Electro is a genre of electronic music and early hip hop directly influenced by the use of the Roland TR-808 drum machines, funk. Records in the genre feature drum machines and heavy electronic sounds without vocals, although if vocals are present they are delivered in a deadpan manner through electronic distortion such as vocoding and talkboxing; this is the main distinction between electro and prominent genres such as disco, in which the electronic sound was only part of the instrumentation. It palpably deviates from its predecessor boogie for being less vocal-oriented and more focused on electronic beats produced by drum machines. Following the decline of disco music in the United States, electro emerged as a fusion of funk and New York boogie. Early hip hop and rap combined with German and Japanese electropop influences such as Kraftwerk and Yellow Magic Orchestra inspired the birth of electro. In 1982, producer Arthur Baker with Afrika Bambaataa released the seminal "Planet Rock", built using samples from Kraftwerk's Trans-Europe Express and drum beats supplied by the TR-808.
Planet Rock was followed that year by another breakthrough electro record, Nunk by Warp 9. In 1983, Hashim created an electro funk sound which influenced Herbie Hancock, resulting in his hit single "Rockit"; the early 1980s were electro's mainstream peak. By the mid 1980s, the genre moved away from its electronic and funk influences, using harder edged beats and rock samples, exemplified by Run DMC. Electro became popular again in the late 1990s with artists such as Anthony Rother and DJs such as Dave Clarke. A third wave of popularity occurred in 2007. Electro has branched out into subgenres, including electrocore and skweee, which developed in Sweden and Finland. From its inception, one of the defining characteristics of the electro sound was the use of drum machines the Roland TR-808, as the rhythmic basis of the track; as the genre evolved and sampling replaced drum machines in electronic music, are now used by the majority of electro producers. It is important to note, that although the electro of the 1980s and contemporary electro both grew out of the dissolution of disco, they are now different genres.
Classic electro drum patterns tend to be electronic emulations of breakbeats, with a syncopated kick drum, a snare or clap accenting the backbeat. The difference between electro drumbeats and breakbeats is that electro tends to be more mechanical, while breakbeats tend to have more of a human-like feel, like that of a live drummer; the definition however is somewhat ambiguous in nature due to the various uses of the term. The Roland TR-808 drum machine was released in 1980, defining early electro with its recognizable sound. Staccato, percussive drumbeats tended to dominate electro exclusively provided by the TR-808; as an inexpensive way of producing a drum sound, the TR-808 caught on with the producers of early electro because of the ability of its bass drum to generate extreme low-frequencies. This aspect of the Roland TR-808 was appealing to producers who would test drive their tracks in nightclubs, where the bass drum sound was essential for a record's success, its unique percussion sounds like handclaps and closed high-hat and cowbell became integral to the electro sound.
A number of popular songs in the early 1980s employed the TR-808, including Marvin Gaye's “Sexual Healing,” Cybotron's “Clear,” and Afrika Bambaataa's “Planet Rock.” The Roland TR-808 has attained iconic status being used on more hits than any other drum machine. Through the use of samples, the Roland TR-808 remains popular in electro and other genres to the present day. Other electro instrumentation was electronic, favoring analog synthesis, programmed bass lines, sequenced or arpeggiated synthetic riffs, atonal sound effects all created with synthesizers. Heavy use of effects such as reverbs, chorus or phasers along with eerie synthetic ensemble strings or pad sounds emphasized the science fiction or futuristic themes of classic electro, represented in the lyrics and/or music. Electro hip hop group Warp 9's 1983 single, Light Years Away and written by Lotti Golden and Richard Scher, exemplifies the Sci-Fi, afrofuturist aspect of electro, reflected in both the lyrics and instrumentation; the imagery of its lyrical refrain space is the place for the human race pays homage to Sun Ra's 1974 film, while its synth lines and sound effects are informed by sci-fi, computer games, cartoons,"born of a science-fiction revival.".
Most electro is instrumental. Additionally, speech synthesis may be used to create robotic or mechanical lyrical content, as in the iconic Planet Rock and the automatous chant in the chorus of Nunk by Warp 9. Although instrumental, early electro utilized rap. Male rap dominated the genre, however female rappers are an integral part of the electro tradition, whether featured in a group as in Warp 9 or as solo performers like Roxanne Shante; the lyrical style that emerged along with electro became less popular by the 1990s, as rapping continued to evolve, becoming the domain of hip hop music. About electro origins, Greg Wilson claims: Following the decline of disco music in the late 1970s, various funk artists such as Zapp & Roger began experimenting with talk boxes and the use of heavier, more distinctive beats. Boogie played a role during the formative years of electro, notably "Feels Good" by Electra, the post-disco production "You're the One for Me" by D. Train
The Arab League was founded in 1945, has 22 members and four observer members: Brazil, Eritrea and Venezuela. Turkey and Iran have both expressed their desire to join as observers, but their requests were delayed due to political problems with other Arab states Iraq and Syria.. The Arab League itself is an observer in several international and regional organizations, such as the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the United Nations, has observed several summits of ASEAN; the Arab Neighboring States Policy is a proposal, agreed on in the 22nd Arab League Summit in the Libyan City of Sirte, where the Secretary General Amr Moussa, Proposed creating the ANP, to increase relations with Neighboring Countries of the Arab League States. Countries that are predicted to be included in the ANP are Turkey, Pakistan, Greece, France, Senegal, Niger, Ethiopia and Eritrea. Formal relations between the two organizations started in 1977, when they announced their cooperation in financial and economic issues.
