Brutus of Troy
Brutus, or Brute of Troy, is a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, known in medieval British history as the eponymous founder and first king of Britain. This legend first appears in the Historia Brittonum, an anonymous 9th-century historical compilation to which commentary was added by Nennius, but is best known from the account given by the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Historia Regum Britanniae. Notwithstanding this, he is not mentioned in any classical text and cannot be considered to be historical; the Historia Britonum states that "The island of Britain derives its name from Brutus, a Roman consul" who conquered Spain. This is derived from Isidore of Seville's popular 7th-century work Etymologiae, in which it was speculated that Britain was named after the Roman general Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus, who pacified Further Spain in 138 BC. A more detailed story, set before the foundation of Rome, follows, in which Brutus is the grandson or great grandson of Aeneas — a legend that blends Isidore's spurious etymology with the Christian, pseudo-historical, "Frankish Table of Nations" tradition that emerged in the early medieval European scholarly world and attempted to trace the peoples of the known world back to Biblical ancestors.
Following Roman sources such as Livy and Virgil, the Historia tells how Aeneas settled in Italy after the Trojan War, how his son Ascanius founded Alba Longa, one of the precursors of Rome. Ascanius married, his wife became pregnant. In a variant version, the father is Silvius, identified as either the second son of Aeneas mentioned in the Historia, or as the son of Ascanius. A magician, asked to predict the child's future, said it would be a boy and that he would be the bravest and most beloved in Italy. Enraged, Ascanius had the magician put to death; the mother died in childbirth. The boy, named Brutus accidentally killed his father with an arrow and was banished from Italy. After wandering among the islands of the Tyrrhenian Sea and through Gaul, where he founded the city of Tours, Brutus came to Britain, named it after himself, filled it with his descendants, his reign is synchronised to the time the High Priest Eli was judge in Israel, when the Ark of the Covenant was taken by the Philistines.
A variant version of the Historia Britonum makes Brutus the son of Ascanius's son Silvius, traces his genealogy back to Ham, son of Noah. Another chapter traces Brutus's genealogy differently, making him the great-grandson of the legendary Roman king Numa Pompilius, himself a son of Ascanius, tracing his descent from Noah's son Japheth; these Christianising traditions conflict with the classical Trojan genealogies, relating the Trojan royal family to Greek gods. Yet another Brutus, son of Hisicion, son of Alanus the first European traced back across many generations to Japheth, is referred to in the Historia Britonum; this Brutus's brothers were Francus and Romanus ancestors of significant European nations. Geoffrey of Monmouth's account tells much the same story, but in greater detail. In this version, Brutus is explicitly the grandson, rather than son, of Ascanius; the magician who predicts great things for the unborn Brutus foretells he will kill both his parents. He does so, in the same manner described in the Historia Britonum, is banished.
Travelling to Greece, he discovers a group of Trojans enslaved there. He becomes their leader, after a series of battles they defeat the Greek king Pandrasus by attacking his camp at night after capturing the guards, he takes him hostage and forces him to let his people go. He is given Pandrasus's daughter Ignoge in marriage, ships and provisions for the voyage, sets sail; the Trojans land on a deserted island and discover an abandoned temple to Diana. After performing the appropriate ritual, Brutus falls asleep in front of the goddess's statue and is given a vision of the land where he is destined to settle, an island in the western ocean inhabited only by a few giants. After some adventures in north Africa and a close encounter with the Sirens, Brutus discovers another group of exiled Trojans living on the shores of the Tyrrhenian Sea, led by the prodigious warrior Corineus. In Gaul, Corineus provokes a war with Goffarius Pictus, king of Aquitaine, after hunting in the king's forests without permission.
Brutus's nephew Turonus dies in the fighting, the city of Tours is founded where he is buried. The Trojans win most of their battles but are conscious that the Gauls have the advantage of numbers, so go back to their ships and sail for Britain called Albion, they land on "Totonesium litus"—"the sea-coast of Totnes". They meet the giant descendants of Albion and defeat them. Brutus renames the island after himself and becomes its first king. Corineus becomes ruler of Cornwall, named after him, they are harassed by the giants during a festival, but kill all of them but their leader, the largest giant Goemagot, saved for a wrestling match against Corineus. Corineus throws him over a cliff to his death. Brutus founds a city on the banks of the River Thames, which he calls Troia Nova, or New Troy; the name is in time corrupted to Trinovantum, the city is called London. He creates laws for his people and rules for twenty-four years. After his death he is buried in Trinovantum, the island is divided between his three sons: Locrinus and Kamber.
