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Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charge: negative. Like charges repel each unlike charges attract each other. An object with an absence of net charge is referred to as neutral. Early knowledge of how charged substances interact is now called classical electrodynamics, is still accurate for problems that do not require consideration of quantum effects. Electric charge is a conserved property. Electric charge is carried by subatomic particles. In ordinary matter, negative charge is carried by electrons, positive charge is carried by the protons in the nuclei of atoms. If there are more electrons than protons in a piece of matter, it will have a negative charge, if there are fewer it will have a positive charge, if there are equal numbers it will be neutral. Charge is quantized; the proton has a charge of +e, the electron has a charge of −e. An electric charge has an electric field, if the charge is moving it generates a magnetic field.

The combination of the electric and magnetic field is called the electromagnetic field, its interaction with charges is the source of the electromagnetic force, one of the four fundamental forces in physics. The study of photon-mediated interactions among charged particles is called quantum electrodynamics; the SI derived unit of electric charge is the coulomb named after French physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb. In electrical engineering, it is common to use the ampere-hour. Chemistry uses the Faraday constant as the charge on a mole of electrons; the lowercase symbol q denotes charge. Charge is the fundamental property of forms of matter that exhibit electrostatic attraction or repulsion in the presence of other matter. Electric charge is a characteristic property of many subatomic particles; the charges of free-standing particles are integer multiples of the elementary charge e. Michael Faraday, in his electrolysis experiments, was the first to note the discrete nature of electric charge.

Robert Millikan's oil drop experiment demonstrated this fact directly, measured the elementary charge. It has been discovered that one type of particle, have fractional charges of either −1/3 or +2/3, but it is believed they always occur in multiples of integral charge. By convention, the charge of an electron is negative, −e, while that of a proton is positive, +e. Charged particles whose charges have the same sign repel one another, particles whose charges have different signs attract. Coulomb's law quantifies the electrostatic force between two particles by asserting that the force is proportional to the product of their charges, inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them; the charge of an antiparticle with opposite sign. The electric charge of a macroscopic object is the sum of the electric charges of the particles that make it up; this charge is small, because matter is made of atoms, atoms have equal numbers of protons and electrons, in which case their charges cancel out, yielding a net charge of zero, thus making the atom neutral.

An ion is an atom that has lost one or more electrons, giving it a net positive charge, or that has gained one or more electrons, giving it a net negative charge. Monatomic ions are formed from single atoms, while polyatomic ions are formed from two or more atoms that have been bonded together, in each case yielding an ion with a positive or negative net charge. During the formation of macroscopic objects, constituent atoms and ions combine to form structures composed of neutral ionic compounds electrically bound to neutral atoms, thus macroscopic objects tend toward being neutral overall, but macroscopic objects are perfectly net neutral. Sometimes macroscopic objects contain ions distributed throughout the material, rigidly bound in place, giving an overall net positive or negative charge to the object. Macroscopic objects made of conductive elements, can more or less take on or give off electrons, maintain a net negative or positive charge indefinitely; when the net electric charge of an object is non-zero and motionless, the phenomenon is known as static electricity.

This can be produced by rubbing two dissimilar materials together, such as rubbing amber with fur or glass with silk. In this way, non-conductive materials can be charged to a significant degree, either positively or negatively. Charge taken from one material is moved to the other material, leaving an opposite charge of the same magnitude behind; the law of conservation of charge always applies, giving the object from which a negative charge is taken a positive charge of the same magnitude, vice versa. When an object's net charge is zero, the charge can be distributed non-uniformly in the object. In such cases, the object is said to be polarized; the charge due to polarization is known as

George W. Cheyney

George Waldron Cheyney was an American businessman and politician. While living in Tombstone, Arizona Territory he served four years as the territory's Superintendent of Public Instruction and was twice elected to the territorial legislature. In his years he was postmaster for Tucson, Arizona before being elected a probate judge. Cheyney was born to Weldon J. and Frances Cheyney on September 1, 1854 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. One of eight children, his father was a businessman who had served as a captain during the American Civil War and his mother was from an old Quaker family. While growing up, Cheyney was educated in local public schools, he moved to New York City in 1871. Cheyney returned to Philadelphia in 1877. In 1879, Cheyney went to Kansas before continuing on to Leadville, Colorado, he moved to Tombstone, Arizona Territory in 1881. There he became superintendent for the Tombstone Mining Company. Cheyney married Annie Neal of Atchison, Kansas on September 20, 1882; the union produced six daughters: Bernice, Mary, Ruth and Eleanor.

