Townsville Airport is a major Australian regional airport that services the city of Townsville, Queensland. The airport is known as Townsville International Airport, Garbutt Airport, a reference to its location in the Townsville suburb of Garbutt. Townsville Airport is serviced by major Australian domestic and regional airlines, in 2011/12 handled 1.7 million passengers making it the 11th busiest airport in Australia. Townsville Airport is a common-use civilian and defence facility, sharing access with RAAF Base Townsville, it is used as a staging point for Australian Defence Force operations within Australia and internationally. The aerodrome has been used for co-ordination of relief efforts following Tropical Cyclones and other natural disasters, notably Cyclone Larry in 2006. Townsville Airport was the first Australian regional city airport to be granted international airport status commencing in 1980. International traffic grew through the early 1980s receded however as a result of airline market restructuring, significant competition with Cairns Airport for regional tourism.
The airport suffered an extended hiatus from handling direct civil international flights with the final Qantas international service in 2002, between Townsville and Singapore via Brisbane using a Boeing 767. From December 2010, the city again handled direct international flights, flown by Strategic Airlines to Bali Denpasar Airport; these flights ceased with the insolvency of Strategic Airlines, but resumed with Jetstar on 2 September 2015. It was announced on September 11, 2017 that Jetstar will cancel flights to Bali from 21 March 2018 due to low passenger numbers, it was announced on July 3rd, 2018 that Tiger Airways will cease flights to Melbourne due to low passenger numbers. The airport is located 2 nautical miles west of the Townsville CBD; the first airport was established in the 1920s in the Thuringowa Shire south of the Ross River, in what is now the suburb of Murray. It was licensed as a civil airport by the Civil Aviation Branch in 1930, but it was never satisfactory, as the ground was boggy for much of the year, there was only room for one east-west runway.
In 1938 a larger site was selected within the City of Townsville on the Town Common, adjacent to Ingham Road and the North Coast Railway. Two 800 yd gravel runways were constructed, the new Townsville Airport opened on its present site on 1 February 1939; the Department of Defence was looking for military airfield sites in northern Australia at the time, immediately Townsville Airport was planned for expansion as a Royal Australian Air Force base for three fighter squadrons. The plans were scaled back to one squadron, RAAF Base Townsville was built alongside the civil airport in early 1940. In October 1940, Number 24 Squadron, flying CAC Wirraways, became the first operational unit to occupy the base. A year the airfield was expanded to take United States Army Air Corps bombers and transport aircraft reinforcing the Philippines. All three runways were sealed, the south-east runway was extended to 5,000 ft to take the heavier aircraft; the work was nearly finished in early December 1941. During 1942, the defence establishment in the Townsville region increased enormously, five other military airfields were built in the immediate vicinity of Townsville.
To avoid confusion, RAAF Base Townsville was renamed RAAF Base Garbutt, the name of the nearby railway siding, where there were stockyards owned by Garbutt Brothers, wholesale butchers. The civil airport continued to operate during the war, retained the name Townsville Airport. RAAF Base Garbutt was renamed RAAF Base Townsville in 1951. Townsville Airport experienced a progressive increase in passenger numbers and aircraft movements after World War II, with services operated by Qantas, Trans Australia Airlines, Australian National Airways and Ansett Australia to Brisbane. Types operated were the Australian regional airliners such as the DC-3/4, Convair 240, DC-6, F-27s, as well smaller charter aircraft such as Ansons, it wasn't until the mid-1960s. TAA replaced their weekly DC-3 service to Port Moresby and Honiara with more frequent F-27 services, while Ansett operated from Cairns. During that period TAA and Ansett – ANA increased their jet services starting with DC-9s and Boeing 727s. Following that period of rapid growth, Townsville was developed as a regional hub for both airlines during the 1970s.