Early translations and adaptations of Geoffrey's Historia, such as Wace's Norman French Roman de Brut, Layamon's Middle English Brut, were named a
In Roman mythology, Lavinia is the daughter of Latinus and Amata and the last wife of Aeneas. Lavinia, the only child of the king and "ripe for marriage", had been courted by many men who hoped to become the king of Latium. Turnus, ruler of the Rutuli, was the most of the suitors, having the favor of Queen Amata. King Latinus is warned by his father Faunus in a dream oracle that his daughter is not to marry a Latin. "Propose no Latin alliance for your daughter,Son of mine. Men from abroad will come And be your sons by marriage. Blood so mingled Lifts our name starward. Children of that stock Will see all earth turned Latin at their feet, Governed by them, as far as on his rounds The Sun looks down on Ocean, East or West." Lavinia has what is her most, or only, memorable moment in Book 7 of the Aeneid, lines 69–83: during sacrifice at the altars of the gods, Lavinia's hair catches fire, an omen promising glorious days to come for Lavinia and war for all Latins. Aeneas and Lavinia had Silvius. Aeneas named the city Lavinium for her.
According to an account by Livy, Ascanius was the son of Lavinia. In Ursula K. Le Guin's 2008 novel Lavinia, the character of Lavinia and her relationship with Aeneas is expanded and elaborated, giving insight into the life of a king's daughter in ancient Italy. Le Guin employs a self-conscious narrative device in having Lavinia as the first-person narrator know that she would not have a life without Virgil, being the writer of the Aeneid several centuries after her time, is thus her creator. Lavinia appears with her father Latinus in Dante's Divine Comedy, Canto IV, lines 125–126. Virgil. Aeneid. VII. Livy, Ab urbe condita Book 1
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars was the god of war and an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome. He was second in importance only to Jupiter and he was the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him, in October, which began the season for military campaigning and ended the season for farming. Under the influence of Greek culture, Mars was identified with the Greek god Ares, whose myths were reinterpreted in Roman literature and art under the name of Mars, but the character and dignity of Mars differed in fundamental ways from that of his Greek counterpart, treated with contempt and revulsion in Greek literature. Mars was a part of the Archaic Triad along with Jupiter and Quirinus, the latter of whom, as a guardian of the Roman people, had no Greek equivalent. Mars' altar in the Campus Martius, the area of Rome that took its name from him, was supposed to have been dedicated by Numa, the peace-loving semi-legendary second king of Rome.
Although the center of Mars' worship was located outside the sacred boundary of Rome, Augustus made the god a renewed focus of Roman religion by establishing the Temple of Mars Ultor in his new forum. Although Ares was viewed as a destructive and destabilizing force, Mars represented military power as a way to secure peace, was a father of the Roman people. In the mythic genealogy and founding myths of Rome, Mars was the father of Romulus and Remus with Rhea Silvia, his love affair with Venus symbolically reconciled the two different traditions of Rome's founding. The importance of Mars in establishing religious and cultural identity within the Roman Empire is indicated by the vast number of inscriptions identifying him with a local deity in the Western provinces. Mars may be a reflex of the Proto-Indo-European god Perkwunos, having a thunderer character. At least etymological Etruscan predecessors are present in Maris, though this is not universally agreed upon. Like Ares, the son of Zeus and Hera, Mars is considered to be the son of Jupiter and Juno.
However, in a version of his birth given by Ovid, he was the son of Juno alone. Jupiter had usurped the mother's function. Flora tested it on a heifer who became fecund at once, she plucked a flower ritually using her thumb, touched Juno's belly, impregnated her. Juno withdrew to the shore of Marmara for the birth. Ovid tells this story in his long-form poetic work on the Roman calendar, it may explain why the Matronalia, a festival celebrated by married women in honor of Juno as a goddess of childbirth, occurred on the first day of Mars' month, marked on a calendar from late antiquity as the birthday of Mars. In the earliest Roman calendar, March was the first month, the god would have been born with the new year. Ovid is the only source for the story, he may be presenting a literary myth of his own invention, or an otherwise unknown archaic Italic tradition. The consort of Mars was Nerio or Neriene, "Valor." She represents the vital force and majesty of Mars. Her name was regarded as Sabine in origin and is equivalent to Latin virtus, "manly virtue".
