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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Electrical phenomena

Electrical phenomena are commonplace and unusual events that can be observed and that illuminate the principles of the physics of electricity and are explained by them. Electrical phenomena are a somewhat arbitrary division of electromagnetic phenomena; some examples are Biefeld–Brown effect — Thought by the person who coined the name, Thomas Townsend Brown, to be an anti-gravity effect, it is attributed to electrohydrodynamics or sometimes electro-fluid-dynamics, a counterpart to the well-known magneto-hydrodynamics. Bioelectrogenesis — The generation of electricity by living organisms. Contact electrification — The phenomenon of electrification by contact; when two objects were touched together, sometimes the objects became spontaneously charged. Direct Current — or "continuous current". Electroluminescence — The phenomenon wherein a material emits light in response to an electric current passed through it, or to a strong electric field. Electrical conduction — The movement of electrically charged particles through transmission medium.

Electric shock — Physiological reaction of a biological organism to the passage of electric current through its body. Ferroelectric effect — The phenomenon whereby certain ionic crystals may exhibit a spontaneous dipole moment. Inductance — The phenomenon whereby the property of a circuit by which energy is stored in the form of an electromagnetic field. Lightning — powerful natural electrostatic discharge produced during a thunderstorm. Lightning's abrupt electric discharge is accompanied by the emission of light. Photoconductivity — The phenomenon in which a material becomes more conductive due to the absorption of electro-magnetic radiation such as visible light, ultraviolet light, or gamma radiation. Photoelectric effect — Emission of electrons from a surface upon exposure to, absorption of, electromagnetic radiation. Piezoelectric effect — Ability of certain crystals to generate a voltage in response to applied mechanical stress. Plasma — Plasma occur when gas is heated to high temperatures and it disassociates into positive and negative charges.

Pyroelectric effect — The potential created in certain materials when they are heated. Redox — A chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Static electricity — Class of phenomena involving the imbalanced charge present on an object referring to charge with voltages of sufficient magnitude to produce visible attraction and sparks. Sparks — Electrical breakdown of a medium that produces an ongoing plasma discharge, similar to the instant spark, resulting from a current flowing through nonconductive media such as air. Telluric currents — Extremely low frequency electric current that occurs over large underground areas at or near the surface of the Earth. Thermionic emission — the emission of electrons from a heated electrode the cathode, the principle underlying most vacuum tubes. Thermoelectric effect — the Seebeck effect, the Peltier effect, the Thomson effect Thunderstorm — electrical storm, form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere known as thunder.

Triboelectric effect — Type of contact electrification in which objects become electrically charged after coming into contact and are separated. Whistlers — Very low frequency radio wave generated by lightning A Βeginner's Guide to Natural VLF Radio Phenomena

NASU Institute of Ukrainian Language

The Institute for the Ukrainian Language of the NAS of Ukraine is a research organization in Ukraine created to do thorough studying of the Ukrainian language. It is the Ukrainian coordinating center of research issues in the Ukrainian language. An activity of importance to the Institute is to consolidate the Ukrainian language as the official language in the lingual space of Ukraine, to reach the lingual harmony in the life of a present-day civil society. Institute for the Ukrainian language was formed in 1991 and is located at the building of the Institute of History of Ukraine on Hrushevsky Street, in Kiev. Director of the institute is a doctor of philology, professor Pavlo Hrytsenko, assisted by a corresponding member of the NAS of Ukraine, doctor of philology, professor Vasyl Nimchuk, a corresponding member of the NAS of Ukraine, doctor of philology, professor Ivan Vyhovanets, corresponding member of the NAS of Ukraine, doctor of philology, professor Svitlana Yermolenko; the main delineated activity is to research of the Ukrainian language as a social, historical, regional national-and-cultural phenomenon.

