Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election. Eligibility varies by country, the voting-eligible population should not be confused with the total adult population. Age and citizenship status are among the criteria used to determine eligibility, but some countries further restrict eligibility based on sex, race, or religion. After increasing for many decades, there has been a trend of decreasing voter turnout in most established democracies since the 1980s. In general, low turnout is attributed to indifference, or a sense of futility. According to Stanford University political scientists Adam Bonica and Michael McFaul, there is a consensus among political scientists that "democracies perform better when more people vote."Low turnout is considered to be undesirable. As a result, there have been many efforts to increase voter turnout and encourage participation in the political process. In spite of significant study into the issue, scholars are divided on the reasons for the decline.
Its cause has been attributed to a wide array of economic, cultural and institutional factors. Different countries have different voter turnout rates. For example, turnout in the United States 2012 presidential election was about 55%. In both Belgium, which has obligatory attendance, Malta, which does not, participation reaches about 95%. In Belgium there is obligatory attendance, misinterpreted as compulsory voting The chance of any one vote determining the outcome is low; some studies show that a single vote in a voting scheme such as the Electoral College in the United States has an lower chance of determining the outcome. Other studies claim that the Electoral College increases voting power. Studies using game theory, which takes into account the ability of voters to interact, have found that the expected turnout for any large election should be zero; the basic formula for determining whether someone will vote, on the questionable assumption that people act rationally, is P B + D > C, where P is the probability that an individual's vote will affect the outcome of an election, B is the perceived benefit that would be received if that person's favored political party or candidate were elected, D stood for democracy or civic duty, but today represents any social or personal gratification an individual gets from voting, C is the time and financial cost involved in voting.
Since P is zero in most elections, PB is near zero, D is thus the most important element in motivating people to vote. For a person to vote, these factors must outweigh C. Experimental political science has found that when P is greater than zero, this term has no effect on voter turnout. Enos and Fowler conducted a field experiment that exploits the rare opportunity of a tied election for major political office. Informing citizens that the special election to break the tie will be close has little mobilizing effect on voter turnout. Riker and Ordeshook developed the modern understanding of D, they listed five major forms of gratification that people receive for voting: complying with the social obligation to vote. Other political scientists have since added other motivators and questioned some of Riker and Ordeshook's assumptions. All of these concepts are inherently imprecise, making it difficult to discover why people choose to vote. Several scholars have considered the possibility that B includes not only a personal interest in the outcome, but a concern for the welfare of others in the society.
In particular, experiments in which subject altruism was measured using a dictator game showed that concern for the well-being of others is a major factor in predicting turnout and political participation. Note that this motivation is distinct from D, because voters must think others benefit from the outcome of the election, not their act of voting in and of itself. There are philosophical and practical reasons that some people cite for not voting in electoral politics. Robert LeFevre, Francis Tandy, John Pugsley, Frank Chodorov, George H. Smith, Carl Watner, Wendy McElroy, Lysander Spooner are some moderately well-known authors who have written about these reasons. High voter turnout is considered to be desirable, though among political scientists and economists specializing in public choice, the issue is still debated. A high turnout is seen as evidence of the legitimacy of the current system. Dictators have fabricated high turnouts in showcase elections for this purpose. For instance, Saddam Hussein's 2002 plebiscite was claimed to have had 100% participation.
Opposition parties sometimes boycott votes they feel are unfair or illegitimate, or if the election is for a government, considered illegitimate. For example, the Holy See instructed Italian Catholics to boycott national elections for several decades after the creation of the state of Italy. In some countries, there are threats of violence against those who vote, such as during the 2005 Iraq elections, an example of voter suppression. However, some political scientists question the view that high turnout is an implicit endorsement of the system. Mark
Electoral district of Lockyer
Lockyer is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of Queensland. The district consists of Gatton and Laidley Shires and northern parts of Beaudesert Shire, it includes the major town of Gatton and a number of smaller centres including Laidley and Withcott. The eastern parts of the district are part of the outer southern suburbs of Ipswich and Brisbane in the area of Greenmount; the district is bounded on the west by Toowoomba North, Toowoomba South. On the southwest and south by Condamine, Southern Downs and Beaudesert. To the north and northwest by Nanango. To the northeast, where it passes south of Ipswich and Brisbane, it is bounded by Ipswich West, Moggill. To the east it shares a boundary with the seat of Logan; the electorate has been represented by Jim McDonald since the 2017 election. Pauline Hanson came within just 114 votes of being elected at the 2015 election with a 49.78 percent two-candidate vote. 1 William Drayton Armstrong alternately listed his party alignment as Liberal and Ministeralist.
