Electroconvulsive therapy known as electroshock therapy, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from mental disorders.. 70 to 120 volts are applied externally to the patient's head resulting in 800 milliamperes of direct current passed through the brain, for 100 milliseconds to 6 seconds duration, either from temple to temple or from front to back of one side of the head. The ECT procedure was first conducted in 1938 and replaced less safe and effective forms of biological treatments in use at the time. ECT is used with informed consent as a safe and effective intervention for major depressive disorder and catatonia. ECT machines were placed in the Class III category by the United States Food and Drug Administration since 1976, they were re-classified as Class II devices, for treatment of catatonia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, in 2018. A course of ECT is effective for about 50% of people with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, whether it is unipolar or bipolar.
Follow-up treatment is still poorly studied, but about half of people who respond relapse within 12 months. Aside from effects in the brain, the general physical risks of ECT are similar to those of brief general anesthesia. Following treatment, the most common adverse effects are confusion and transient memory loss. Among treatments for depressed pregnant women, ECT is one of the least harmful to the gestating fetus. A usual course of ECT involves multiple administrations given two or three times per week until the patient is no longer suffering symptoms. ECT is administered under anesthesia with a muscle relaxant. ECT can differ in its application in three ways: electrode placement, treatment frequency, the electrical waveform of the stimulus; these treatment parameters can pose significant differences in both adverse side effects and symptom remission in the treated patient. Placement can be bilateral, where the electric current is passed from one side of the brain to the other, or unilateral, in which the current is passed across one hemisphere of the brain.
Bilateral electrode placement seems to have greater effectiveness than unilateral electrode placement, but carries a higher risk of memory loss. After treatment, drug therapy is continued and some patients will continue to receive maintenance ECT treatments. ECT appears to work in the short term via an anticonvulsant effect in the frontal lobes and longer term via neurotrophic effects in the medial temporal lobe. ECT is used with informed consent in treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, treatment-resistant catatonia, prolonged or severe mania, in conditions where "there is a need for rapid, definitive response because of the severity of a psychiatric or medical condition." For major depressive disorder, ECT is used only when other treatments have failed, or in emergencies, such as imminent suicide. ECT has been used in selected cases of depression occurring in the setting of multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, developmental delay, brain arteriovenous malformations, hydrocephalus.
A meta-analysis on the effectiveness of ECT in unipolar and bipolar depression was conducted in 2012. Results indicated that although patients with unipolar depression and bipolar depression responded to other medical treatments differently, both groups responded well to ECT. Overall remission rate for patients given a round of ECT treatment was 50.9% for those with unipolar depression and 53.2% for those with bipolar depression. The severity of each patient’s depression was assessed at the same baseline in each group. There is little agreement on the most appropriate follow-up to ECT for people with major depressive disorder; when ECT is followed by treatment with antidepressants, about 50% of people relapsed by 12 months following successful initial treatment with ECT, with about 37% relapsing within the first 6 months. About twice as many relapsed with no antidepressants. Most of the evidence for continuation therapy is with tricyclic antidepressants. In 2004, a meta-analytic review paper found in terms of efficacy, "a significant superiority of ECT in all comparisons: ECT versus simulated ECT, ECT versus placebo, ECT versus antidepressants in general, ECT versus tricyclics and ECT versus monoamine oxidase inhibitors."In 2003, The UK ECT Review Group published a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing ECT to placebo and antidepressant drugs.
This meta-analysis demonstrated a large effect size for ECT versus placebo, versus antidepressant drugs. Compared with transcranial magnetic stimulation for people with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, ECT relieves depression as shown by reducing the score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression by about 15 points, while TMS reduced it by 9 points. ECT is a second-line treatment for people with catatonia who do not respond to other treatments, but is a first-line treatment for severe or life-threatening catatonia. There is a plethora of evidence for its efficacy, notwithstanding a lack of randomised controlled trials, such that "the excellent efficacy of ECT in catatonia is acknowledged". For people with autism spectrum disorders who have catatonia, there is little published evidence about the efficacy of ECT.
1980 - The Choice Is Yours is punk rock band The Members' second album, released in 1980. "The Ayatollah Harmony" "Goodbye to the Job" "Physical Love" "Romance" "Brian Was" "Flying Again" "Normal People" "Police Car" "Clean Men" "Muzak Machine" "Gang War" "GLC" "Killing Time" "Ballad of John & Martin" "Disco Oui Oui" "Love in a Lift" "Rat up a Drainpipe" The MembersNicky Tesco - vocals Nigel Bennett - guitar Jean-Marie Carroll - guitar Chris Payne - bass Adrian Lillywhite - drums, percussionwith: Joe Jackson - piano Albie Donnelly - saxophone Rico Rodriguez - trombone Dick Cuthell - flugelhornTechnicalJohn Brand - engineer Keith Breeden, Malcolm Garrett - sleeve
Roy Desmond "Buster" Cairns was a Canadian soccer player. He was a five-time national champion with Canadian clubs Vancouver City FC and Westminster Royals FC, he was Canada's starting left back for three matches during FIFA World Cup Qualifiers in 1957. After his retirement, he became an honoured member of the Canada Soccer Hall of Fame. In the Pacific Coast League, Cairns won five championships, one with Vancouver St. Andrews and four with the Westminster Royals FC, he was a regular all-star selection, representing British Columbia in four-straight years from 1950 to 1953 and again in 1957. Along with winning five Dominion titles, he won three runner-up medals, he was at his best in 1953 when he was most valuable player of the Dominion of Canada Football Championship. After winning the national title, he captained Westminster to the North American Club Championship over the Chicago Falcons. In years Cairns worked as a volunteer in the Crime Prevention Office of the New Westminster Police Office.
He was inducted into Abbotsford Sports Hall of Fame in 2008. Canada Soccer Hall of Fame profile Canada Soccer Hall of Fame Canada Soccer Records & Results