Bruny Island is a 362-square-kilometre island located off the south-eastern coast of Tasmania, Australia. The island is separated from the Tasmanian mainland by the D'Entrecasteaux Channel, its east coast lies within the Tasman Sea. Storm Bay is located to the island's northeast. Both the island and the channel are named after French explorer Bruni d'Entrecasteaux, its traditional Aboriginal name is lunawanna-allonah, which survives as the name of two island settlements and Lunawanna. Geologically, Bruny Island is two land masses—North Bruny and South Bruny—that are joined by a long, narrow sandy isthmus. Bruny Island has a total length of 50 kilometres; the holiday village of Dennes Point is located in North Bruny, while South Bruny is the site of the towns of Alonnah, Adventure Bay and Lunawanna. Outside its settlements the island is covered in grazing fields and large tracts of dry eucalyptus forest. Inland forests continue to be logged, but other large sections—mostly along the southeastern coast—are preserved as the South Bruny National Park.
While the seaward side of the island features two long beaches—Adventure Bay and Cloudy Bay—it is for the most part rugged, with cliffs of dolerite that are over 200 metres AHD . Bruny's channel side is far more sheltered and a favourite fishing and recreational boating area for local and interstate visitors. Adventure Bay is located on the eastern side of the isthmus, while Isthmus Bay is located on the western side. Access to the island is by vehicular ferry, funded by the State Government. Since 1954, four vessels have operated the Bruny Island Ferry service between the island and Kettering on the mainland; the service is plied by the Mirambeena, unusual for using a Voith-Schneider propulsion system rather than a conventional propeller. The d'Entrecastaux Channel region, sheltered by Bruny Island, is subject to foreshore erosion, some areas have begun sandbagging to reduce the effects. Bruny Island was inhabited by the Aborigines until European arrival, although there is still a large community of people who identify as Aboriginal.
Abel Tasman tried to land in the vicinity of Adventure Bay in November 1642. In 1773 Tobias Furneaux was the first recorded European to land on the island at Adventure Bay. Cook carved his initials in a tree, destroyed in a 1905 bushfire and is now commemorated by a plaque. In 1788 and again in 1792 William Bligh stayed in the Adventure Bay area; the island itself however is named after the French explorer Bruni d'Entrecasteaux who explored the Channel region and discovered it to be an island in 1792. It was known as Bruni Island until 1918. Whaling was conducted off the coast of Bruny Island in the first half of the 19th century; the British whaler Alexander was reported to be whaling in Adventure Bay in 1804. In 1805, the British whalers Richard and Mary and the Sydney whaler King George were reported there in the winter months; the American whaler Topaz was there in 1807. Colonial entrepreneurs operated shore-based whaling stations there. Bethune and Kelly had a station operating in Adventure Bay by August 1826.
Kelly and Lucas had another at Bull Bay. Young and Walford had one at Trumpeter Bay. Alexander Imlay applied for the site as a whaling station at Cloudy Bay in 1837, Brown and Rogers did the same in 1842; these stations had all ceased operating by 1850, although whaling vessels sometimes anchored offshore in the second half of the century. Though "Cooktown" was marked on maps as early as the 1840s, the island was not opened up to European settlement until the late 1800s when the timber industry took off. South Bruny was opened up by numerous tramways and haulages, some horse-drawn and some using modified locomotives; the longest and best preserved tramway runs from Adventure Bay to the far southeast corner of the island. All settlements on South Bruny were opened as timber ports owned by the different timber companies operating on the island. Lunawanna and Adventure Bay/Cooktown were some of the largest ports operating on the island. At Daniels Bay, the settlement was separated from the timber jetty as the tramway was forced to trace along the south side of the bay to reach deep water as most of the bay was too shallow to bring boats in.