In April 1980, Sir Rupert Murdoch and Sir Peter Abeles, the new owners of Ansett, were petitioning the Federal Government for international flights to begin in some regional centres of Australia. On 18 April 1980, the inaugural Townsville-Singapore flight departed, operated by Ansett, one of the first international flights Ansett had operated. In the same year, Townsville Airport was given $13 million by the Australian Government-owned operator, Federal Airports Corporation, to construct and build a new state-of-the-art international terminal; the new terminal was constructed and opened in 1983. With the new demand for international services, Townsville became the first regional Australian airport to offer direct long-distance international flights. Airlines providing direct services included Qantas, Air Niugini, Continental Micronesia, Garuda Indonesia, Air New Zealand, Cathay Pacific and Japan Airlines. Destinations in Asia included Singapore, Hong Kong; the American flights reflected the significant tourism demand between the United States and Australia at the time
Sir Robert Philp, was a Queensland businessman and politician, Premier of Queensland from December 1899 to September 1903 and again from November 1907 to February 1908. Philp was born in Glasgow, the second son of John Philp, a lime-kiln operator, Mary Ann Philp, he emigrated to Brisbane with his parents and siblings in 1862, where his father took a lease on the municipal baths, became involved in the cattle and sugar industries. Philp was educated at the National School until 1863 when he started work at Bright Bros & Co shipping company, before moving to Townsville in 1874 to take up the position of junior partner in the trading company Burns and Company. Burns, Philp & Co acted as agents and provisioners for the sugar cane and pastoral industries that sustained Northern Queensland, Philp served as manager of the Townsville office. Beginning in 1881, Philp diverted some of the company's vessels to the labour trade, recruiting South Pacific Islanders to work as indentured labourers on the canefields, despite the reservations of his business partner James Burns.
A royal commission into recruiting practices in 1885 coincided with a downturn in the sugar industry, as a result the company's vessels were returned to other commercial operations. While this affair had been profitable for Burns, Philp, it did not contribute to commercial success, although it would not be Philp's last interest in the South Pacific labour trade. Despite the success of Burns, Philp & Co, Philp made some poor personal investments, such as his loss of £5000 on the "Comet" mine. Like many others he was affected by the economic depression of the 1890s, borrowing £20,000 to purchase property in Brisbane which three years was valued at only £16,230, he owed considerable sums of money to the North Queensland Mortgage & Investment Co. as well as holding a £5000 mortgage with respect to other properties. Although Burns tried to assist him, Philp was forced to sell his shares in Burns, Philp & Co in 1893, was still in financial difficulty as late as 1898, although by this stage he had restricted his business ventures to more conservative investments.
When the business-friendly McIlwraith government lost office in 1883 it was succeeded by the Liberal government of Samuel Griffith that sought to end the trade in Kanakas. As a prominent businessman who had served several times on the local council Philp was active in bankrolling and supporting candidates in opposition to Griffith, he supported the growing movement for the separation of North Queensland from the rest of the colony. Philp entered the Legislative Assembly of Queensland in 1886 as Member for Musgrave, he supported the North Queensland separatists in their unsuccessful attempts to gain independence, but spent most of his early parliamentary career preoccupied with his business affairs. His seat of Musgrave was abolished and in 1888 he was returned as one of the two members for the electorate of Townsville, his parliamentary activity was in support of North Queensland and his business interests - extending railway links to North Queensland, the abolition of import tariffs. When the import of Pacific islanders was temporarily halted in 1892 Philp was instrumental in securing its resumption.
Philp was a prolific speculator and in 1893 he was forced by debt to resign from the board of directors of Burns, Philp. In May of the same year McIlwraith, now governing in coalition with Griffith in what was known as the "Continuous Ministry", appointed Philp as Minister for Mines, he held several other ministerial posts, such as Public Instruction, Public Works and Treasurer until 1899. When the Continuous Ministry was unseated by the Labor government of Anderson Dawson. Philp was an able administrator, he codified mining regulations and encouraged the private development of railways throughout the colony. The railway construction process was alleged to be corrupt by the Labor members, after narrowly winning a vote of confidence in November 1899 James Dickson resigned as Premier. Dawson's government lasted a week before losing Parliamentary support and Philp, despite his protestations in support of Dickson, was chosen as Premier by his colleagues; the Australian colonies federated in 1901 and the new Prime Minister Edmund Barton ended the trade in Kanakas.
