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Electrolysis

In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction. Electrolysis is commercially important as a stage in the separation of elements from occurring sources such as ores using an electrolytic cell; the voltage, needed for electrolysis to occur is called the decomposition potential. The word "electrolysis" was introduced by Michael Faraday in the 19th century, on the suggestion of the Rev. William Whewell, using the Greek words ἤλεκτρον "amber", which since the 17th century was associated with electric phenomena, λύσις meaning "dissolution". Electrolysis, as a tool to study chemical reactions and obtain pure elements, precedes the coinage of the term and formal description by Faraday. In the early nineteenth century, William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle sought to further Volta's experiments, they placed it in a tube filled with water. They noticed. One type was hydrogen, the other was oxygen. In 1785 a Dutch Scientist named Martinus Van Marum created an electrostatic generator that he used to reduce tin and antinomy from their Salts using a process to be known as electrolysis.

Though Martinus Van Marum unknowingly produced electrolysis it was not until 1800 when William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle discovered the process of how electrolysis works. When it comes to the beginning of the study of electrolysis, the roots come back to Luigi Galvani's experiments in 1791 with frog legs, his thought was that by placing an animal muscle between two dissimilar metal sheets it could produce electricity. Responding to these claims, Alessandro Volta conducted his own tests; this would give insight to Humphry Davy's ideas on electrolysis. During the preliminary experiments, Humphry Davy hypothesis combination of two elements together to form a compound is electrical energy. Humphry Davy would go on to create Decomposition Tables from his preliminary experiments on Electrolysis; the Decomposition Tables would give insight on the energies needed to break apart certain compounds. In 1817 Johan August Arfwedson determined there was another element, Lithium, in some of his samples, However, he could not isolate the component.

It was not until 1821. Two years he streamlined the process using lithium chloride and potassium chloride with electrolysis to produce lithium and lithium hydroxide. During the years of Humphry Davy's research, Michael Faraday would become his assistant. Thus, while studying the process of electrolysis under Humphry Davy, Michael Faraday discovered two Laws of Electrolysis; the first law States: " The mass of a substance produced at an electrode during electrolysis is proportional to the number of moles of electrons transferred at that electrode."The Second Law States: " The amount of electric charge required to discharge one mole of substance at an electrode is equal to the number of elementary charges on that ion."During the time of Maxwell and Faraday, concerns came about for electropositive and electronegative activities. In November 1875, Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran would discover gallium using electrolysis of gallium hydroxide, producing 3.4 mg of gallium. That following December, he would present his discovery of gallium to the Academie des Science in Paris.

On June 26, 1886, Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan felt comfortable to perform electrolysis on anhydrous hydrogen fluoride to create a gaseous fluorine pure element. Before he could use hydrogen fluoride, Henri Moissan used fluoride salts with electrolysis, thus on June 28, 1886 he performed his experiment in front of the Academie des Science to show his discovery of the new element fluorine. In the cost of trying to find elemental fluorine through electrolysis of fluoride salts, many chemists perished such as: Pauline Louyet and Jerome Nickels. Charles Martin Hall was from America and Paul Héroult was from France. In 1886 they both filed with Héroult submitting his in May and Hall's in July. Hall was able to get his patent by proving through letters to his brother and family evidence that his method was discovered before the French patent was submitted; this became known as the Hall-Héroult process which benefited many industries because the price of aluminum had dropped from four dollars to thirty cents price per pound.

1785 – Martinus van Marum's electrostatic generator was used to reduce tin and antimony from their salts using electrolysis. 1800 – William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle, decomposed water into hydrogen and oxygen. 1808 – Potassium, barium and magnesium were discovered by Humphry Davy using electrolysis. 1821 – Lithium was discovered by the English chemist William Thomas Brande, who obtained it by electrolysis of lithium oxide. 1834 – Michael Faraday publishes his two laws of electrolysis, provides a mathematical explanation for his laws, introduces terminology such as electrode, anode, cathode and cation. 1875 – Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran discovered gallium using electrolysis. 1886 – Fluorine was discovered by Henri Moissan using electrolysis. 1886 – Hall–Héroult process developed for making aluminium 1890 – Castner–Kellner process developed for making sodium hydroxide Electrolysis is the passing of a direct electric current through an ionic substance, either molten or dissolved in a suitable solvent, producing chemical reactions at the electrodes and decomposition of the materials.