The parliamentary members' register does not list dates for these changes. Electorate Profile
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
2017 Queensland state election
The 2017 Queensland state election was held on 25 November 2017 to elect all 93 members of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland, the unicameral Parliament of Queensland. The first-term incumbent Labor government, led by Premier Annastacia Palaszczuk, won a second term in government, they were challenged by the Liberal National opposition, led by Opposition Leader Tim Nicholls and minor parties One Nation, Katter's Australian Party and the Greens. The 2015 election outcome had delivered a hung parliament with 44 seats to the Labor opposition, 42 seats to the one-term Liberal National government, three to the crossbench including two to Katter's Australian Party. Just one seat short of majority government, Labor was able to form minority government with confidence and supply support from sole independent MP Peter Wellington, while retaining the right to otherwise vote on conscience. During the parliamentary term, Labor MPs Billy Gordon and Rob Pyne became independent MPs, however they both indicated they would provide confidence and supply support for the government.
Amendments to electoral laws increased the number of seats by four from 89 to 93 and changed the optional preferential voting system to compulsory full-preferential voting. A 2016 referendum replaced the state's unfixed maximum three-year terms with fixed four-year terms, but these will not apply until the 2020 election; the day after the election, ABC election analyst Antony Green predicted that Labor would win up to 48 seats and was to form government in its own right. By 6 December, several news agencies reported that Labor had won a majority of seats in the Parliament. With the redistribution increasing the size of parliament from 89 seats to 93 seats, Labor increased its representation by a net seven seats to a total of 48 seats, an increase of four since the last election and a notional increase of one since the redistribution, allowing it to form government in its own right by two seats; the Liberal National opposition decreased their representation by a net three seats to a total of 39 seats, a decrease of two seats since the last election and a notional decrease of five since the redistribution.
On the crossbench, Katter's Australian Party won three seats, an increase of one since the last election and a notional increase of two since the redistribution, one new independent candidate won a seat while all the incumbent independents lost their seats. One Nation won its first seat since 2009 and the Greens won a seat at a state election for the first time. On 8 December 2017, Opposition Leader Tim Nicholls conceded defeat and announced he would step down as leader of the party; that day, Palaszczuk visited Government House and was invited to form a majority government by the Governor. The Second Palaszczuk Ministry was subsequently sworn in by the Governor on 12 December 2017; this marked the ninth time in the last ten elections. Independent: Sandy Bolton The seats of Burdekin and Mount Ommaney were won by the LNP at the 2015 election, but redistributions in 2016 made them notionally Labor seats; the 2017 election saw the ALP continue its Queensland general election streak of successes, which it had managed since 1989, with the notable exception of the 2012 LNP landslide.
Katter's Australia Party, by winning a third seat in Hinchinbrook, achieved its largest swag of seats, since its inception in 2011. The Greens party recorded its highest vote in a Queensland state election, polling double figures for the first time and winning its first Queensland seat at an election, Maiwar. One Nation polled a significant 13.7% of the vote and won its first seat in 9 years. However the party lost its state leader, Steve Dickson, its tally of a single seat fell well below expectations; the election gave the LNP the least cause to rejoice: it performed poorly in South-East Queensland as well as in the north of the state. This election resulted in a number of historical milestones being achieved for the representation in the Queensland Parliament; these include: the first Australian woman premier to win government from Opposition and be re-elected, Annastacia Palaszczuk. Prior to the election, the Shooting Industry Foundation of Australia used $550,000 to launch an advertising campaign, named Flick’em, in an effort to urge voters to put both major parties last in ballot paper preferences.