By this stage Queensland was depleted in revenue, Federation exacerbated this situation by depriving Queensland of excise and customs funds. Despite a severe drought and the dire state of the state's finances, Philp was re-elected in 1902. Discontent brewed among Ministerialists who were bitter at missing out on Cabinet positions, in August 1903 Digby Denham crossed the floor with supporters to bring down the government and form a coalition led by Arthur Morgan. Philp, with his genial nature, was ill-suited to the position of Opposition Leader, showed little enthusiasm in attacking the new government. Morgan lost control of the Legislative Assembly in 1904 and Philp was called upon by Governor Sir Herbert Chermside to form a ministry, but could not secure sufficient support from among his colleagues; the end result was a solid defeat of the Opposition. Philp resumed his position as Leader and his conciliatory treatment of the government continued when fellow Scot William Kidston became Premier.
Philp cultivated good relations with Kidston and helped foster the increasing gap between Kidston and the Labor movement. Philp's party was again unsuccessful in the elections of 1907. Kidston was encountering difficulties in securing the passage of his legislation through the intransigent Legislative Council and after Lord Chelmsford as Governor re
Peter Douglas Beattie is a former Australian politician who served as the 36th Premier of Queensland, in office from 1998 to 2007. He was the state leader of the Labor from 1996 to 2007. Beattie grew up in Atherton, Queensland, he worked as a union secretary before entering politics. Beattie was elected to the Queensland Legislative Assembly at the 1989 state election, he served as a government minister from 1995 to 1996 under Wayne Goss, replaced Goss as party leader following a change in government. As leader of the opposition, Beattie led the Labor Party back to power at the 1998 election, won further victories at the 2001, 2004 and 2006 elections, he was succeeded by his deputy Anna Bligh. After retiring as premier, Beattie was appointed to a series of public relations positions with the state and federal Labor governments, he made an unsuccessful attempt to enter federal politics at the 2013 election, standing in the Division of Forde. In 2016, Beattie was made chairman of the organising committee for the 2018 Commonwealth Games on the Gold Coast.
He was appointed chairman of the Australian Rugby League Commission in February 2018. Beattie was born in Sydney as the youngest of seven children, he was raised by his grandmother at Atherton, a small town in North Queensland, attended Atherton State High School. He moved to Brisbane to attend the University of Queensland, graduating with a Bachelor of Laws degree, he was President of the Student Club at St John's College. He completed a Master of Arts degree from Queensland University of Technology, began practising as a lawyer. Prior to his election to parliament, Beattie was a solicitor of the Supreme Court of Queensland and secretary of the Railway Stationmasters' Union. In 1974, he joined the Australian Labor Party, in opposition for 17 years and had just suffered the worst defeat in its history at the hands of the dominant National Party Premier, Joh Bjelke-Petersen. In the 1980 federal election, Beattie was the Labor candidate for the federal Division of Ryan and was defeated by the Liberal incumbent John Moore, but achieving a 3 percent two party preferred swing in the process.
Beattie became involved in the campaign led by Dr Denis Murphy to reform the Queensland branch of the party, dominated by elderly and conservative trade union leaders. In 1981 the federal Labor Party leader, Bill Hayden, led a federal intervention in Queensland, Beattie became Queensland State Secretary. Eight years Wayne Goss became Queensland's first Labor Premier since Vince Gair in 1957. At the 1989 election Beattie was elected to the Queensland Parliament as MP for Brisbane Central. Something of a maverick within the parliamentary party during his early term, Beattie was mistrusted by faction leaders and kept out of the ministry, his main post was as chairman of the parliamentary committee overseeing the Criminal Justice Commission, a role in which he took the side of CJC Commissioner Sir Max Bingham against the Goss government, earning Goss's ire. Beattie publicly criticised Goss for being out of touch. Goss did not appoint him to the ministry until Labor's near defeat at the 1995 election, where Beattie became Minister for Health.