Cheyney became a Mason in Tombstone. He was a member of the Ancient Order of United Workmen and Knights Templar. Politically, Cheyney was active in Republican politics, he was a member of territorial central committees. Cheyney was elected to represent Cochise county in the Council during the 15th Arizona Territorial Legislature. During the session, he fulfilled two campaign promises by voting to block any new subdividing of counties and for moving the territorial capital from Prescott to Phoenix. Cheyney was sworn in as Superintendent of Public Instruction on April 11, 1889, having been appointed to the office three days earlier, he was appointed to a second two-year term in 1891. In 1890, Cheyney was the Republican challenger to Arizona's territorial delegate to Congress, Mark Smith. While his vote to move the territorial capital to Phoenix was considered hostile by the residents of Prescott, Cheyney's supporters used his vote as an example of his loyalty to the people he represented, they argued that a Republican delegate would have more influence with the Harrison administration.

Despite these arguments, he lost the election to Smith. Cheyney was a delegate to Arizona's 1891 constitutional convention, his second term in the territorial legislature came during the 1893 session. Cheyney resigned as superintendent to serve in the legislature. In June 1898, Cheyney was appointed postmaster for Tucson, he arrived in Tucson to assume his new duties at the end of the month. In 1902, Cheyney was elected probate judge for Pima County and took office on January 1, 1903. In his final weeks, he traveled to San Francisco, California to seek medical treatment from George E. Goodfellow. Cheyney died as a result of edema on August 14, 1903, he was buried in Pennsylvania. George W. Cheyney at Find a Grave


Cervia is a seaside resort town in the province of Ravenna, located in the Northern region of Italy Emilia-Romagna. Cervia is a major seaside resort in North Italy, its population was 28,700 at the 2018 census. It's influenced by the presence of sports and cuisine; this contributed to Cervia being selected as Italy's first city to host an IRONMAN Triathlon, giving southern Europe access to the world's most elite athletic event, drawing world-class athletes from all over the world and showcasing Cervia's premiere status as a global competitive venue. Called Ficocle, it was of Greek origin and was located midway between current Cervia and Ravenna, it is known that this original settlement was destroyed in 709 by patrician Theodore for its alliance with Ravenna against the loyal Byzantines. The centre was rebuilt in a more secure position, in the Salina; this medieval city grew until it was provided with three fortified entrances, a Palaces of Priors, seven churches and a castle which, according to the legend, was built by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.

The name changed from Ficocle to Cervia referring to the Acervi, great amounts of salt left in the local evaporation ponds. After a long series of events, it became part of the Papal States; as the time passed, the salt pond turned into a marsh, on 9 November 1697, Pope Innocent XII ordered it to be rebuilt in a safer location. The new city had huge silos for storage of salt. Cervia is mentioned in Dante's Divine Comedy. Nowadays Cervia is a seaside resort on the Adriatic Riviera thanks to its 10-kilometre shore characterised by sandy beaches. Unlike its neighbor Cesenatico, the buildings are subject to strict urban regulations, favoring the conservation of the pine forest and green areas between each new construction. Cervia has a large pine forest, about 260 hectares and includes the areas of Milano Marittima, Cervia and Tagliata. A project with the local authority of ARPA is active for the control of water, at various points between the beach in Milano Marittima and that of Pinarella; the results that are obtained show that the water quality is such that guaranteed the city the blue flag of the Foundation for Environmental Education for the ninth consecutive year.

The levels of these waste waters have always been excellent in recent years, except some small survey of 2004 and 2002 that triggered the alarm and were provided other controls, which have verified the quality of the water returned to levels within the normal range. Housing prices in Cervia ranked second highest in the Emilia Romagna in a 2009 research, only after Bologna. With the development of the neighborhood Milano Marittima, the presence of nightclubs and outdoor dances were banished from Cervia center, in order to respect the comfort of residents and tourists. In Cervia they are operating several cycling routes. In fact the city is famous for its large number of bicycles around the town during summer. Tortelli verdi is a typical food in Cervia; the Cathedral, built in 1699–1702 The Museum of Salt The Communal Palace St. Michael Tower The city is served by the road Strada statale 16 Adriatica or Romea South, it is possible reach the Italian A14 highway at Rimini. Cervia is located about 103 km south of Bologna, 311 km far from 359 km from Rome.