In the early 3rd century BC, the comic playwright Plautus has a reference to Mars greeting Nerio, his wife. A source from late antiquity says that Mars and Neriene were celebrated together at a festival held on March 23. In the Roman Empire, Neriene came to be identified with Minerva. Nerio originates as a divine personification of Mars' power, as such abstractions in Latin are feminine, her name appears with that of Mars in an archaic prayer invoking a series of abstract qualities, each paired with the name of a deity. The influence of Greek mythology and its anthropomorphic gods may have caused Roman writers to treat these pairs as "marriages." The union of Venus and Mars held greater appeal for poets and philosophers, the couple were a frequent subject of art. In Greek myth, the adultery of Ares and Aphrodite had been exposed to ridicule when her husband Hephaestus caught them in the act by means of a magical snare. Although not part of the Roman tradition, in 217 BC Venus and Mars were presented as a complementary pair in the lectisternium, a public banquet at which images of twelve major gods of the Roman state were presented on couches as if present and participating.
Scenes of Venus and Mars in Roman art ignore the adulterous implications of their union, take pleasure in the good-looking couple attended by Cupid or multiple Loves. Some scenes may imply marriage, the relationship was romanticized in funerary or domestic art in which husbands and wives had themselves portrayed as the passionate divine couple; the uniting of deities representing Love and War lent itself to allegory since the lovers were the parents of Concordia. The Renaissance philosopher Marsilio Ficino notes that "only Venus dominates Mars, he never dominates her". In ancient Roman and Renaissance art, Mars is shown disarmed and relaxed, or sleeping, but the extram
In Greek mythology, Laomedon was a Trojan king, son of Ilus and thus nephew of Ganymede and Assaracus. Laomedon was the father of Priam, Lampus, Clytius, Proclia, Medesicaste and Hesione. Tithonus is described by most sources as Laomedon's eldest legitimate son. Laomedon's possible wives are Placia and Leucippe, he had a son named Bucolion by the nymph Calybe, as recounted by Homer in the Iliad. Dictys Cretensis added Thymoetes to the list of Laomedon's children. Laomedon owned several horses with divine parentage that Zeus had given Tros as compensation for the kidnapping of Ganymede. Anchises secretly bred his own mares from these horses. According to one story, Laomedon's son, was kidnapped by Zeus, who had fallen in love with the beautiful boy. Laomedon grieved for his son. Sympathetic, Zeus sent Hermes with two horses so swift. Hermes assured Laomedon that Ganymede was immortal and would be the cupbearer for the gods, a position of much distinction. However, Ganymede is more described as a son of Tros, an earlier King of Troy and grandfather of Laomedon.
Laomedon himself was the son of Ganymede’s brother Ilus, the son of Tros. When Poseidon and Apollo entered a conspiracy to put Zeus in bonds, the supreme god being offended, sent them to serve with King Laomedon as punishment for their nefarious design. In other sources, the two gods tested the wantonness of the Laomedon; as ordered by Laomedon who promised wages, the two deities assuming the likeness of men undertook to build huge walls around Pergamum. But when they had fortified the city, the king refused to fulfill their agreement of reward. In vengeance, before the Trojan War, Apollo sent a pestilence to Troy while Poseidon released a sea monster which, carried up by a flood, snatched away the people of the plain; the oracles foretold deliverance from these calamities if Laomedon would expose his daughter Hesione to be devoured by the sea monster. The king exposed her by fastening her to the rocks near the sea, but by chance, after fighting the Amazons, Heracles who touched at Troy saw the girl to be sacrifice.
