Electoral threshold

The electoral threshold, or election threshold, is the minimum share of the primary vote which a candidate or political party requires to achieve before they become entitled to any representation in a legislature. This limit can operate in various ways. For example, in party-list proportional representation systems an electoral threshold requires that a party must receive a specified minimum percentage of votes, either nationally or in a particular electoral district, to obtain any seats in the legislature. In multi-member constituencies using preferential voting, besides the electoral threshold, to be awarded a seat, a candidate is required to achieve a quota, either on the primary vote or after distribution of preferences, which depends on the number of members to be return from a constituency; the effect of an electoral threshold is to deny representation to small parties or to force them into coalitions, with the presumption of rendering the election system more stable by keeping out fringe parties.

However, critics argue out that in the absence of a ranked ballot system, supporters of minor parties are disenfranchised and denied the right of representation by someone of their choosing. Two boundaries can be defined—a threshold of representation is the minimum vote share that might yield a party a seat while the threshold of exclusion is the maximum vote share that could be insufficient to yield a seat. Lijphart suggested calculating the informal threshold as the mean of these. In Poland's Sejm, Germany's Bundestag and New Zealand's House of Representatives, the threshold is 5%. However, in Germany and New Zealand, if a party wins a minimum number of directly elected seats—three in Germany and one in New Zealand—the threshold does not apply; the threshold is 10 % in the Turkish parliament. In Poland, ethnic minority parties do not have to reach the threshold level to get into the parliament and so there is always a small German minority representation in the Sejm. In Romania, for the ethnic minority parties there is a different threshold than for the national parties that run for the Chamber of Deputies.

There are countries such as Portugal, South Africa, the Netherlands and North Macedonia that have proportional representation systems without a legal threshold, although the Netherlands has a rule that the first seat can never be a remainder seat, which means that there is an effective threshold of 100% divided by the total number of seats. In the Slovenian parliamentary elections of 1992 and 1996, the threshold was set at 3 parliamentary seats; this meant. In 2000, the threshold was raised to 4% of the votes. In Sweden, there is a nationwide threshold of 4%, but if a party reaches 12% in one election district, it will take part in the seat allocation for that district. However, through the 2014 election nobody has been elected based on the 12% rule. In Norway, the nationwide electoral threshold of 4% applies only to leveling seats. A party with sufficient local support may still win the regular district seats if the party fails to meet the threshold. Following the 2009 election, the Liberal Party won two seats in this manner.

In Australia, which uses a single transferable vote proportional representation system, they avoided the need for a formal electoral threshold by establishing smaller electorates with each multi-member electorate returning fewer members of a Parliament and as such requiring a higher quota percentage in order to be elected. As Australia uses a ranked voting system supporters of minor parties are not disenfranchised as their votes are redistributed to other candidates according to the voter's nominated order of preference which can form part of another candidates winning quota. In the United States, as the majority of elections are conducted under the first-past-the-post system, legal electoral thresholds do not apply in the actual voting. However, several states have threshold requirements for parties to obtain automatic ballot access to the next general election without having to submit voter-signed petitions; the threshold requirements have no practical bearing on the two main political parties as they meet the requirements, but have come into play for minor parties such as the Green and Libertarian parties.

The threshold rules apply for independent candidates to obtain ballot access. Countries can have more than one threshold. Germany, as mentioned earlier, has a regular threshold of 5%, but a party winning three constituency seats in the Bundestag can gain additional representation if it has achieved under 5% of the total vote. Most multiple-threshold systems are still in the proposal stage. Electoral thresholds are implemented with the intention of bringing stability to the political system; the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe recommends for parliamentary elections a threshold not higher than 3%. However, a 2007 European Court of Human Rights decision and Sadak v. Turkey, held that Turkey's 10% threshold did not violate Article 3 of Protocol 1 of the ECHR; because Turkey has no limits for independent candidates, the 10% rule has to some extent been circumvented by parties running candidates as independents. The number of seats in each electoral district creates a natural threshold (also called a hidden

Jasun Martz

Jasun Martz is an American record producer, musician, fine artist, creative director and sculptor who has worked on several #1 internationally best selling hit records but is best known for his contemporary classical symphonies. He has recorded with Michael Jackson, toured with Frank Zappa and helped arrange one of rock music's best selling hits: "We Built this City" by Starship. A renowned New York based painter and sculptor, Martz has lived in New York, Los Angeles and London and has created and exhibited "raw expressionist" paintings and papier-mâché sculpture inspired by the subway passengers he encounters in each city, he collaborated with French modern master Jean Dubuffet on Martz's critically acclaimed avant-garde/ contemporary classical symphony entitled The Pillory. Martz began his music career at an early age, signing his first professional recording and publishing contract at the age of 15. An internationally known musician and producer, he has recorded and toured with numerous celebrated entertainers.

