Video editing is the manipulation and arrangement of video shots. Video editing is used to structure and present all video information, including films and television shows, video advertisements and video essays. Video editing has been democratized in recent years by editing software available for personal computers. Once the province of expensive machines called video editors, video editing software is now available for personal computers and workstations. Video editing includes cutting segments, re-sequencing clips, adding transitions and other Special Effects. Linear video editing, using video tape and is edited in a linear way. Several video clips from different tapes are recorded to one single tape in the order that they will appear. Non-linear editing system, This is edited on computers with specialised software; these are non destructive to the video being edited and use programs such as Adobe Premiere Pro, Final Cut Pro and Avid. Offline editing is the process in which raw footage is copied from an original source, without affecting the original film stock or video tape.
Once the editing has been edited, the original media is re-assembled in the online editing stage. Online editing is the process of reassembling the edit to full resolution video after an offline edit has been performed and is done in the final stage of a video production. Vision mixing, when working within live television and video production environments. A vision mixer is used to cut live feed coming from several cameras in real time. Video editing is the process of editing segments of motion video production footage, special effects and sound recordings in the post-production process. Motion picture film editing is a predecessor to video editing and, in several ways, video editing simulates motion picture film editing, in theory and the use of linear video editing and video editing software on non-linear editing systems. Using video, a director can communicate fictional events; the goals of editing is to manipulate these events to bring the communication closer to the original goal or target.
It is a visual art. Early 1950s video tape recorders were so expensive, the quality degradation caused by copying was so great, that 2 inch Quadruplex videotape was edited by visualizing the recorded track with ferrofluid and cutting with a razor blade or guillotine cutter and splicing with video tape; the two pieces of tape to be joined were painted with a solution of fine iron filings suspended in carbon tetrachloride, a toxic and carcinogenic compound. This "developed" the magnetic tracks, making them visible when viewed through a microscope so that they could be aligned in a splicer designed for this task. Improvements in quality and economy, the invention of the flying erase-head, allowed new video and audio material to be recorded over the material recorded on an existing magnetic tape and was introduced into the linear editing technique. If a scene closer to the beginning of the video tape needed to be changed in length, all scenes would need to be recorded onto the video tape again in sequence.
In addition, sources could be played back through a vision mixer to create more complex transitions between scenes. A popular 1970-80s system for doing, the U-matic equipment; that system used two tape players and one tape recorder, edits were done by automatically having the machines back up speed up together in synchrony, so the edit didn't roll or glitch. 1980-90's came the smaller beta equipment, more complex controllers, some of which did the synchronizing electronically. There was a transitional analog period using multiple source videocassette recorder s with the EditDroid using LaserDisc players, but modern NLE systems edit video digitally captured onto a hard drive from an analog video or digital video source. Content is ingested and recorded natively with the appropriate codec that the video editing software uses to process captured footage. High-definition video is becoming more popular and can be edited using the same video editing software along with related motion graphics programs.
Video clips are arranged on a timeline, music tracks, digital on-screen graphics are added, special effects can be created, the finished program is "rendered" into a finished video. The video may be distributed in a variety of ways including DVD, web streaming, QuickTime Movies, iPod, CD-ROM, or video tape. Like some other technologies, the cost of video editing has declined by an order of magnitude or more; the original 2" Quadruplex system cost so much that many television production facilities could only afford a single unit and editing was a involved process requiring special training. In contrast to this, nearly any home computer sold since the year 2000 has the speed and storage capacity to digitize and edit standard-definition television; the two major retail operating systems include basic video editing software - Apple's iMovie and Microsoft's Windows Movie Maker. Additional options exist as more advanced commercial products; as well as these commercial products, there are opensource video-editing programs.
Automatic video editing products have emerged, opening up video editing to a broader audience of amateurs and reducing the time it takes to edit videos. These exist as media storage services, such as Google with its Google Photos or smaller companies like Vidify. Edit decision list Video mashups Photo slideshow software Video scratching Video manipulation Video server List of video editing software Comparison of video editing software Media related to Video editing at Wikimedia Commons
Outside broadcasting is the electronic field production of television or radio programmes from a mobile remote broadcast television studio. Professional video camera and microphone signals come into the production truck for processing and transmission; the mobile production control room is known as a "production truck", "scanner", "mobile unit", "remote truck", "live truck", "OB van", "OB Truck" or "live eye". In the United States an "OB van" is smaller in size than a production truck and requires two or three people in the field to manage; the BBC's first Outside Broadcast truck MCR 1, short for mobile control room, was built by the joint Marconi-EMI company and delivered to the BBC just in time to televise the Coronation Procession of King George VI in May 1937. MCR 2 was identical to MCR 1 and was delivered in the summer of 1938; the MCRs could handle three cameras. They were standard Emitrons, but were supplemented by Super Emitrons, which performed much better than the standard ones in low light.