Most settlements of South Bruny now serve as shack towns or holiday locations. Since the 1920s the island has become known as a holiday location with surfing beaches, National Parks and historical sites. In more recent history the Bruny Island was the site of a land transfer by the state government to local Aboriginal people. Bruny Island is classified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because it supports the world's largest population of the endangered forty-spotted pardalote, up to a third of the world population of the swift parrot, all 12 of Tasmania's 12 endemic bird species, up to 240,000 breeding pairs of the short-tailed shearwater. A key contributor to Bruny Island's economy is its growing tourism industry. Being home to the South Bruny National Park, tourism on the island centres on the showcase of its natural assets; the Cape Bruny Lighthouse is an iconic Australian lighthouse and was the oldest continuous lighthouse under operation by the Commonwealth. Now out of service, it has been transferred to the Tasmanian Government and is part of the South Bruny National Park and is now operated by www.brunyislandlighthousetours.com.au.
In 2010/11, overall visitors to Br
Bolton Stafford Bird CMG was an English-born Australian Congregationalist clergyman and politician. Bird was born in Hazlerigg, the son of the local schoolmaster. In 1852 the family began farming at Clunes, Victoria. In 1865 Bird was ordained in the Wesleyan Methodist Church, but in 1867 transferred to the Congregational Church as minister of the church at Ballarat. In 1870 he took charge of several churches in the Avoca district. In 1874 he took over the church in Davey Street, Tasmania, but resigned in 1877 due to ill-health and bought a farm near Geeveston in the Huon district, he grew apples, which he began to ship to England, thus becoming a pioneer of the Tasmanian apple export industry. In August 1891, the Bank of Van Diemen's Land, with whom Bird held a mortgage, collapsed and he lost the farm, moving to a much smaller property at Lunawanna on Bruny Island. In 1882, Bird was elected to the Tasmanian House of Assembly for Franklin. In 1887 he became Treasurer in Philip Fysh's ministry, serving until Fysh's defeat in 1892.
He served as Leader of the Opposition until 1894 and Speaker of the House of Assembly until December 1896. He was Treasurer again under Sir Elliott Lewis from 1899 to 1903. From 1904 to 1909 he represented South Hobart. In 1909 he was elected to the upper house, the Legislative Council, retired in 1923. Bird was appointed Companion of the Order of St George in the 1920 New Year Honours. Australian Dictionary of Biography Obituary
Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate, in order to make a collective decision or express an opinion following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracies elect holders of high office by voting. Residents of a place represented by an elected official are called "constituents", those constituents who cast a ballot for their chosen candidate are called "voters". There are different systems for collecting votes. In a democracy, a government is chosen by voting in an election: a way for an electorate to elect, i.e. choose, among several candidates for rule. In a representative democracy voting is the method by the which the electorate appoints its representatives in its government. In a direct democracy, voting is the method by which the electorate directly make decisions, turn bills into laws, etc. A vote is a formal expression of an individual's choice against some motion. Many countries use a secret ballot, a practice to prevent voters from being intimidated and to protect their political privacy.
Voting takes place at a polling station. Different voting systems use different types of votes. Plurality voting does not require the winner to achieve a vote majority, or more than fifty percent of the total votes cast. In a voting system that uses a single vote per race, when more than two candidates run, the winner may have less than fifty percent of the vote. A side effect of a single vote per race is vote splitting, which tends to elect candidates that do not support centrism, tends to produce a two-party system. An alternative to a single-vote system is approval voting. To understand why a single vote per race tends to favor less centric candidates, consider a simple lab experiment where students in a class vote for their favorite marble. If five marbles are assigned names and are placed "up for election", if three of them are green, one is red, one is blue a green marble will win the election; the reason is. In fact, in this analogy, the only way that a green marble is to win is if more than sixty percent of the voters prefer green.
If the same percentage of people prefer green as those who prefer red and blue, to say if 33 percent of the voters prefer green, 33 percent prefer blue, 33 percent prefer red each green marble will only get eleven percent of the vote, while the red and blue marbles will each get 33 percent, putting the green marbles at a serious disadvantage. If the experiment is repeated with other colors, the color, in the majority will still win. In other words, from a purely mathematical perspective, a single-vote system tends to favor a winner, different from the majority. If the experiment is repeated using approval voting, where voters are encouraged to vote for as many candidates as they approve of the winner is much more to be any one of the five marbles, because people who prefer green will be able to vote for every one of the green marbles. A development on the'single vote' system is to have two-round elections, or repeat first-past-the-post; this system is most common around the world. In most cases, the winner must receive a majority, more than half.