Southampton, New York, United States Monterey, United States Jelenia Góra, Poland Mahón, Spain Cluj-Napoca, Romania Aalen, Diocese of Cervia Cervia Municipality Official tourist information site of Cervia, Milano Marittima and Tagliata

Austin, Arkansas

Austin is a city in Lonoke County, United States. The population was 2,038 as of the 2010 census and an estimated 3,693 as of 2018, it is part of the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city was first settled circa 1872 when the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railroad built its tracks one mile southeast of Old Austin. Many residents of Old Austin moved near the railroad tracks, in some cases uprooting and transporting entire buildings; the new city forming near the tracks was known as "Austin Station" to distinguish it from the original Austin, but became known as Austin while the old community became known as "Old Austin". Austin is located in northern Lonoke County at 35°0′19″N 91°59′21″W, it is bordered to the northeast by the city of Ward. U. S. Route 67/167, a four-lane freeway, passes through Austin, with access from Exit 22. Highway 67/167 leads southwest through Cabot 26 miles to Little Rock, the state capital, northeast 23 miles to Searcy. According to the United States Census Bureau, Austin has a total area of all land.

As of the census of 2010, there were 2,038 people. 218 households, 173 families residing in the city. The population density was 202.4 people per square mile. There were 236 housing units at an average density of 78.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 96.20% White, 0.17% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 1.32% from other races, 2.15% from two or more races. 5.62 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 218 households out of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.1% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.2% were non-families. 15.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.09. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 32.7% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 9.4% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $44,063, the median income for a family was $49,107. Males had a median income of $30,069 versus $21,116 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,369. About 3.6% of families and 6.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.6% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over. The city has no schools, although it is part of Cabot Public Schools, which serves the northern part of Lonoke County including Austin. Elementary school students to the north of U. S. Highway 67/167 attend Mountain Springs Elementary near northwestern Cabot, while those to the south of the freeway attend Northside Elementary in Cabot's city core. Older students attend Cabot Middle School North, Cabot Junior High North, Cabot Freshman Academy, Cabot High School, all in Cabot. Joe Farrer, a physical therapist and hospital administrator, is a U.

S. Republican Party member of the Arkansas House of Representatives from Lonoke and White counties. A former justice of the peace in Lonoke County, he resides in Austin. Official website

Dick Grayson

Richard John Grayson is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics in association with Batman. Created by writer Bill Finger and artist Bob Kane, he first appeared in Detective Comics #38 in April 1940 as the original and most popular incarnation of Robin. In Tales of the Teen Titans #44 the character retires his role as Robin and assumes the superhero persona of Nightwing, created by Marv Wolfman and artist George Pérez; the youngest in a family of acrobats known as the "Flying Graysons", Richard watches a mafia boss named Tony Zucco kill his parents in order to extort money from the circus that employed them. After the tragic murder, Batman takes Richard in as his legal ward and trains him to become his crime-fighting partner Robin, he is written by many authors as the first son of Batman. As well as being Batman's crime-fighting partner, Dick establishes himself as the leader of the Teen Titans, a team of teenage superheroes; as a young man, he retires as Robin and takes on his own superhero identity to assert his independence, becoming Nightwing.

As Nightwing, he continues to lead the Teen Titans and the Outsiders. In the first volume of his eponymous series, he becomes the protector of Blüdhaven, Gotham's economically troubled neighboring city, the locale the character is most associated with, he has been depicted as protecting the streets of New York and Gotham City over the years. Dick Grayson has taken on the identity of Batman on a few occasions. In the aftermath of "Batman: Knightfall", Grayson was not offered the role of Batman while the original was recovering from a broken back as Bruce felt that Nightwing is a hero in his own right and not Batman's understudy, but after the events of the Zero Hour miniseries that year, he replaces Bruce Wayne as Batman, beginning in Robin #0 and extending throughout the Batman: Prodigal storyline in 1995. Dick again assumes the mantle following the events of "Batman R. I. P." and Final Crisis. As Batman, Dick moves to Gotham City following his mentor's apparent death and partners with the fifth Robin, Damian Wayne.