The hero promised to save the princess on condition of receiving from Laomedon the mares which Zeus had given in compensation for the rape of Ganymede. On Laomedon's saying that he would give them, Heracles killed the monster and rescued Hesione at the last minute, but when Laomedon would not give the stipulated reward for their deeds, the hero put to sea after threatening to make war on Troy. After his servitude, Heracles mustered an army of noble volunteers and sailed for Ilium with eighteen ships of fifty oars each. Having come to port at Ilium, he left the guard of the ships to Oicles and himself with the rest of the champions set out to attack the city. Howbeit Laomedon marched against the ships with the multitude and slew Oicles in battle, but being repulsed by the troops of Heracles, he was besieged; the siege once laid, Telamon was the first to breach the wall and enter the city, after him Heracles. When the son of Zeus had taken the city and shot down Laomedon and his sons, except Podarces, he assigned Hesione as a war prize to Telamon and allowed her to take with her whomsoever of the captives she would.
When Hesione chose Podarces, Heracles said that her brother must first be a slave and be ransomed by her. So when the prince was being sold Hesione took the golden veil from her head and gave it as a ransom. Apollodorus and Hyginus Apollodorus' Library and Hyginus' Fabulae: Two Handbooks of Greek Mythology. Trans. R. Scott Smith and Stephen Trzaskoma. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. ISBN 1603843272
In Roman mythology, Amulius was king of Alba Longa who ordered the death of his infant, twin grandnephews Romulus, the eventual founder and king of Rome, Remus. He was killed by them after they survived and grew to adulthood, he is son of Procas. He was said to have reigned 42 years before his death, his brother, had been king, but Amulius overthrew him, killed his son, took the throne. He forced Rhea Silvia, Numitor's daughter, to become a Vestal Virgin, a priestess of Vesta, so that she would never bear any sons that might overthrow him. However, she was seduced by the god Mars, resulting in the birth of the twins. Rhea was thrown into prison and her sons ordered to be thrown into the river Tiber; the twins were found by a she-wolf who suckled them. Their mother was saved by the river god Tiberinus who ended up marrying her. Romulus and Remus went on to found Rome and overthrow Amulius, reinstating their grandfather Numitor as king of Alba Longa. Dionysius was a Greek historian and librarian who wrote in the first century BC.
He writes that King Proca, willed the throne to Numitor but Amulius deposed him. For fear of a threat to his rule, the king had Numitor's son, Aegestus killed; the truth about the crime was known by some, including Numitor. Amulius appointed Numitor's daughter to the Vestal priestesshood, where her vow of chastity would prevent her from producing any further children. Despite this, she became pregnant a few years claiming to have been raped. In one of the sources, Amulius himself commits the rape. Ilia hid her pregnancy with claims of illness so as to avoid her vestal duties, but Amulius was suspicious and employed physicians and his own wife to monitor her for signs of being with child. When he discovered the truth, he placed her under armed guard. After being informed of the delivery of Romulus and Remus, Amulius suspected that she had in fact given birth to triplets; the third child having been concealed from the guards present. Ilia kept secretly in a hidden dungeon for the rest of her life. Citing Fabius Pictor, Cincius and Piso, Dionysius writes that the king ordered the twins to be tossed into the Tiber.
When his servants arrived at the riverbank, high waters had made it impossible to reach the stream. So they left the twin's basket in a pool of standing water on the site of the ficus Ruminalis. After the waters of the Tiber had carried the twins away, their basket was overturned by a rock and they were dumped into the mud, it was there, that a she-wolf famously nursed them in front of her lair. Amulius' servant Faustulus, happened upon the scene, he took the boys home, brought them up with his wife. Quoting Fabius' account of the overthrow of Amulius, Plutarch claims that Faustulus had saved the basket in which the boys had been abandoned. According to Fabius, when the twins were 18, they became embroiled in a violent dispute with some of Numitor's herdsmen. In retaliation, Remus was captured while Romulus was elsewhere. In Aelius Tubero's version, the twins were taking part in the festivities of the Lupercalia, requiring them to run naked through the village when Remus, defenseless as he was, was taken prisoner by Numitor's armed men.