Directions of the Ukrainian language investigations: social status, functions. A lot of institute’s projects were implementing in cooperation with specialists from other countries. Institute’s workers are studying the Ukrainian dialects within the international research project «The Slavic Linguistic Atlas», collaborating with institutions of academies of all the Slavic countries and Germany, they cooperate with scientists from European countries within a project «The Linguistic Atlas of Europe». Some research workers of the Institute were co-executors of a project by International Committee of Slavists «Najnowsze dzieje języków slowiańskich»; as a result is a research « Ukrainska mova 1945-1995». Another core activity is publishing of science and popular science periodicals: "Ukrainian language", a theoretical science journal for issue in all linguistic branches of Ukrainian language. Home page Department of Scientific Terminology of the Institute for the Ukrainian Language

Mary Salas

Mary Casillas Salas is an American politician from Chula Vista, California. She is a former California Assembly member who represented the 79th Assembly District from 2006 to 2010, she lost. In 2012 she was elected to the Chula Vista City Council, a position she held from 1996 to 2004, she was elected Mayor of the city of Chula Vista in 2014. Salas' father, is one of 9 children of Felix and Urbana Casillas, who once lived in the La Punta adobe, after moving to the United States, through El Paso, from Mexico. Salas was born in 1948 in Chula Vista, she became a stay-at-home mom. After 17 years she and her husband divorced. At the age of 37, Salas enrolled in San Diego State on her way to earning a bachelor degree in social work. In college, she became involved with MANA de San Diego, a women's organization that mentors young Latinas, which led her into city politics. Salas served as a member of Chula Vista's Civil Service Planning Commission. In 1996 she became the first Latina elected to the Chula Vista City Council in 1996.

As a councilwoman, she chaired the University Working Group to establish a higher education center in the region and co-chaired the Blue Ribbon Committee for the "San Diego County Preschool for All." She gained a reputation as a member, willing to speak her mind. Salas ran for mayor against fellow city councilmember and political ally Steve Padilla in 2002, but lost, she was termed out of the city council in 2004. She served as a member of the Sweetwater Authority Board of Directors in 2006. In 2012 she ran for re-election to the Chula Vista City Council, representing District 4. In the November runoff election she defeated Linda Wagner, 57.6% to 42.3%. Mary Salas became the first Latina Mayor of Chula Vista, California in December 9, 2014, she was reelected in 2018. Salas was elected to the California State Assembly in 2006, she represented the 79th district which includes the communities of National City, Imperial Beach and parts of Chula Vista and San Diego. Salas was appointed Chair of the Committee on Veterans Affairs in 2007.

She served on the following standing committees: Jobs, Economic Development, the Economy. She was re-elected in 2008. In 2010 she lost narrowly to Juan Vargas. "Mary Casillas Salas". Chula Vista Heritage Museum. 3 March 2016

Sam Peffer

Samuel John Peffer was a British commercial artist who designed film posters, paperback book covers and the covers of home videos. His best known work was for the covers of the paperback James Bond novels published by Pan Books in the 1950s and 1960s, for which he created a consistent and distinctive style. Peffer was born in Islington, into a poor family, the son of an interior decorator, he left school at 13, working first as an errand boy for Leon Goodman Displays, a company that produced front of house displays for cinemas. Soon he moved to Weddell Brothers who produced film publicity materials and when their artist was called up for military service in 1940, Peffer replaced him, painting publicity images of Hollywood film stars. In 1942 he was called up to serve in the Royal Navy during the Second World War, he saw action in Operation Pedestal, the convoys to Malta, besieged by the Germans. He wrote of an attack on one convoy just after sunset: Then they came. Little shapes in the distance.

Every gun was ready. All hell broke loose as they began to dive and the ships began their fire; the noise was deafening, the guns pounding, the roaring of the engines as the dive-bombers screamed down at us. Bombs exploded all around, torpedoes were dropped as the Heinkels and Stukas came out of their dives, it was over quite quickly. No ships were sunk in that attack, but a ship on which Peffer was serving was sunk by enemy action. On leaving the Navy in January 1946, Peffer considered becoming a professional boxer, a sport in which he had ability, but instead decided to become a commercial artist, he attended a few evening classes at Hornsey School of Art in 1946 after demob but otherwise learned his craft on the job. He worked for various firms in the film publicity business until joining Pearl and Dean where he was in charge of the art department and knew John Vernon, he married Kitty in 1949. In 1954 or 55 Peffer went freelance, he was noticed by the Pan Books art buyer, Tony Bowen-Davies, in the 1950s and 1960s painted hundreds of book covers, including from 1957 the Ian Fleming novels Casino Royale, From Russia with Love and Dr. No, all for Pan.