He was only in office for three months before the Goss government lost office following defeat in the Mundingburra by-election. Goss stood down as ALP leader, Beattie was elected in his stead, thus becoming Opposition Leader, his first act as Opposition leader was to move a motion in Parliament preventing the new Coalition government under Rob Borbidge from calling an early election. Labor feared; the motion carried. At the 1998 state election Labor won 44 seats out of 89, was only denied a majority when One Nation won six seats that otherwise would have gone to Labor if not for leakage of Coalition preferences; the balance of power rested with two independents, Peter Wellington and Liz Cunningham, the 11 One Nation MPs. Labor needed the support of only one crossbencher to make Beattie premier, while the Coalition needed them all for Borbidge to stay in office. Wellington announced his support for Labor. A few months Charles Rappolt, the One Nation member for Mulgrave, abruptly resigned. Labor's Warren Pitt, who had held the seat from 1989 to 1995, won the ensuing by-election, giving Beattie a majority in his own right.
Pitt would have retaken his old seat a few months earlier, if not for Coalition preferences leaking to Rappolt. Shortly before the 2001 election, he faced a crisis when a CJC inquiry - the Shepherdson inquiry - revealed that a number of MPs and party activists, including Deputy Premier Jim Elder, had been engaged in breaches of the Electoral Act by falsely enrolling people to boost their faction's strength in internal party ballots; as well a former State Secretary and newly elected MP Mike Kaiser, a senior adviser to Wayne Goss had been falsely enrolled some 16 years earlier as part of a factional battle. Beattie acted swiftly, forcing a number of MPs to quit politics and forcing Elder to resign as Deputy Premier. In the ensuing campaign, Beattie claimed, he argued the only alternative was a Coalition government propped up by One Nation and former One Nation MPs—an argument that gained particular resonance when Borbidge's own party room reneged on Borbidge's promise not to preference One Nation.
Beattie was rewarded with a smashing victory, winning 66 seats out of 89—the biggest majority Labor has won in an election. It took all but one seat in Brisbane. Beattie’s key agenda was
Palm Island, Queensland
Palm Island is an Aboriginal community located on Great Palm Island called by the Aboriginal name "Bwgcolman", an island on the Great Barrier Reef in North Queensland, Australia. The settlement is known by a variety of other names including "the Mission", Palm Island Settlement or Palm Community. Palm Island is termed a classic "tropical paradise" given its natural endowments, but it has had a troubled history since the European settlement of Australia. For much of the twentieth century it was used by the Queensland Government as a settlement for Aboriginals considered guilty of such infractions as being "disruptive", being pregnant to a white man or being born with "mixed blood"; the community created by this history has been beset by many problems and has been the discussion point of political and social commentators. Of significant sociological concern is a lack of jobs and housing. Since its creation as an Aboriginal reserve, Palm Island has been considered synonymous with Indigenous disadvantage and violence.
At the same time it has been at the forefront of political activism which has sought to improve the conditions and treatment of Australia's Indigenous peoples as well as redress injustices visited on them broadly as a race and on Palm Island specifically. In Manbarra beliefs the Palm Island group were formed in the Dreamtime from the broken up fragments of an ancestral spirit, Rainbow Serpent; the island was named by explorer James Cook in 1770 as he sailed up the eastern coast of Australia on his first voyage. It is estimated that the population of the island at the time of Cook's visit was about 200 Manbarra people. Cook sent some of his men to Palm Island and'they returned on board having met with nothing worth observing.'From the 1850s locals were recruitment targets to leave the island to be involved with bêche-de-mer and pearling enterprises with Europeans and Japanese. By the end of the 19th century the population had been reduced to about 50. In 1909 the Chief Protector of Aborigines visited the Island to check on the activities of Japanese pearling crews in the area, reported the existence of a small camp of Aborigines.
In 1916 Queensland's Chief Protector of Aborigines found Palm Island to be "the ideal place for a delightful holiday' and that its remoteness made it suitable for use as a penitentiary" for "individuals we desire to punish". In 1914 the Government established an Aboriginal settlement on the Hull River near Mission Beach on the Australian mainland. On 10 March 1918, the structures were never rebuilt. Subsequently, the settlement relocated to Palm Island with the new population referred to as the Bwgcolman people. In the first two decades of its establishment the population of Indigenous inmates increased from 200 to 1,630. People from at least 57 different language speaking regions throughout Queensland were relocated to Palm. By the early 1920s, Palm Island had become the largest of the Government Aboriginal settlements. Administrators found its location attractive as Aboriginal people could be isolated, but Palm Island gained a reputation amongst Aborigines as a penal settlement, they were removed from across Queensland as punishment.