This campaign boosted votes for Pauline Hanson's One Nation and the Katter's Australian Party and achieved lowest major party votes in QLD history. The Firearm Owners United, a new gun rights group which in 2017 made its first financi
Kerry Gerard Shine is a Labor politician, member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland for Toowoomba North from 2001 to 2012. Prior to his election to Parliament, Shine was admitted as a solicitor in 1972 and, in June 1977, founded Shine Lawyers, a litigation firm that has grown into a nationwide company with over 40 offices providing personalised legal assistance to tens of thousands of Australians. In 1999 he co-founded Gouldson Legal alongside Faran Gouldson. Gouldson Legal is a plaintiff personal injury litigation firm specialising in Queensland personal injury compensation claims. Shine first ran for election in the seat of Toowoomba North in the 1998 state election. Shine was first elected in the landslide 2001 state election that saw the re-election of Peter Beattie as Premier of Queensland, Shine retained his seat in 2004. In July 2005 as part of a ministerial reshuffle, Shine was appointed Parliamentary Secretary to Warren Pitt and Premier's Advisor on Western Queensland. On 1 November 2006, Shine was appointed as Minister for Justice.
Shine was sworn in as Minister for Natural Resources and Water in September 2006 and subsequently became the Attorney-General and Minister for Justice and Minister Assisting the Premier in Western Queensland in November 2006. While Attorney-General, Shine oversaw many legislative reforms including a massive review of the Queensland Criminal Code, a review into the defence of Accident and Provocation and a review into the Queensland Courts. Shine was responsible for the establishment of the new Queensland Civil and Administrative Tribunal, for the introduction of reform for the benefit of victims of crime; the 2009 state election saw Shine retain the seat of Toowoomba North with a reduced margin against Liberal National challenger Trevor Watts. He subsequently returned to the backbench, out of a desire to spend more time in the electorate. Shine was the Chair of the new Industry, Education and Industrial Relations Committee and a member of several Ministerial Legislative Committees including: the Attorney-General and Minister for Industrial Relations, Police and Emergency Services and Main Roads, Infrastructure and Planning.
In 2008 Kerry Shine became under fire for his comments about judges who gave lenient sentences in regards to rape. Mr Shine was interviewed on ABC Radio in Brisbane about figures on the rate at which rapists were jailed. Figures for 2007-08 showed. "You have to look at the various circumstance of each case - some rapes can be of minor effect on the victim... some circumstances can be of minor, some can be of major, damage to the victim," Mr Shine said. Mr Shine called the station back to apologise after talkback callers expressed their outrage. At the 2012 election, Shine faced Watts again and was defeated in the massive landslide that brought the LNP to power, suffering a swing of 13 percent, he contested it in the 2015 election, despite his party winning a minority government, Shine narrowly lost to Watts. Shine is a Member of the Downs and South West Law Association, a Life Member of Queensland Law Society and a member of the Toowoomba Chamber of Commerce, he has served on the Council of the University of Southern Queensland and as a member of Toowoomba City Council.
Sporting associations include previous service as Secretary of the Rangers Rugby Union Football Club, Honorary Solicitor of the Queensland Country Cricket Association, President of the Toowoomba Cricket Association, Honorary Solicitor of the Darling Downs Rugby Union Club and membership of the Toowoomba Turf Club and Brisbane Racing Club. He is a member of the Australian Services Union. Shine has three adult children. Members of the Queensland Legislative Assembly, 2004-2006.
Liberal National Party of Queensland
The Liberal National Party of Queensland is a political party in Queensland, Australia. It was formed in 2008 by a merger of the Queensland divisions of the Liberal Party and the National Party. At a federal level and in most other states the two parties remain distinct and operate as a more or less permanent Coalition; the LNP is a full member of the Liberal Party of Australia, has observer status within the National Party of Australia. After suffering defeat at its first election in 2009 the LNP won government for the first time at the 2012 election, winning 78 out of 89 seats, a record majority in the unicameral Parliament of Queensland. Campbell Newman became the first LNP Premier of Queensland; the Newman Government was subsequently defeated by the opposition Labor Party at the 2015 election. Prior to the merger the National Party and Liberal Party had found themselves in frequent competition with one another for seats in Queensland since the 1970s; the Liberal Party and the National Party have been in a coalition at the federal level for all but a few years since 1923.