He was paid about £40 for each one. The model for Bond was Dick Orme. Peffer created covers for the publishers Arrow, Corgi and Panther, amongst others; the Pan paperbacks were selling up to one million copies annually at the time. With the launch of the first Bond film, Dr. No in 1962, Pan chose to use film tie-in covers for future editions; this was part of a growing trend by British paperback publishers in the 1960s to use more photographic covers or to buy in "second rights" painted images from abroad. Sometimes the same image might appear on more than one book. Together with increased competition in painted covers from younger Italian artists like Renato Fratini, there was a general decline in cover work for artists like Peffer by the end of the 1960s. In the 1970s and 1980s, Peffer turned to quad film posters and home video sleeve design, his breakthrough into this area came when another artist who had too much work recommended Peffer for the poster of Creatures of Evil/Blood Devils in 1971.

Peffer began a busy period until his retirement in 1985 producing around 200 film posters and a similar number of video sleeves as home video became popular later. Although his work was skilled, Peffer was not too fussy about which commissions he accepted, producing art for everything from Bruce Lee Kung Fu films to low budget "exploitation" films like Desires of a Nymphomaniac and posters for "video nasties" such as Mountain of the Cannibal God, he worked for Stanley Long, known for his cheap 1970s British sex comedies, Peffer described himself as the painter for "the raincoat brigade". Other commissions were for Flesh Gordon, SS Experiment Camp and Mary Millington's True Blue Confessions. In 1980 he produced the cinema poster for Hussy, starring Helen Mirren and John Shea, presented the original artwork to Mirren, his original design is still in use on DVD releases of the film. By the mid 1980s, film distributors and exhibitors were facing a crisis as audiences in the United Kingdom fell to the lowest level since the Second World War.

Demand for traditional painted posters was declining as cinemas used different forms of promotion, printers were closing down and UK based executives of the old school were retiring. With low audiences, US distributors were reluctant to spend money on separate UK publicity campaigns, it was at 1985, that Peffer retired. He described his last year in the business as "terrible – there was no work at all". Peffer modelled for his own covers, as did his wife Kitty and his brother-in-law Jack Cooper. Peffer described Jack as "a top stuntman", standing in for Errol Flynn. Peffer said, he signed all of his Pan and Panther work with the nickname Peff that he picked up while in the Royal Navy but tended to only sign the better work for other publishers. Peffer wrote his biography under the title "Peff" a life story, including details of his war service, but it remains unpublished. Extracts appear on the website sampeffer.com. He was survived by Kitty; the Pan paperback novels have become collectable and in 2005 The Guardian noted that first edition Bond paperbacks with Peffer artwork were some of those in the highest demand.

Roger Hall Brief biography at The Art of Peff. If You Could Sign Here Please by manuelbouw. Peff Sam Peffer covers at pulpcovers.com

Agent 077: Mission Bloody Mary

Agent 077: Mission Bloody Mary or Agente 077: Missione Bloody Mary is a 1965 Italian action spy adventure film. The first of the Secret Agent 077 film series directed by Sergio Grieco. Ken Clark... Dick Malloy Helga Liné... Elsa Freeman Philippe Hersent... Lester Maryse Guy Mitsouko... Kuan Umberto Raho... Prof. Betz Silvana Jachino... Juanita Antonio Gradoli Andrea Scotti Brand Lyonell Peter Blades Peter Bach Franca Polesello Pulla Coy Mirko Ellis Erika Blanc Agent 077: Mission Bloody Mary on IMDb YouTube

Thrombotic microangiopathy

Thrombotic microangiopathy is a pathology that results in thrombosis in capillaries and arterioles, due to an endothelial injury. It may be seen in association with thrombocytopenia, anemia and kidney failure; the classic TMAs are thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Other conditions with TMA include atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, scleroderma renal crisis, malignant hypertension, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, drug toxicities, e.g. calcineurin inhibitor toxicity. The clinical presentation of TMA, although dependent on the type includes: fever, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, kidney failure and neurological manifestations. Renal complications are predominant with Shiga-toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome and atypical HUS, whereas neurologic complications are more with TTP. Individuals with milder forms of TTP may have recurrent symptomatic episodes, including seizures and vision loss. With more threatening cases of TMA, as the condition progresses without treatment, multi-organ failure or injury is possible, as the hyaline thrombi can spread to and affect the brain, heart and other major organs.