On Bruce's return, both men maintained the Batman identity until 2011, when Dick returned to the Nightwing identity with DC's The New 52 continuity reboot. In a 2014 comic story, Dick is forced to abandon the Nightwing identity after being unmasked on TV and faking his death, setting up Tim Seeley's Grayson comic book, Dick becomes Agent 37, Batman's mole in the nefarious spy organization Spyral. Following the conclusion of the Grayson series, the restoration of his secret identity in the series' final issue, Dick returns to being Nightwing as part of the DC Rebirth relaunch in 2016. Dick Grayson has appeared as Robin in several other media adaptations: the 1943 serial played by Douglas Croft, the 1949 serial played by Johnny Duncan, the 1966–1968 live action Batman television series and its motion picture portrayed by Burt Ward, played by Chris O'Donnell in the 1995 film Batman Forever and its 1997 sequel Batman & Robin. Dick Grayson appears in the Titans television series for the new DC streaming service played by Brenton Thwaites.

Loren Lester voiced the character Robin in Batman: The Animated Series and as Nightwing's first screen adaptation in The New Batman Adventures, Batman's accidentally adopted son in The Lego Batman Movie. In May 2011, IGN ranked Dick Grayson #11 on their list of the "Top 100 Super Heroes of All Time". In 2013, ComicsAlliance ranked Grayson as Nightwing as #1 on their list of the "50 Sexiest Male Characters in Comics"; the character was first introduced in Detective Comics #38 by Batman creators Bill Finger and Bob Kane. Robin's debut was an effort to get younger readers to enjoy Batman; the name "Robin, The Boy Wonder" and the medieval look of the original costume are inspired by the legendary hero Robin Hood. The costume was designed by Jerry Robinson who drew it from memory based on Robin Hood illustrations by N. C. Wyeth. In his first appearance, Dick Grayson is a circus acrobat, with his parents, one of the "Flying Graysons". Robin was born on the first day of spring, son of John Grayson and Mary Grayson, a young aerialist couple.

While preparing for a performance, Dick overhears two gangsters attempting to extort protection money from the circus owner. The owner refuses, so the gangsters sabotage the trapeze wires with acid. During the next performance, the trapeze from which Dick's parents are swinging snaps, sending them to their deaths. Before he can go to the police, Batman appears to him and warns him that the two gangsters work for Tony Zucco, a powerful crime boss, that revealing his knowledge could lead to his death; when Batman recounts the murder of his own parents, Dick asks to become his aide. After extensive training, Dick becomes Robin, they start by disrupting Zucco's extortion rackets. They successfully bait the riled Zucco into visiting a construction site, where they capture him. Robin's origin has a thematic connection to Batman's in that both see their parents killed by criminals, creating an urge to battle the criminal element. Bruce sees a chance to direct the anger and rage that Dick feels in a way that he himself cannot, thus creating a father/son bond and understanding between the two.

Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, DC Comics portrayed Batman and Robin as a team, deeming them the "Dynamic Duo" publishing a Batman story without his sidekick. The character history of the Earth-Two Robin accordingly adopts all of the earliest stories featuring the character from the 1940s and 1950s, while the adventures of the main

Agustín Módula

Agustín Alejandro Módula is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a central midfielder for Guadalajara. Módula made his Chacarita Juniors debut during the 2012–13 Primera B Metropolitana season, he played the final thirteen minutes as Chacarita won 3–4 away to Deportivo Morón. Twenty-seven appearances followed throughout his first three seasons in Primera B Metropolitana, including five in 2014 as the club won promotion, he featured twelve times in the 2015 Primera B Nacional, prior to leaving Chacarita on loan for the 2016 campaign to join Deportivo Español in the third tier. He played five times for them as they finished 17th, before returning to Chacarita for the forthcoming 2016–17 in Primera B Nacional. In 2016–17, Módula scored the first goal of his career on 2 June 2017 against Almagro prior to receiving his first red card versus Los Andes over a month later. Weeks after that sending off, Chacarita secured promotion to the 2017–18 Argentine Primera División. On 3 September 2019, Módula was announced as a new signing of Spanish Tercera División side Guadalajara.

His debut arrived on 7 September in a win away from home against Albacete B, as he replaced Lautaro Ruiz after sixty-one minutes. As of 5 October 2018. Agustín Módula at Soccerway Agustín Módula at