With a summit between both organizations in Cairo that same year, they have signed several treaties aimed at improving cooperation. On 16 January 2008, the Arab League sent a Delegation to the AU Headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopian Capital, to gain experience from the African Security and Peace Council, in work since 2004, the Arab League's decision to create an Arab Peace and Security Council was taken following the 2006 Lebanon war, in a procedure to place Peace keeping forces into Darfur, South Lebanon, Somalia, other regions such as Iraq have not been announced or spoken of, since the Arab League's official Stance denounces any form of Foreign troops in Iraq, to maintain stability. In 2003, Eritrea became the first Observer in the Pan-Arab Body, opening the door for it to become a prospect member in the League, while the Current Eritrean President has denied any plans for joining the League in the Near Future, due to its lack of efficiency. By January 2008 the AL and ASEAN had no significant relations, but the Arab League's Economic Council decided to Expand economic cooperation with Regional blocks, to benefit from their Economic experience and development, started contacting the Association of South East Asian Nations, to build better relations and to increase investments from this region, to learn from their Economic Achievements to be applied in the League.
Which will help the Arab States to increase inner investments and inner imports and exports, the Head of the Delegation secretary General of the Arab Council for Economic Development, Dr. Ahmed Jweily to sign a treaty of understanding and cooperation Between the Two Organizations; the Delegation concluded the visit announcing that three New Arab Unions are to be proposed for the Council's 87th summit in its following Period. The Arab League and European Union have shared relations since the EU's development into a more political power rather than an economical one, in the 19th summit of the Arab League in Saudi Arabia, Javier Solana attended the summit, giving the EU's full support to the Arab League's Peace Initiative of 2002. Following this summit, he had several meetings with Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and the Arab League Secretary General Amr Moussa. In the summit, he addressed the Arab Leaders: "once again we find ourselves together, the European Union and the Arab League, once again we have an opportunity to re-affirm our joint commitment to the values of civilisation that we share, more than Europeans and Arabs have to face common challenges, I am confident that we will find new ways to improve our cooperation" France has been close with the Arab world, starting with the Maghreb region, the Near East, but France's closest relations are considered to be with Algeria, where it served as a colony of France for around 200 years, with a bloody independence war, relations today are good, France is considered to have the Cordialest relations with All Arab states, with a large Arab population in France counting to around 1 million Arabs, France holds the Biggest Arab Cultural center outside the Arab league.
Algeria Lebanon Since the end of the Lebanese civil war, France has played an active role in the reconstruction of Lebanon. The Hexagon is the leading investor in the Country of Ceders. Libya Libya developed close relations with France after the June 1967 War, when France relaxed its arms embargo on nonfront-line Middle East combatants and agreed to sell weapons to the Libyans. In 1974 Libya and France signed an agreement whereby Libya exchanged a guaranteed oil supply for technical assistance and financial cooperation. Relations between the Arab League and the Union of South American Nations, have only been established in recent times; the AL Secretary General Amr Moussa has stated that it was time for the Arab League and Latin America to seek strong relations. There are over 20 million Arabs living in Latin America, with Brazil containing over half of that number; as a result, President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva was vocal in efforts to improve relations. The Arab-Latin American relations are concentrated on Energy and Trade, strengthening ties between the two regions.
In May 2005, the first South American-Arab Countries Summit was held in Brazil, with 34 countries attending to discuss trade and energy. Arab and Latin American economies are complementary. Latin America has developed high-tech skills and industries that will find ready markets in the Arab world as will its agricultural production, but Latin America is energy-hungry and a ready market for Arab oil and downstream petrochemicals. They have other common interests, not just a desire to see the elimination of
The Bond is a propaganda film created by Charlie Chaplin at his own expense for the Liberty Loan Committee for theatrical release to help sell U. S. Liberty Bonds during World War I Made in 1918 with Edna Purviance, Albert Austin and Sydney Chaplin, the film has a distinctive visual motif set in a simple plain black set with starkly lit simple props and arrangements; the story is a series of sketches humorously illustrating various bonds like the bond of friendship and of marriage and, most important, the Liberty Bond, to K. O. the Kaiser which Charlie does literally. That theme is made explicit when Charlie meets a laborer representing industry. Charlie buys the industrial laborer supplies a rifle for an American soldier. Charlie is sufficiently impressed by the result of his patriotic contribution that he reveals more funds he had hidden in his pants to buy another bond and an American Naval sailor is thus equipped with a rifle himself. There was a British version with Uncle Sam replaced by John Bull and promotes War Bonds.
Albert Austin as Friend Henry Bergman as John Bull Charles Chaplin as Charlie Sydney Chaplin as The Kaiser Joan Marsh as Cupid Edna Purviance as Charlie's Wife/Liberty Tom Wilson as Industry The Bond on IMDb The short film The Bond is available for free download at the Internet Archive