Millions have heard his recordings since he recorded on Michael Jackson's Bad albums. He played keyboards and synthesizers on the quadruple platinum #1 hit "Black or White" from Jackson's Dangerous album, it was included on HIStory, Number Ones and three video/DVDs. He is the featured harmonica soloist on "Streetwalker", a Bad outtake which appeared on Bad 25, as a bonus track on the 2001 Bad Special Edition reissue, as the flip-side to the UK hit "Cry". Five of Michael Jackson's solo albums – Off the Wall, Bad, Dangerous and HIStory are among the top-sellers of all time and Martz appears on three of the five releases, he has recorded and toured with Frank Zappa, the Japanese progressive rock group The Far East Family Band, helped arrange Starship's #1 hit, "We Built This City" with Grammy award-winning producer Bill Bottrell. Bottrell has said Martz "...brought an immediacy and a rock & roll fire" to the Michael Jackson recordings.. In an interview in the New York Times in 2005, Martz said his music is sometimes wild and not for the faint of heart.

He composed and produced a contemporary classical symphony for the 115-member The Intercontinental Philharmonic Orchestra and Royal Choir. The Pillory/The Battle is a 2-CD set released in 2005 and 2007 and features 2½ hours of Mr. Martz's music. Searching for musical inspiration, Martz climbed to the refugio on Ecuador's Mount Cotopaxi–the world's tallest active volcano; when he descended the steep slope, he tripped and began a tumble. Martz has said he had an epiphany for the symphony; the music explores the Charles Darwin theory of evolution on the earth 200 million years into the future. It was reported in the New York Times that Mr. Martz said "after the tumble, a wild idea came to me of what the symphony should be."Martz conducted a 40-piece orchestra, the Neoteric Orchestra, in his critically acclaimed first avant-garde symphony The Pillory. The CD features members of Frank Zappa's band Ruth Underwood, Eddie Jobson, has received hundreds of international reviews and has been called a contemporary masterpiece.

Billboard Magazine reviewed The Pillory as a "Top Album Pick" and it was featured in Canadian director Francois Miron's film Resolving Power. Martz has composed for film and advertising. Martz is an internationally known New York based Creative Director in the beauty and fashion industries, he has created advertising campaigns for major brands such as Max Factor, Revlon, Procter & Gamble, Neutrogena and many others. An inventor, Martz is the creator and owner of many trademarks and patents, he was most awarded a United States patent for his invention of a sponge storage and disinfecting device. Martz studied at the University of Los Angeles. Jasun Martz has lived in New York since 1997. Love Thy Neighbor Kenise Barnes Fine Art Gallery, New York, August – September 2011 Harlem Art Project Saatchi & Saatchi, New York City December 2003 In Dim Light A five-year retrospective SPA, New York City October 2002 Oblivious Gallery @ 135, New York City March 13 – April 1, 2001 Under the Asphalt Siberia Gallery, New York City July 21 – August 20, 2000 Faces in the Dark Sash Gallery, Glen Ridge, New Jersey, September 7 – October 30, 1999 About Face Los Angeles Municipal Art Gallery, Los Angeles July 10 – September 1, 1996 Under LCA/LA Galleries, Los Angeles 1994 Underground LAM Gallery, England 1986 Michael Jackson "Bad 25" featured solo harmonica The Arts, the Intercontinental Philharmonic Orchestra, "The Victory Fanfare" composer, producer The Intercontinental Philharmonic Orchestra.

"Young", conductor, producer The Arts, "light" composer, grand piano Sue Reed "Whose Hat Covers That Sundial?" producer, drums, bass The Sin Circle producer, musician Jasun Martz with The Intercontinental Philharmonic Orchestra and Royal Choir "The Pillory/The Battle" producer, musician Jasun Martz with The Neoteric Orchestra "The Pillory" producer, musician The Sin Circle "Freedom", "Alive and Lubricated" motion picture and soundtrack CD produce

Coaling, Alabama

Coaling is a town in Tuscaloosa County, United States. It incorporated in September 1997. At the 2010 census the population was 1,657, it is part of Alabama Metropolitan Statistical Area. On April 27, 2011, parts of Coaling were devastated by an EF-3 tornado at 5:15 a.m. Three homes were destroyed, at least ten others were damaged, twice as many more sustained light damage. Though there were no fatalities, some residents were hospitalized for injuries. Coaling is located at 33°10′10″N 87°20′45″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 3.7 square miles, of which 3.7 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. The city employs three police officers. Coaling first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as the village of Coaling Station, it did not appear again as a separate community on the census until 2000 after its incorporation in 1997. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,657 people, 429 households, 335 families residing in the city; the population density was 303.6 people per square mile.

There were 458 housing units at an average density of 124.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.42% White, 11.40% Black or African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.50% from other races, 0.81% from two or more races. 1.68 % of the population were Latino of any race. Out of the 429 households, 38.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.3% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.7% were non-families. 18.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city the population was spread out with 71.57% under the age of 18, 4.58% from 20 - 24, 15.63% from 25 - 34, 22.57% from 35 - 49, 19.25% from 50 - 64 and 6.94% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 males there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $45,662, the median income for a family was $55,125. Males had a median income of $31,371 versus $21,394 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,664. None of the families and 1.4% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 15.9% of those over 64