And if no candidate obtains a majority at the first round the two candidates with the largest plurality are selected for the second round. Variants exist on these two points: the requirement for being elected at the first round is sometimes less than 50%, the rules for participation in the runoff may vary. An alternative to the Two-round voting system is the single round instant-runoff voting system as used in some elections in Australia and the USA. Voters rank each candidate in order of preference. Votes are distributed to each candidate according to the preferences allocated. If no single candidate has 50% of the vote the candidate with the fewest votes is excluded and their votes redistributed according to the voters nominated order of preference; the process repeating itself until a candidate has 50% or more votes. The system is designed to produce the same result as an exhaustive ballot but using only a single round of voting. In a voting system that uses a multiple vote, the voter can vote for any subset of the alternatives.
So, a voter might vote for Alice and Charlie, rejecting Daniel and Emily. Approval voting uses such multiple votes. In a voting system that uses a ranked vote, the voter has to rank the alternatives in order of preference. For example, they might vote for Bob in first place Emily Alice Daniel, Charlie. Ranked voting systems, such as those famously used in Australia, use a ranked vote. In a voting system that uses a scored vote, the voter gives each alternative a number between one and ten. See cardinal voting systems; some "multiple-winner" systems may have a single vote or one vote per elector per available position. In such a case the elector could vote for Charlie on a ballot with two votes; these types of systems can use ranked or unranked voting, are used for at-large positions such as on some city councils. Most of the time, when the citizens of a country are invited to vote, it is for an election. However, people can vote in referendums and initiatives. Since the end of the eighteenth century, more than five hundred national referendums were organised in the world.
Geeveston is a small town in the south of Tasmania in Australia on the Huon River, 62 km south west of Hobart, making it Australia's most southerly administrative centre. The town takes its name from William Geeves, an English settler, given a land grant by Lady Jane Franklin in the area known as Lightwood Bottom; the settlement Geeves set up was renamed Geeves Town in 1861, the name became Geeveston. Geeveston is for local government purposes included in the area of the Huon Valley Council and is part of the division of Franklin for both Australian House of Representatives and Tasmanian House of Assembly electoral purposes. Geeveston is on the Huon Highway, is the gateway to the Hartz Mountains National Park, it is the centre of Tasmania's apple and fruit-growing industry, has been reliant on the timber industry since the late 19th century. A pulp mill was opened in the town in 1962, was Geeveston's largest employer until the plant closed in 1982, devastating the area economically; the Forest & Heritage Centre, a tourist centre which details the history of the timber industry in the area, is located in Geeveston.
Since 2016, the town has hosted the filming of the comedy series Rosehaven. Geeves-Town Post Office opened on 1 June 1876 and was renamed Geeveston in 1888. Tahune Airwalk Geeveston Central town website Geeveston Cenotaph - Monument Australia
Snug is a small coastal town on the Channel Highway located 30 kilometres south of Hobart in Tasmania, Australia. At the 2006 census, Snug had a population of 881. Snug is a part of the Municipality of Kingborough. Snug is residential location for individuals working in Kingborough, has a small tourism industry, it features two churches, the Snug Primary School, General Store, pub, a community hall and soccer clubrooms, the 1967 Tasmanian Bushfire Memorial, caravan park and the Snug Village retirement home. A monthly market has been held in the town for the last 9 years; the area around Snug was first encountered by Europeans when Rear Admiral Bruni D'Entrecasteaux sailed up the nearby channel. Following the establishment of a colony at Hobart Town, the Snug River was discovered and named reflecting the "snug and agreeable seclusion" of the inlet. By the 1820s a port and sawmilling facilities had become established at nearby North West Bay. Subsequently, around the 1840s and 1850s, a small settlement was established at Snug itself.