The MCRs were built on the chassis of an AEC Regal single decker bus. After the Second World War, the joint company Marconi-EMI ended; the BBC ordered two 3-camera MCRs from EMI. The cameras were equipped with CPS tubes, had a 3 lens turret. MCR 4 was delivered in time to be used on the 1948 Olympics. After developing colour television in the mid 1960s, the BBC began to develop a fleet of colour OB units, known as CMCRs; these trucks were known as Type 2 scanners and were, at the time state of the art. Type 2 scanners first came equipped with Pye PC80 cameras but these were soon superseded by EMI's 2001 colour cameras; these trucks would remain in service into the mid 1980s. Throughout this time, they would see use on some of the BBC's most prestigious programmes, including Royal Events, Dr Who, Wimbledon Tennis, Question Time. Although made from converted HGVs, inside these trucks were cramped as a result of housing an entire mobile television studio; these were made up of three sections: A section to house the camera control units, or CCUs, camera monitoring equipment.
Being so large and complex, these cameras required a team of skilled engineers to keep them functioning. During a production, the camera operator would control the pan and the focus but it was the engineer who controlled the exposure and the colour balance. A section for the production crew, led by the director, who would orchestrate the over all production. A section for the sound crew which housed their mixing desk and other sound equipment. From here the sound crew controlled not only the sound of the programme but all the production communications which allowed the whole crew to communicate to one another. Without which the production would undoubtedly grind to a halt. In the past many outside broadcasting applications have relied on using satellite uplinks in order to broadcast live audio and video back to the studio. While this has its advantages such as the ability to set up anywhere covered by the respective geostationary satellite, satellite uplinking is expensive and the round trip latency is in the range of 240 to 280 milliseconds.
As more venues install Fibre, this is used. For news gathering, contribution over public internet is now used. Modern applications such as hardware and software IP codecs have allowed the use of public 3G/4G networks to broadcast video and audio; the latency of 3G is around 100–500 ms, while 4G is less than 100 ms. A typical modern OB van is divided into five parts. Parts of the television crew are located in the first and largest part, the video production area; the television director, technical director, assistant director, character generator operator and television producers sit in front of a wall of video monitors. The technical director sits in front of the video switcher; the video monitors show all the video feeds from various sources, including computer graphics, professional video cameras, video tape recorder, video servers and slow-motion replay machines. The wall of monitors contains a preview monitor showing what could be the next source on air and a program monitor that shows the feed going to air or being recorded.
The keyed dirty feed is what is transmitted back to the central studio, controlling the outside broadcast. A clean feed could be sent to other trucks for use in their production; the video switcher is operated by one person called the technical director and is responsible for switching the video sources to air as directed. Behind the directors there is a desk with monitors for the editors to operate, it is essential that the directors and editors are in communication with each other during events, so that replays and slow-motion shots can be selected and aired. The "production room" in most sporting events has a graphics operator and sometimes a font coordinator who are in charge of the graphics and the showing of the names of commentators or the players to be shown on air. Most sports have a "box operator" who controls the graphic seen either on the bottom or top of the screen that shows the score as seen at home; these operators can show on-air stats, control the clock, many times are in charge of showing sponsors during play.
The second part of a van is where the audio engineer has an audio mixer (being fed with all the various audio feeds: reporters, commentary, on-field micro
In telecommunications a link is a communication channel that connects two or more devices. This link may be an actual physical link or it may be a logical link that uses one or more physical links or shares a physical link with other telecommunications links. A telecommunications link is one of several types of information transmission paths such as those provided by communication satellites, terrestrial radio communications infrastructure and computer networks to connect two or more points; the term link is used in computer networking to refer to the communications facilities that connect nodes of a network. When the link is a logical link the type of physical link should always be specified A point-to-point link is a dedicated link that connects two communication facilities. Broadcast links connect two or more nodes and support broadcast transmission, where one node can transmit so that all other nodes can receive the same transmission. Ethernet is an example. Known as a multidrop link, a multipoint link is a link that connects two or more nodes.
