Electron capture is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron from the K or L electron shell. This process thereby changes a nuclear proton to a neutron and causes the emission of an electron neutrino. P + e− → n + νeSince this single emitted neutrino carries the entire decay energy, it has this single characteristic energy; the momentum of the neutrino emission causes the daughter atom to recoil with a single characteristic momentum. The resulting daughter nuclide, if it is in an excited state transitions to its ground state. A gamma ray is emitted during this transition, but nuclear de-excitation may take place by internal conversion. Following capture of an inner electron from the atom, an outer electron replaces the electron, captured and one or more characteristic X-ray photons is emitted in this process. Electron capture sometimes results in the Auger effect, where an electron is ejected from the atom's electron shell due to interactions between the atom's electrons in the process of seeking a lower energy electron state.
Following electron capture, the atomic number is reduced by one, the neutron number is increased by one, there is no change in mass number. Simple electron capture by itself results in a neutral atom, since the loss of the electron in the electron shell is balanced by a loss of positive nuclear charge. However, a positive atomic ion may result from further Auger electron emission. Electron capture is an example of one of the four fundamental forces. Electron capture is the primary decay mode for isotopes with a relative superabundance of protons in the nucleus, but with insufficient energy difference between the isotope and its prospective daughter for the nuclide to decay by emitting a positron. Electron capture is always an alternative decay mode for radioactive isotopes that do have sufficient energy to decay by positron emission. Electron capture is sometimes included as a type of beta decay, because the basic nuclear process, mediated by the weak force, is the same. In nuclear physics, beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Electron capture is sometimes called inverse beta decay, though this term refers to the interaction of an electron antineutrino with a proton. If the energy difference between the parent atom and the daughter atom is less than 1.022 MeV, positron emission is forbidden as not enough decay energy is available to allow it, thus electron capture is the sole decay mode. For example, rubidium-83 will decay to krypton-83 by electron capture; the theory of electron capture was first discussed by Gian-Carlo Wick in a 1934 paper, developed by Hideki Yukawa and others. K-electron capture was first observed by Luis Alvarez, in vanadium-48, he reported it in a 1937 paper in Physical Review. Alvarez went on to study electron capture in other nuclides. Examples: 2613Al + e− → 2612Mg + νe 5928Ni + e− → 5927Co + νe 4019K + e− → 4018Ar + νeThe electron, captured is one of the atom's own electrons, not a new, incoming electron, as might be suggested by the way the above reactions are written. Radioactive isotopes that decay by pure electron capture can be inhibited from radioactive decay if they are ionized.
It is hypothesized that such elements, if formed by the r-process in exploding supernovae, are ejected ionized and so do not undergo radioactive decay as long as they do not encounter electrons in outer space. Anomalies in elemental distributions are thought to be a result of this effect on electron capture. Inverse decays can be induced by full ionisation. Chemical bonds can affect the rate of electron capture to a small degree depending on the proximity of electrons to the nucleus. For example, in 7Be, a difference of 0.9% has been observed between half-lives in metallic and insulating environments. This large effect is due to the fact that beryllium is a small atom that employs valence electrons that are close to the nucleus, in orbitals with no orbital angular momentum. Electrons in s orbitals, have a probability antinode at the nucleus, are thus far more subject to electron capture than p or d electrons, which have a probability node at the nucleus. Around the elements in the middle of the periodic table, isotopes that are lighter than stable isotopes of the same element tend to decay through electron capture, while isotopes heavier than the stable ones decay by electron emission.