In most parts of Australia the Liberal Party is the larger party, concentrated in urban areas, with the Nationals a junior partner operating in rural and regional areas. Competition between the two is thus minimised as the two attempt to win more seats combined than the Australian Labor Party. However, Queensland is Australia's most decentralised state. Brisbane is by far the largest city in Queensland. However, only around 45% of the population lives in the Brisbane area, with a greater portion of the state's population distributed either in regional cities like Toowoomba, Townsville, Mackay and Cairns, or in rural areas; as such, the urban-rural divide is not as pronounced in Queensland as in the rest of Australia. The Country/National Party was stronger in these regional centres than the Liberals; as a result, the Nationals had more seats than the Liberals and their predecessors, had been the senior partner in the non-Labor Coalition since 1924. This division into urban and rural areas was, for most of the twentieth century, reflected in a system of different electoral weighting that made it easier for rural-based parties to win more seats in Parliament.
The formation of the LNP was the third attempt to unite the non-Labor side in Queensland. In 1925, the United Party — the Queensland branch of the urban-based Nationalist Party — and the Country Party merged as the Country and Progressive National Party; this party won government in 1929 under former Queensland Country leader Arthur Edward Moore, but was defeated in 1932 and split apart in 1936. In 1941, the Queensland divisions of the United Australia Party and Country Party merged as the Country-National Organisation, under Frank Nicklin of the Country side. However, this merger only lasted until 1944. During the 1970s, the Country Party began running candidates in the more urbanised south-east corner of the state, including the Brisbane area, in direct competition with the Liberals; this was part of a larger strategy by the federal party to expand its base outside of rural areas — reflected in successive name changes to the National Country Party in 1975 and the National Party in 1982. The state party had changed its name to the National Party in 1974 as part of its effort to broaden its reach.
After more than a decade of fraught relations, the Liberals pulled out of the Coalition in 1983. The Nationals came up one seat short of a majority in their own right in the election held that year; the Nationals persuaded two Liberals to defect to them, governed alone until their defeat in 1989. In 1992 the electoral system was changed to Optional Preferential Voting, meaning that three-cornered contests between Liberal and Labor candidates became much more to see Labor candidates win; the other change in 1992 was the end of the old zonal electoral system for the Legislative Assembly, the sole chamber of the state's parliament. As a result, 40 of the 89 seats—almost half of the seats in the legislature—were now based in Brisbane; the Liberals and Nationals signed a renewed Coalition agreement in November 1992, two months after Labor won a second term. However, it was all but impossible to win a majority government without a substantial base in Brisbane, something, difficult for the Coalition to do since the Nationals were the senior partner.
Brisbane's increased share of the legislature made it politically difficult to win a minority government without winning a significant share of the capital's seats. Labor was in government for all but three years from 1989 to 2012 in large part because it won at least 30 seats in greater Brisbane at every election; when it was consigned to opposition by the Rob Borbidge-led Coalition from 1996 to 1998, Labor still won 31 seats in Brisbane. The 1995 state election proved. While it won a slim majority of the two-party vote, much of that margin was wasted on landslides in the Nationals' heartland; as mentioned above, Labor won 31 seats in Brisbane. The Labor majority was lost altogether a few months in a by-election, but the Coalition was only able to form a minority government by a margin of one seat with the support of independent Liz Cunningham; this underscored how difficult the 1992 reforms
Spring Bluff, Queensland
Spring Bluff is a locality in the Toowoomba Region, Australia. It is situated 15 kilometres north of the city centre via New England Highway, is adjacent to the town of Highfields; the area is named after a railway station in the area. The Spring Bluff railway station located on the boundary with Lockyer Valley Region local government area, was built in the 1860s to allow trains a place to stop during the steep climb from Brisbane to nearby Toowoomba. In 1890, it was named the sandstone bluff in the area; the railway station closed in August 1992. The station and its gardens are heritage listed, are maintained by a trust consisting of the regional councils of Toowoomba and Lockyer Valley along with Queensland Rail, who operate a cafe at the site. Due to the floods at Spring Bluff and nearby Murphys Creek in early 2011, the station was closed for repairs for several months. Official site