Known as general topology networks, these include ATM and Frame Relay links, as well as X.25 networks when used as links for a network layer protocol like IP. Unlike broadcast links, there is no mechanism to efficiently send a single message to all other nodes without copying and retransmitting the message. A point-to-multipoint link is a specific type of multipoint link which consists of a central connection endpoint, connected to multiple peripheral CEs. Any transmission of data that originates from the central CE is received by all of the peripheral CEs while any transmission of data that originates from any of the peripheral CEs is only received by the central CE. Links are referred to by terms which refer to the ownership and / or accessibility of the link. A private link is a link, either owned by a specific entity or a link, only accessible by a specific entity. A public link is a link that uses the public switched telephone network or other public utility or entity to provide the link and which may be accessible by anyone.
Pertaining to radiocommunication service, an uplink is the portion of a feeder link used for the transmission of signals from an earth station to a space radio station, space radio system or high altitude platform station. Pertaining to GSM and cellular networks, the radio uplink is the transmission path from the mobile station to a base station. Traffic and signalling flowing within the BSS and NSS may be identified as uplink and downlink. Pertaining to computer networks, an uplink is a connection from data communications equipment toward the network core; this is known as an upstream connection. Pertaining to radiocommunication service, a downlink is the portion of a feeder link used for the transmission of signals from a space radio station, space radio system or high altitude platform station to an earth station. In the context of satellite communications, a downlink is the link from a satellite to a ground station. Pertaining to cellular networks, the radio downlink is the transmission path from a cell site to the cell phone.
Traffic and signalling flowing within the base station subsystem and network switching subsystem may be identified as uplink and downlink. Pertaining to computer networks, a downlink is a connection from data communications equipment towards data terminal equipment; this is known as a downstream connection. A forward link is the link from a fixed location to a mobile user. If the link includes a communications relay satellite, the forward link will consist of both an uplink and a downlink; the reverse link is the link from a mobile user to a fixed base station. If the link includes a communications relay satellite, the reverse link will consist of both an uplink and a downlink which together constitute a half hop. Data transmission Telecommunications network This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C"; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of Defense document "Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms"
GoPro, Inc. is an American technology company founded in 2002 by Nick Woodman. It develops its own mobile apps and video-editing software. Founded as Woodman Labs, the company focused on the connected sports genre, developing its line of action cameras and video editing software, it developed a quadcopter drone, released in October 2016. In January 2018, Karma was discontinued and the company hired JPMorgan Chase to pursue options of selling the company. However, a month the CEO denied this. GoPro has continued its business in manufacturing action cameras; the company was founded by Nick Woodman in 2002. He was motivated by a 2002 surfing trip to Australia in which he was hoping to capture quality action photos, but could not because amateur photographers could not get close enough or buy quality equipment at reasonable prices. The'GoPro' name came about as Woodman and his surfing friends all aspired to become professional surfers as'going pro' was the ultimate goal and the only way to be filmed on the water at that time.
The camera range was branded'Hero' as their aim was to capture close-up action shots that made the subject look like a hero. Woodman raised a portion of his initial capital by selling bead and shell belts for under US$20 from his VW van and fashionable camera straps, he received over $230,000 from his parents to invest in the business. In 2004, the company sold its first camera system. Digital still and video cameras were introduced; as of 2014, a fixed-lens HD video camera with a wide 170-degree lens was available. On June 4, 2014, the company announced the appointment of former Microsoft executive Tony Bates as President reporting directly to Woodman. In January 2016, GoPro partnered with Periscope for live streaming. After growing the number of employees by more than 500 in 2015, the company responded to weak sales in the fourth quarter by cutting about 7% of its workforce in January 2016. In November 2016, the company announced it was laying off an additional 200 employees in an effort to reduce costs.
The company announced that President Tony Bates would be stepping down at the end of 2016. 270 more employees were laid off in March 2017, 250 additional layoffs followed in January 2018, bringing the company's workforce to "just under 1,000"At its peak, a share of GoPro was valued at $86, but on March 26, 2018, only $4.81. On March 30, 2011, GoPro acquired CineForm; the acquisition included the CineForm 444 video codec used in the film Slumdog Millionaire. The company claimed that the codec "makes HD and 3D editing faster and more convenient without sacrificing image quality", it was incorporated in the company's 3D Hero System shortly after the acquisition. In March 2013, GoPro issued a DMCA takedown notice to website DigitalRev.com, which had posted a review of its product, citing trademark use as a breach of copyright. This notice was retracted 10 days citing "erroneous enforcement". On February 29, 2016, GoPro spent $105 million and acquired two start-ups, namely and Vemory, for their video editing tools Replay and Splice.