The specific cause is dependent of the type of TMA, presented, but the two main pathways that lead to TMA are external triggers of vascular injury, such as viruses, bacterial Shiga toxins or endotoxins and drugs. Either of these pathways will result in decreased endothelial thromboresistance, leukocyte adhesion to damaged endothelium, complement consumption, enhanced vascular shear stress, abnormal vWF fragmentation; the central and primary event in this progression is injury to the endothelial cells, which reduces the production of prostaglandin and prostacyclin resulting in the loss of physiological thromboresistance, or high thrombus formation rate in blood vessels. Leukocyte adhesion to the damaged endothelial wall and abnormal von Willebrand factor release can contribute to the increase in thrombus formation. More researchers have attributed both TTP and HUS to targeted agents, such as targeted cancer therapies and anti-VEGF therapy. Bacterial toxins are the primary cause of one category of thrombotic microangiopathy known as HUS or hemolytic uremic syndrome.

HUS can be divided into two main categories: Shiga-toxin-associated HUS, which presents with diarrhea, atypical HUS. The Shiga-toxin inhibits the binding of eEF-1-dependent binding of aminoacyl tRNA to the 60S subunit of the ribosome, thus inhibiting protein synthesis; the cytotoxicity from the lack of protein damages glomerular endothelial cells by creating voids in the endothelial wall and detaching the basement membrane of the endothelial layer, activating the coagulation cascade. Atypical HUS may be caused by an infection or diarrheal illness or it may be genetically transmitted; this category of TMA encompasses all forms. Mutations in three of the proteins in the complement cascade have been identified in patients with atypical HUS. Several chemotherapeutic drugs have been shown to cause damage to the epithelial layer by reducing the ability for the cells to produce prostacyclin resulting in chemotherapy-associated HUS, or C-HUS; the second category of TMAs is TTP thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, which can be divided into 3 categories: congenital and non-idiopathic.

Congenital and idiopathic TTP are associated with deficiencies in ADAMTS13, a zinc metalloprotease responsible for cleaving Very Large vWF Multimers in order to prevent inappropriate platelet aggregation and thrombosis in the microvasculature. Natural genetic mutations resulting in the deficiency of ADAMTS13 have been found in homozygous and heterozygous pedigrees in Europe. Researchers have identified common pathways and links between TTP and HUS, while other sources express skepticism about their common pathophysiology; the repression of the vascular endothelial growth factor can cause glomerular TMA. It is that the absence of VEGF results in the collapse of fenestrations in the glomerular endothelium, thus causing microvascular injury and blockages associated with TMA. Manifestations resembling thrombotic microangiopathy have been reported in clinical trials evaluating high doses of Valacyclovir administered for prolonged periods for prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in persons with HIV infection.

A number of factors may have contributed to the incidence of thrombotic microangiopathy in those trials including profound immunosuppression, underlying diseases, other classes of drug antifungal agents. There were no reports of thrombotic microangiopathy among the 3050 subjects in the four trials evaluating Valacyclovir for suppression of recurrent genital herpes. Although one of the trials was in HIV-infected subjects, the patients did not have advanced HIV disease; the implication is that the occurrence of thrombotic microangiopathy is restricted to immunosuppressed persons receiving higher Valacyclovir dosages than are required to control HSV infection. CBC and blood film: decreased platelets and schistocytes PT, aPTT, fibrinogen: normal markers of hemolysis: increased unconjugated bilirubin, increased LDH, decreased haptoglobin negative Coombs test. Creatinine, urea, to follow renal function ADAMSTS-13 gene, activity or inhibi