The main components required to achieve electrolysis are: An electrolyte: a substance, fr

Susanville Municipal Airport

Susanville Municipal Airport is a city-owned, public-use airport located five nautical miles southeast of the central business district of Susanville, a city in Lassen County, United States. It is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015, which categorized it as a general aviation facility. Susanville Municipal Airport covers an area of 130 acres at an elevation of 4,149 feet above mean sea level, it has two runways: 11/29 is 4,051 by 75 feet with an asphalt surface and 7/25 is 2,180 by 60 feet with a dirt surface. It has two helipads: H1 is 120 by 120 feet and H2 is 65 by 65 feet. For the 12-month period ending December 31, 2011, the airport had 12,470 aircraft operations, an average of 34 per day: 93% general aviation, 6% air taxi, <1% military. At that time there were 47 aircraft based at this airport: 81% single-engine, 11% multi-engine, 2% helicopter, 6% ultralight. Aerial image as of August 1998 from USGS The National Map FAA Terminal Procedures for SVE, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for SVE AirNav airport information for KSVE ASN accident history for SVE FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker SkyVector aeronautical chart for KSVE

Millicent Preston-Stanley

Millicent Preston-Stanley was an Australian feminist, politician, the first female member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly. In 1925 she became the second woman to enter government in Australia, she was among the first women in New South Wales to become Justices of the Peace and served as president of the Women Justices Association from 1923 to 1926. Throughout her life she advocated for women's rights, health reform, temperance. In 1925 Preston-Stanley became the first female member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, representing the Eastern Suburbs as a member of the Nationalist Party, one of the historic predecessor parties to today's Liberal Party. After a failed bid in the 1921 election she persevered and picked the seat up in May 1925, held the seat until September 1927. Millicent Fanny Stanley was born in Sydney in 1883, she was the daughter of Augustine Stanley, a greengrocer, his wife Frances. After her father deserted the family, her mother obtained a divorce and reverted to her birth name, which Millicent Fanny adopted.

She was involved in women's groups such as the Women's Liberal League and served as the president of the Feminist Club from 1919 to 1934 and from 1952 until her death in 1955. Preston-Stanley married Crawford Vaughan, former Premier of South Australia, in 1934, she died on 23 June 1955 in the Sydney suburb of Randwick from cerebro-vascular disease. Millicent Preston-Stanley served as the member for the Eastern Suburbs from 1925 to 1927, campaigning for maternal mortality, reform in child welfare, amendments to the Health Act and better housing. Millicent Preston-Stanley delivered her inaugural address to the Legislative Assembly of the New South Wales Parliament on 26 August 1925. Millicent Preston-Stanley used the opportunity to address her colleagues who did not believe that women had a role in politics; some notable quotes include: "Some hon. members have been kind enough to suggest that women should be protected from the hurly-burly of politics. This attitude of mind may do credit to the softness of their hearts, I think it may be taken as prima facie evidence of a little softening in their heads."

... we are told. I am not prepared to admit that such is the case, otherwise I would not be here. "Women have a contribution to make to the life of the nation. It is an extraordinary thing that men claim that they can interpret women's legislative ambitions better than the women can do it themselves." "But I want to make it clear that I am not here as the representative of one sex. I believe that women's questions are national questions, that national questions are women's questions, it may be shown that woman can take her place amongst the representatives of the people in the Parliament of the country and play her part in the political life of the nation."In addition, Millicent Preston-Stanley's inaugural address argued against reducing the forty-eight hour work week to forty-four hours, pointed to the fact that the average woman works 112 hours per week. Millicent Preston-Stanley was the president of the Feminist Club of New South Wales from 1919 through to 1934, again from 1936 to 1938; the club was amongst the organisations that lobbied for the introduction of the Women's Legal Status Act 1918 which entitled women to stand for election in the Lower House and local government, to become Justices of the Peace.

Millicent was one of the first women in New South Wales to be appointed a Justice of the Peace. She was commissioned as a Justice of the Peace in 1921 and was President of the Women's Justices' Association from 1923 to 1926. A fervent supporter of the United Australia Party — a precursor to the Liberal Party — Millicent Preston-Stanley brought the club to prominence in the 1930s. Under her leadership the club stood apart from many other women's organisations that existed in the period in that the latter — like the Australian Women's Guild of Empire — concerned themselves with matters revolving around home keeping and religiosity, their purpose was evangelical, social, helping to cultivate resources and gatherings for women to attend and exchange information and skills in craftwork like sewing, knitting and so forth. It was the entrenched notion that politics did not form part of "women's concerns" that the feminist movement of the 1930s was sought to dislodge, it was this apolitical focus that distinguished the women's organisations of the period from the Feminist Club of New South Wales.

The Feminist Club's objective was "to secure equality of liberty and opportunity in all spheres between men and women.’In parliament she campaigned on the issues of women's mortality in childbirth, child welfare, institutional care for the mentally ill, custody rights in divorce. She lobbied for the rights of mothers to custody of their children, family planning and sex education, a focus on maternal and child health, for a chair of obstetrics at the medical school, sarcastically calling for "'Horses' rights for women" after the University of Sydney instead established a course in veterinary obstetrics, she took up the cause of actress Emélie Polini, who failed to regain custody of her daughter Patricia when she returned to her native England. Though her private member's bill on equal custody rights failed she continued the campaign, she wrote a play Whose Child? based on this case. She left parliament in 1927 after an electoral redistribution of the newly created seat of Bondi saw her defeated at the polls