New arrivals came after being sentenced by a court, or released from prison, or were sent by administrators of other missions wishing to weed out their more ill-mannered or disruptive Aboriginals. These removals to the Palm Island Mission continued until the late 1960s. On arrival, children were separated from their parents and segregated by gender. Aborigines were forbidden to speak their language and from going into "white" zones; every day activity was controlled by administrators including nightly curfews and the vetting of mail. In the 1930s a local doctor highlighted malnutrition on the island, demanded that the Government triple rations for the islanders and that children be provided with fruit juice, but the request was denied. A bell tower was built to dictate the running of the mission, it would ring each morning at eight. Those who failed to line up had their food allocation cut. At nine each evening the bell would ring again signalling the shutting down of the island's electricity; the bell tower still stands in the local square to a relic of Palm's history.
It was recorded at the time that there was military-like discipline in the segregation between white and black, that inmates "were treated as rather dull retarded children". In 1926 a hospital was built at nearby Fantome Island. In 1936 Fantome Island became a medical clearing station where people sent to Palm Island were examined and treated if necessary. A leprosarium was established on Fantome in 1939. After World War II the hospital was closed, by 1965 only the leprosarium remained on Fantome, it was administered by a Roman Catholic nursing order until 1973 when the inhabitants were moved to Palm Island; the administrators had complete and unaccountable control over the lives of residents, punishments included the shaving of the girls' heads. On a surprise inspection of the Palm Island Prison during an official visit in the late 1960s, Senator Jim Keeffe and academic Henry Reynolds discovered two 12- to 13‑year‑old schoolgirls incarcerated in the settlement's prison by the senior administrator on the island, because "they swore at the teacher".
The following letter was written to a new bride by the "Protector".
The Coral Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific off the northeast coast of Australia, classified as an interim Australian bioregion. The Coral Sea extends 2,000 kilometres down the Australian northeast coast, it is bounded in the west by the east coast of Queensland, thereby including the Great Barrier Reef, in the east by Vanuatu and by New Caledonia, in the northeast by the southern extremity of the Solomon Islands. In the northwest, it reaches to the south coast of eastern New Guinea, thereby including the Gulf of Papua, it merges with the Tasman Sea in the south, with the Solomon Sea in the north and with the Pacific Ocean in the east. On the west, it is bounded by the mainland coast of Queensland, in the northwest, it connects with the Arafura Sea through the Torres Strait; the sea is characterised with frequent rains and tropical cyclones. It contains numerous islands and reefs, as well as the world's largest reef system, the Great Barrier Reef, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981.
All previous oil exploration projects were terminated at the GBR in 1975, fishing is restricted in many areas. The reefs and islands of the Coral Sea are rich in birds and aquatic life and are a popular tourist destination, both nationally and internationally. While the Great Barrier Reef with its islands and cays belong to Queensland, most reefs and islets east of it are part of the Coral Sea Islands Territory. In addition, some islands west of and belonging to New Caledonia are part of the Coral Sea Islands in a geographical sense, such as the Chesterfield Islands and Bellona Reefs; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Coral Sea as follows: On the North. The South coast of New Guinea from the entrance to the Bensbach River to Gadogadoa Island near its Southeastern extreme, down this meridian to the 100 fathom line and thence along the Southern edges of Uluma Reef and those extending to the Eastward as far as the Southeast point of Lawik Reef off Tagula Island, thence a line to the Southern extreme of Rennell Island and from its Eastern point to Cape Surville, the Eastern extreme of San Cristobal Island, Solomons.