Electron capture happens most in the heavier neutron-deficient elements where the mass change is smallest and positron emission isn't always possible. When the loss of mass in a nuclear reaction is greater than zero but less than 2m, the process cannot occur by positron emission but is spontaneous for electron capture; some common radioisotopes that decay by electron capture include: For a full list, see the table of nuclides. The LIVEChart of Nuclides - IAEA with filter on electron capture
Barbara J. Desoer was CEO for Citibank, N. A. beginning April 1, 2014 and finished as CEO on May 10th, 2019, was the COO for Citibank, N. A. from October 2013 to April 1, 2014. She was president of Bank of America Home Loans, a leading U. S. mortgage originator and servicer. She was a member of the senior management team of Bank of America Corporation, having reporting to CEO Brian Moynihan. Desoer led a business accounting for about 20 percent of the U. S. mortgage origination market, with a $2 trillion servicing portfolio serving nearly 14 million customers—nearly one in five mortgages in the U. S, she managed Bank of America's home equity business and oversaw a leading insurance service organization. Desoer assumed her role in mid-2008 when she was asked to lead the integration of Countrywide Financial Corporation, which Bank of America acquired July 1, 2008, she led the April 2009 launch of the Bank of America Home Loans brand. Prior to her mortgage role, Desoer served as chief technology and operations officer, managing the bank's global technology platforms and operations capabilities.
She joined Bank of America in 1977 and has held leadership roles in commercial lending, consumer products, retail banking and marketing. In 2008, Desoer was recognized by US Banker, ranking second in their annual ranking of "25 Most Powerful Women in Banking." She was recognized by Fortune magazine as one of the "50 Most Powerful Women in Business" and ranked third on The Wall Street Journal's "50 women to watch" list. In 2007, she was named "Business Leader of the Year" by the Haas School of Business at the University of California at Berkeley. In 2009, Forbes named her one of the 100 most powerful women in the world, she received her B. A. in mathematics from Mount Holyoke College in 1974 and her MBA from the University of California, Berkeley. A New York Times article reported that Desoer announced her retirement in February 2012. Bank of America stated that due to restructuring her position would not be filled and her unit would report to David Darnell who oversees the consumer banking branch of the company.
Barbara J. Desoer biography, BankofAmerica.com Barbara J Desoer Profile - Forbes.com Mortgage and home equity position news story
David MacKay VC was a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to United Kingdom and Commonwealth forces. Born at Alterwall, Lyth, the son of a farm labourer, he enlisted in the 93rd Highlanders on 23 December 1850 and served in the Crimean War, he was awarded the VC for an action at the Siege of Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny. His citation in the London Gazette dated 24 December 1858 reads: For great personal gallantry in capturing an enemy colour after a most obstinate resistance, at the Secundrabagh, Lucknow, on the 16th of November 1857, he was wounded afterwards at the capture of the Shah Nujjif. Elected by the private soldiers of the Regiment The whereabouts of the VC is unknown, Mackay sold it while he was still alive and it was auctioned around 1910. Mackay was buried in Lesmahagow cemetery in an unmarked grave. A ceremony was held at the cemetery on 14 November 1998 to unveil a marker erected near the grave.
The Erciyes University Astronomy and Space Science Observatory Applied Research Center is a radio astronomy observatory operated by the Astronomy and Space Sciences Department at Erciyes University's Faculty of Science. It is located within university's campus at Melikgazi, Kayseri in central Turkey. Observatory's first radio telescope was a parabolic antenna of 2 m diameter, donated by the Marmara Research Center of Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey; the radio telescope called MRT-2, was purchased from the Institute of Radio Astronomy in Kharkiv, Ukraine with the financial help of UNIDO in 1996. Built to operate in the radio frequency range of 85-115 GHz, it was intended for the acquisition of carbon monoxide data in the Milky Way. In 1997, the telescope became inoperable, the Ukrainian technicians were unavailable for its reparature. After some unsuccessful attempts to fix the radio telescope at site, it was handed over in 2000 to Erciyes University, where its rehabilation was carried out between 2001-2002.