After rounding up the toughest herdsmen to help him free Remus, Romulus rashly set out for Alba Longa. To avoid tragedy, Faustulus revealed the truth about the twins' parentage. With the discovery that Numitor was family, Romulus sets his sights on Amulius instead, he and the rest of his village set out in small groups toward the city so that their arrival would go unnoticed by the guards. Meanwhile, after Amulius turned Remus over to Numitor to determine his punishment, Remus was told of his origins by the former king and eagerly joined with him in their own effort to topple Amulius; when Romulus joined them, they began to plan their next move. Faustulus is caught by the Alban guards trying to sneak the infant twins' basket into the city and is brought before Amulius by none-other-than the servant who had taken the boys to the river those many years before. Amulius questions his insincerely claims he means the twins no harm. Faustulus, trying to protect Romulus and Remus, escape the king's clutches, claimed he had been bringing the basket to the imprisoned Ilia at the twins request and that they were at the moment tending their flocks in the mountains.
Amulius sent some of his men to find the boys. He tried to trick Numitor into coming to the palace so that the former king could be kept under guard until the situation had been dealt with. For the king, when the man he sent to lure Numitor into his clutches arrived at the deposed king's house, he betrayed Amulius and revealed everything that had happened at the palace; the twins and their grandfather led their joint supporters to the palace, killed Amulius, took control of the city
Latinus was a figure in both Greek and Roman mythology. He is associated with the heroes of the Trojan War, namely Odysseus and Aeneas. Although his appearance in the Aeneid is irreconcilable with his appearance in Greek mythology, the two pictures are not so different that he cannot be seen as one character. In Hesiod's Theogony, Latinus was the son of Odysseus and Circe who ruled the Tyrsenoi the Etruscans, with his brothers Ardeas and Telegonus. Latinus is referred to, by much authors, as the son of Pandora II and brother of Graecus, although according to Hesiod, Graecus had three brothers, Hellen and Macedon, with the first being the father of Doros and Aeolus. In Roman mythology, Latinus, or Lavinius, was a king of the Latins, he is sometimes described as the son of Faunus and Marica, father of Lavinia with his wife, Amata. He hosted Aeneas's army of exiled Trojans and offered them the chance to reorganize their life in Latium, his wife Amata wished his daughter Lavinia to be betrothed to Turnus, king of the Rutuli, but Faunus and the gods insisted that he give her instead to Aeneas.
Ascanius, the son of Aeneas founded Alba Longa and was the first in a long series of kings leading to Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome. This version is not compatible with the Greek one: the Trojan War had ended only eight years earlier, Odysseus only met Circe a couple of months so any son of the pair could only be seven years old, whereas the Roman Latinus had an adult daughter by then. Latium Latin kings of Alba Longa Aborigines Virgil, Aeneid, VII, 45, 52, 69, 96. Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:1-2
Scamander, Skamandros Xanthos, was the name of a river god in Greek mythology. The meaning of this name is uncertain; the second element looks like it is derived from Greek ανδρος meaning "of a man", but there are sources who doubt this. The first element is more difficult to pinpoint: it could be derived from Greek σκάζω "to limp, to stumble" or from Greek σκαιός meaning "left" or "awkward"; the meaning of the name might perhaps be "limping man" or "awkward man". This would refer to the many bends and winds of the river, which does not run straight, but'limps' its way along. According to Hesiod, Scamander is the son of Tethys, he is alternately described as a son of Zeus. He was the father of King Teucer, he was mentioned as the father of Glaucia, lover of Deimachus. Xanthus was credited to be the father of Eurythemista who bore Niobe to Tantalus. Strymo or Rhoeo, wife of Laomedon, king of Troy was called his daughter. Scamander fought on the side of the Trojans during the Trojan War, after the Greek hero Achilles insulted him.
Scamander was said to have attempted to kill Achilles three times, the hero was only saved due to the intervention of Hera and Hephaestus. In this context, he is the personification of the Scamander River that flowed from Mount Ida across the plain beneath the city of Troy, joining the Hellespont north of the city; the Achaeans, according to Homer, had set up their camp near its mouth, their battles with the Trojans were fought on the plain of Scamander. In Iliad XXII, Homer states that the river had two springs: one produced warm water. According to Homer, he was called Xanthos by gods and Scamander by men, which might indicate that the former name refers to the god and the latter one to the river itself. Karamenderes River Hesiod, Theogony, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Massachusetts. Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Homer, The Iliad with an English Translation by A. T. Murray, Ph. D. in two volumes.
Cambridge, Massachusetts. Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Tsotakou-Karveli. Lexicon of Greek Mythology. Athens: Sokoli, 1990