On the Northeast. From the Northernmost island of the Duff Islands, through these islands to their Southeastern extreme, thence a line to Méré Lava, Vanuatu Islands and down the Eastern coasts of the islands of this Group to Anatom Island in such a way that all the islands of these Groups, the straits separating them, are included in the Coral Sea. On the Southeast. A line from the Southeastern extreme of Anatom Island to Nokanhoui off the Southeast extreme of New Caledonia, thence through the East point of Middleton Reef to the Eastern extreme of Elizabeth Reef and down this meridian to Latitude 30° South. On the South; the parallel of 30° South to the Australian coast. On the West; the Eastern limit of the Arafura Sea and the East Coast of Australia as far south as Latitude 30° South. The Coral Sea basin was formed between 58 million and 48 million years ago when the Queensland continental shelf was uplifted, forming the Great Dividing Range, continental blocks subsided at the same time; the sea has been an important source of coral for the Great Barrier Reef, both during its formation and after sea level lowering.
The geological formation processes are still proceeding, as evidenced by the seismic activity. Several hundred earthquakes with the magnitude between 2 and 6 were recorded in the period 1866–2000 along the Queensland coast and in the Coral Sea. On 2 April 2007, the Solomon Islands were struck by a major earthquake followed by a several metres tall tsunami; the epicentre of this magnitude 8.1 earthquake was 349 km northwest of Honiara, at a depth of 10 kilometres. It was followed by more than 44 aftershocks of a magnitude greater; the resulting tsunami destroyed more than 900 homes. The sea received its name because of its numerous coral formations, they include the GBR, which extends about 2,000 km along the northeast coast of Australia and includes 2,900 individual reefs and 1000 islands. The Chesterfield Islands and Lihou Reef are the largest atolls of the Coral Sea. Major Coral Sea currents form a counter-clockwise gyro, it brings warm nutrient-poor waters from the Coral Sea down the east coast of Australia to the cool waters of the Tasman Sea.
This current is the strongest along the Australian coasts and transforms 30 million m3/s of water within a flow band of about 100 kilometres wide and 500 metres deep. The current is weakest around August; the major river flowing into the sea is the Burdekin River, which has its delta southeast of Townsville. Owing to the seasonal and annual variations in occurrence of cyclones and in precipitation, its annual discharge can vary more than 10 times between the two succeeding years. In particular, in the period 1920–1999, the average flow rate near the delta was below 1000 m3/s in 1923, 1931, 1939, 1969, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1993 and 1995; this irregul
Townsville is a city on the north-eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. Townsville is Australia's largest urban centre north of the Sunshine Coast, with a population of 173,815 as of the 2016 Australian census. Considered the unofficial capital of North Queensland by locals, Townsville hosts a significant number of governmental and major business administrative offices for the northern half of the state, it is in the dry tropics region of Queensland, adjacent to the central section of the Great Barrier Reef. The city is a major industrial centre, home to one of the world's largest zinc refineries, a nickel refinery and many other similar activities; the Port of Townsville is being expanded to allow much larger cargo ships from Asia and the world's largest passenger ships to visit. It is an important port due to its proximity to Asia and major trading partners such as China. Popular attractions include "The Strand", a long tropical beach and garden strip; such indigenous groups as the Wulgurukaba, Girrugubba and Nawagi, among others inhabited the Townsville area.
The Wulgurukaba claim to be the traditional owner of the Townsville city area. James Cook visited the Townsville region on his first voyage to Australia in 1770, but did not land there. Cook named Cleveland Bay and Magnetic Island. In 1819, Captain Phillip Parker King and botanist Alan Cunningham were the first Europeans to record a local landing. In 1846, James Morrill was shipwrecked from the Peruvian, living in the Townsville area among the Bindal people for 17 years before being found by white men and returned to Brisbane; the Burdekin River's seasonal flooding made the establishment of a seaport north of the river essential to the nascent inland cattle industry. John Melton Black of Woodstock Station, an employee of Sydney entrepreneur and businessman Robert Towns, dispatched Andrew Ball, Mark Watt Reid and a detachment of 8 troopers of the Native Police under the command of John Marlow to search for a suitable site. Ball's party reached the Ross Creek in April 1864 and established a camp below the rocky spur of Melton Hill, near the present Customs House on The Strand.