The next radio telescopes were two parabolic antennas of 5 m diameter, which were donated from the local branch office of Türk Telekom in 2000. They are part of a project to build an astronomical interferometer; the radio telescopes operate in the frequencies of 4.5, 11 and 20 GHz. In addition, a 3 m diameter antenna is situated at the site as well. Further radio telescopes installed at the observatory are a 12.8 m antenna and a 22 m radome, both donated by NATO SATCOM. The observatory operates the 12.8 m single-dish Cassegrain focus radio telescope inside the radome, two optical reflecting telescopes of 30 cm and 40 cm diameter
Shikigami no Shiro, released in North America and Europe under the title of Mobile Light Force 2 and in some PAL regions as MLF2 - Mobile Light Force 2, is a 2001 shoot'em up developed by Alfa System and is the first game in the Shikigami no Shiro series. It was released as an arcade game and ported to the PlayStation 2, Microsoft Windows; the game was titled Shikigami no Shiro Evolution for its revised version for Xbox, ported to Windows as Shikigami no Shiro EX. When localized, publisher XS Games re-titled the game as a sequel to Mobile Light Force, but in reality the games are unrelated. Mobile Light Force is known as Gunbird in Japan, was not developed by Alfa System. On May 8, 2017, Degica Games announced; the first game will be released on Microsoft Windows via Steam on June 16. When holding down the attack button, the player moves at slower speed, all on-screen items are automatically retrieved; the player character is invulnerable. When the player character is close to an enemy bullet, the points gained from destroying enemies and retrieving items is multiplied by a factor based on the distance between the bullet and the player character's center.
The closer they are to the bullet, the higher the scoring. When destroying enemy in shikigami mode, the multiplier applies to the number of items dropped by enemy and all items dropped by the enemy are automatically retrieved; the Xbox release adds Practice mode and Replay mode, while the PlayStation 2 release adds Practice mode and Side Story modes. Windows includes I. R. mode and vertical screen layout from the arcade game. The North American and European releases of the game removed the screen rotation mode and all in-game plot. In July 2005, a string of serial murders take place in Tokyo. All the victims are female and killed by external injury; the killings take place within 20 hours. On July 21, the 31st victim is found; the police force classify the case as special crime #568, begin to seek investigators from occult sources. On July 23, there is a 32nd victim. Playable characters: Kohtarou Kuga Sayo Yuuki Gennojo Hyuga Fumiko Odette Vanstein Daejeong Kim???? Bosses: Miyoko Aku Fujishima Juu Hiroshi Aku Bauman Aku Shoujo Zanryuu Shinen Shikigami no Shiro Evolution was released in two separate versions, a red version which included a database containing character gallery and unused voices, a blue version which included developer videos.
Both versions have improved enemy AI, new characters, a vertical screen mode, the new Evolution Mode game mode. A comic version was written by Tooru Zekuu and illustrated by Yuuna Takanagi, serialized in the monthly Magazine Z. Three volumes were published under Kodansha's Magazine Z KC label; the PlayStation 2 version received "mixed" reviews according to video game review aggregator Metacritic. Official website Official website Official website Official website Official website Official website Shikigami no Shiro at the Killer List of Videogames Mobile Light Force 2 at MobyGames
Winchester is a city in and the county seat of Scott County, United States. The population was 1,593 at the 2010 census. Winchester is part of the Jacksonville Micropolitan Statistical Area. Winchester is located at 39°37′48″N 90°27′21″W. According to the 2010 census, Winchester has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,650 people, 727 households, 460 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,551.3 people per square mile. There were 778 housing units at an average density of 731.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 0.12 % Native American. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.18% of the population. There were 727 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.6% were non-families. 34.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.92.
In the city, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 21.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,938, the median income for a family was $40,592. Males had a median income of $31,410 versus $20,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,354. About 6.8% of families and 10.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.0% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. George O'Donnell, pitcher for the Pittsburgh Pirates, he had forty students. Douglas soon left Winchester to work as a lawyer. Clyde Summers, labor lawyer and law professor at the Yale Law School and University of Pennsylvania Law School, subject of In re Summers