series of small streets and lanes to the east; the suburb is dominated by St Peter's College, an independent boys school, wholly located within the suburb and occupies a 75 acres site, about 60% of the suburb's area. Located at this site since 1854, the school grounds contain three heritage-listed buildings. Romilly House in the southwest corner of the suburb, on North Terrace, is listed on the Heritage Register. Hackney is adjacent to Park 11 of the Park Lands, across Hackney Road from the Botanic Gardens, the Botanic Park and the National Wine Centre. Prior to the 2018 election, the State Labor government decided to build in 2016–2017 a $160 million tunnel for the O-Bahn Busway from north of North Terrace, through the Adelaide Park Lands to the corner of Grenfell Street and East Terrace on the eastern edge of the Adelaide city centre.
As part of this work, the middle of the entire length of Hackney Road, from the River Torrens to North Terrace was rebuilt to provide buslanes and an entrance to / exit from the tunnel. The cost/benefit ratio of this project was questioned, traffic disruption was considerable, the Labor party did not win the 2018 election
Frank Keen Nieass was an Australian politician. He was a Labor member of the South Australian House of Assembly, representing East Torrens from 1930 to 1933 and Norwood from 1938 to 1941 and from 1944 to 1947
Norwood, South Australia
Norwood is a suburb of Adelaide, about 4 km east of the Adelaide city centre. The suburb is in the City of Norwood Payneham & St Peters, the oldest South Australian local government municipality, with a city population over 34,000. Norwood is named after London, it was first laid out in 1847. The suburb consists of four segments, being divided into north and south by the major thoroughfare of The Parade and east and west by Osmond Terrace, it is bounded on the south by Kensington Road, on the north by Magill Road, on the east by Portrush Road and on the west by Fullarton Road. It is a leafy suburb many of whose streets are lined with plane trees and older houses, though in recent years, due to a State Government initiative of "urban-infill", there have been more higher density developments, it is now a sought-after suburb to live in. Osmond Terrace is a street with a wide median strip featuring a prominent war memorial commemorating ANZAC soldiers who fought in the first and second World Wars.
The most visible landmarks in Norwood are the Norwood Town Hall and the Clayton-Wesley Uniting Church on the north east corner of Portrush Road and The Parade. Located in Beulah Park, the church, built over 150 years ago, is visible all the way up The Parade. Norwood attracted many European migrants post-World War II, it still has a high concentration of people of Italian background. This is reflected in the restaurants and fashion boutiques of The Parade. Norwood's heritage and bohemian character can be ascertained from the political voting patterns. Several Adelaide Metro bus routes serve the suburb. Many route numbers and timetables were changed on 16 January 2011; these routes now run adjacent to Norwood 300: cross city route traversing Portrush Road. B10, H30, H31: Magill Road H20, H21, H22, H23, H24, N22: The Parade 141,142: Kensington Road Norwood Oval on The Parade is home to the Norwood Redlegs, a South Australian National Football League team; the home of Adelaide Bite. The queen of Adelaide’s eastern suburbs: hip and smitten with cafe life.
The Parade contains the business centre of the suburb, which includes some professional services but it is better known for its restaurants, fashion boutiques and hairdressers. Saint Bartholomew's in Norwood and St Matthew's in nearby Kensington are two churches with a close association with each other, with three church ministers involved in both congregations, they are both evangelical and conservative Anglican churches, with a large number of young adult members. Saint Ignatius Catholic Parish Church, built in the 1860s by the Society of Jesus and finished by 1872, is a significant feature in the suburb; the accompanying presbytery housed Mary MacKillop, founder of the Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart, where she took refuge after her excommunication by Bishop Shiel. Many famous South Australians have resided in Norwood, including: women's rights campaigner Catherine Helen Spence former Premier Don Dunstan politician Reginald Blundell public servant and Australian Army officer Stanley Price Weir Australia's first beatified saint Mary MacKillop writers C.
J. Dennis and May Gibbs film director Mario Andreacchio chef and artist Poh Ling Yeow former Police Officer and Police Commissioner Alexander Tolmer List of Adelaide suburbs Antonio Giannoni Woodroofe Electoral district of Norwood
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until