Edward Kennedy, a member of the surveying party, recalls the Native Police chasing local tribesmen into the ocean and'pumping lead' at them. On the return journey to Port Denison, the group'dispersed' another aboriginal clan, rounding up fifteen women'who remained at the scene of combat' and abducted them back to the barracks. No mention is made of the fate of any children; the first party of settlers, led by W. A. Ross, arrived at Cleveland Bay from Woodstock Station on 5 November of that year. In 1866 Robert Towns visited for his first and only visit, he agreed to provide ongoing financial assistance to the new settlement and Townsville was named in his honour. Townsville was declared a municipality in February 1866, with John Melton Black elected as its first Mayor. Townsville developed as the major port and service centre for the Cape River, Ravenswood and Charters Towers goldfields. Regional pastoral and sugar industries expanded and flourished. Townsville's population was 4,000 people in 1882 and grew to 13,000 by 1891.
In 1901 Lord Hopetoun made a goodwill tour of northern Australia and accepted an invitation to open Townsville's town hall, occasioning the first vice-regal ceremonial unfurling of the Australian national flag. With Brisbane, in 1902 Townsville was proclaimed a City under the Local Authorities Act; the foundation stone of the Townsville Cenotaph was laid in Strand Park on 19 July 1923. It was unveiled on 25 April 1924 by Sir Matthew Nathan; the rural land surrounding the city was managed by the Thuringowa Road Board, which became the Shire of Thuringowa. The shire ceded land several times to support Townsville's expansion. In 1986 the Shire became incorporated as a city, governed by the Thuringowa City Council; the cities of Townsville and Thuringowa were amalgamated into the "new" Townsville City Council in March 2008, as part of the Queensland state government's reform program. In 1896, Japan established its first Australian consulate in Townsville to serve some 4,000 Japanese workers who migrated to work in the sugar cane, trochus, beche de mer, pearling industries.
With the introduction of the White Australia policy, the demand for Japanese workers decreased, causing the consulate to close in 1908. During the Second World War, the city was host to more than 50,000 American and Australian troops and air crew, it became a major staging point for battles in the South West Pacific. A large United States Armed Forces contingent supported the war effort from seven airfields and other bases around the city and in the region; the first bombing raid on Rabaul, in Papua New Guinea, on 23 February 1942 was carried out by six B-17s based near Townsville. Some of the units based in Townsville were: No. 3 Fighter Sector RAAF, Wulguru & North Ward 1 Wireless Unit, Pimlico & Stuart & Roseneath North Eastern Area Command HQ, Sturt Street Castle H
Division of Herbert
The Division of Herbert is an Australian Electoral Division in Queensland. Eligible voters within the Division elect a single representative, known as the member for Herbert, to the Australian House of Representatives; the division was one of the original 65 divisions contested at the 1901 election. It is located in northern Queensland, is named after Sir Robert Herbert, the first Premier of Queensland, it has always been based around the city of Townsville. On its original boundaries, it covered most of northeastern Queensland, stretching from Mackay to the Torres Strait. Much of its northern portion, including Cairns and the Cape York Peninsula, transferred to Kennedy in 1934 (these areas are now part of Leichhardt, its northeastern portion, including Mackay, became Dawson in 1949. By 1984, successive redistributions cut back the seat to little more than Townsville and its inner suburbs; the seat had long been one of Australia's noteworthy bellwether seats. It was won by the party of government for all but two terms from the 1966 election until the 2007 election, where it was hotly contested with local identity and businessman George Colbran pre-selected by Labor to contest Herbert, however Liberal incumbent Peter Lindsay managed to retain the seat with a wafer-thin 50.2 percent two-party vote from a 6 percent two-party swing while his party lost government.
Ewen Jones of the merged Liberal National Party succeeded Lindsay and retained the seat at the following two elections with increased margins. Herbert featured the closest result of any division at the 2016 federal election. Following a recount, the Australian Electoral Commission confirmed on 31 July that Labor's Cathy O'Toole defeated the LNP incumbent by 37 votes, becoming the first Labor member to win the seat since 1996; the LNP considered a legal challenge to the result. Division of Herbert — Australian Electoral Commission