Snug River Post Office opened on 1 October 1870 and was renamed Snug in 1908. Around 1908, James Gillies began negotiations with the State government to permit the construction of a hydroelectric power scheme at Tasmania's Great Lake, for the purpose of providing power for his newly patented zinc smelting process and a "carbide" factory. Constructed of the "carbide" factory commenced in the vicinity of Snug in 1917, shortly after the end of World War One the Electrona Carbide Works began production of "carbide" using lime and electric arc furnaces; the carbide was used in the manufacture of acetylene gas. Gillies was unable to obtain sufficient liquidity to finish all of his planned electrification projects, on the verge of bankruptcy he lost control of the hydroelectric scheme to a State Government department formed for the purpose of rescuing his scheme: the Hydro Electric Department, which became the Hydro Electric Commission, now Hydro Tasmania. In 1924 Gillies went into receivership and the Carbide Works was taken over by "the Hydro", by Electrona Carbide Industries Pty Ltd, who continued to operate it as such into the 1980s.
With falling demand for carbide, suffering multimillion-dollar losses from plant failure in 1979, the carbide smelter was sold to Pioneer Silicon Industries Pty Ltd. This company converted it to a silicon smelter with a theoretical capacity of 10,000 tonnes/yr, produced metallurgical grade silicon "metal" from 1988. However, it was never able to make a profit and in August 1991, the plant was closed; the town had a football team. It won premierships in 1954, 1956 and 1957. During the 1967 Tasmanian bushfires the town of Snug was devastated, two-thirds of the town's houses were destroyed, along with two churches and half the school. Eleven people lost their lives; the local football team was forced to merge with other local clubs to become the Channel Football Club. List of localities in Tasmania
The Huon Valley, or the Huon is a valley and geographic area located in southern Tasmania, Australia. The largest town is Huonville, with other smaller towns spread across the area, it includes Australia's most southern permanent settlement at Southport. The Huon Valley Council area had a population of 15,140 in 2011. Famed for its apple growing, the Valley was first settled by British colonists in the 1820s; the area it is sometimes combined as the Huon-Channel area with the areas around D'Entrecasteaux Channel. The Huon Valley, along with its local government authority, several towns, the Huon River and the Huon Pine were named after Jean-Michel Huon de Kermadec; the Huon is both a major agricultural area famous for growing apples, but producing cherries and stone fruit and is home to many commuter workers who work in Hobart or Kingston and prefer to live in a more rural setting. It is a major source of seafood; the largest employers are agriculture and aquaculture, followed by out of Valley work.
The area was first settled by Europeans in the early 1820s. In 1843 Thomas Judd planted the first apple trees, he was followed by Silas Parsons, founder of Grove and Wm. Barnett, Wm. Cuthbert and William Geeves, namesake of Geeveston; the valley falls into the Commonwealth Division of Franklin and the Tasmanian House of Assembly State Division of Franklin. The Huon Valley Council is the local government authority, it was divided among the Municipalities of Port Cygnet and Huon, which merged in 1993 to form the Huon Valley Council. In 2016 the Huon Valley Council was sacked by the state government after a long period of severe dysfunction; the Huon Valley hosts the Huon News, a weekly local newspaper, the Cygnet & Channel Classifieds, a small local newsletter. Pulse FM Kingborough and Huon is the local youth radio station, Geeveston is the headquarters of Huon FM, a community radio station, it was served by the Huon Times, which closed in 1942. List of valleys of Tasmania
Franklin is a small township on the western side of the Huon River in the south-east of Tasmania, between Huonville and Geeveston. At the 2011 census, Franklin had a population of 337, it was named after Sir John Franklin and his wife Lady Jane Franklin who subdivided a large property there owned by John Price to settle families of modest means. The Franklins had a ketch named Huon Pine built at Port Davey to provide a direct link between the settlement at Hobart. Huon Post Office opened on 31 August 1848, was renamed Franklin-Huon in 1853 and Franklin in 1878. Used for mixed cropping potatoes and other vegetables, by the late 19th century Franklin and its immediate surrounds were a major apple orcharding region. With the collapse of Tasmania's export fruit industry during the 1970s the region reverted to mixed farming; until the 1930s Franklin was the major town in the Huon Valley. It was thriving with the shipping. Franklin boasted several hotels, banks and a Town Hall, it had its own hydroelectric power station, driven by a local creek.
With the establishment of a better road across the Sleeping Beauty Range mountains and the growth of the nearby town Huonville, Franklin went into decline over the next few decades. However, it has had a resurgence as a popular tourist town and has had an influx of interstate'Seachangers' who have revitalised the town. Much of old Franklin remains