On February 7, 2014, GoPro submitted a confidential filing for an initial public offering with the Securities and Exchange Commission. On May 19, 2014, GoPro filed its S-1 with the SEC without specifying the number of shares or their price; the company stated that they hoped to raise at least $100 million through the sale of shares, using the money to pay off debt in full and "to acquire or invest in complementary businesses, technologies or assets". They said that they planned to list on the NASDAQ stock exchange using the symbol'GPRO.'The expected price range was $21 to $24 a share. At the IPO price the company was valued at $2.95 billion. 1.5 percent of those shares were allotted to LOYAL3, a technology platform that allows small investors to participate. One reason for GoPro's decision to go public was the potential to become a media company to generate additional revenue from the content its cameras create. Woodman worked on his first camera for two years after founding the company introducing the GoPro 35mm HERO in September 2004 at San Diego's Action Sports Retailer trade show.
In its first year GoPro sold $150,000 worth of products. In 2006 the company introduced its first Digital HERO, with 10 second video capability, generated $800,000 in revenue; the following year GoPro sales quadrupled to $3.4 million. In 2014, the company was selling the HERO3+ in editions of different colors, it was capable of supporting 4K UHD video and 12 MP still photographs. The HERO4 was introduced on 24 September 2014. On September 28th 2017, GoPro released the Hero 6 camera, which claims improved stabilization over the Hero 5 models and is capable of capturing 4K video in 60 FPS. On July 11, 2018, GoPro announced that it had sold more than 30 million HERO cameras since inception; the GoPro Karma was GoPro's consumer drone, until its discontinuation in January 2018. In 2014, GoPro entered into discussions with DJI for a private label model built with the GoPro branding. After the failure of these negotiations, GoPro entered into an agreement with 3D Robotics for a similar partnership based on 3DR's flight controllers.
3DR failed to meet their agreed upon timelines. As a result, GoPro took full control of the development process in mid-2015. Scheduled to be released early 2016, the GoPro Karma project was delayed several times before the GoPro Karma was announced with an introduction date of October 23, 2016. The
Filmo is a series of 16-mm and 8-mm movie equipment made by the Bell & Howell Company. The line included cameras and accessories; the Filmo camera series started with the 1923 Filmo 70, beginning a series of models built on the same basic body, to continued for more than half a century. It was based on Bell & Howell's brilliantly designed 1917 prototype for a 17.5mm camera intended for amateur use. When invited into Kodak's 16mm plans in 1920, the company was quick to see the advantages and set about redesigning the 17.5mm camera for 16mm film. The Filmo 70 was the first spring motor-driven 16mm camera. In 1925 the Eyemo, a hand-held 35mm camera based on the design of the Filmo 70 was offered, it was spring driven, but could be hand-cranked as well. Bell & Howell introduced the first 16mm turret camera with its Model C in 1927. A beautifully ornate and much more compact 16mm camera, the Filmo 75, marketed as a "watch-thin" ladies' camera, was offered in 1928, followed in 1931 by a nearly identical counterpart designated as the Filmo Field Camera, offered in a plain covering, but available with the ornate decorations of the Model 75, in that form indistinguishable from the earlier version except for the nameplate.
When Kodak introduced 8mm film in 1932, Bell & Howell was slow to take up the new format, when it did so, it was not in the form of the Kodak standard. The first 8mm Filmo was offered in 1935 as a single run 8mm film camera, the Filmo 127-A called STRAIGHT EIGHT. However, STRAIGHT EIGHT did not appeal to the market as well as double-8, so the design was modified for double-8 as the 134-A in 1936. Production of Filmos around this body type continued into the 1950s; the 16mm Filmo cameras all take 16-mm film on a 100 ft Daylight spool although some versions can take 400 ft external magazines. Spring wind is standard, although some Filmos have provisions for attachment of a 12V DC or AC motor. A crystal-sync motor was developed for the Eyemo and adapted to the Filmo. In 1927, the camera was equipped with a three-lens turret. Early turret models used a variable drum finder or sets of separate finder lenses matched to each focal length on cameras. Early versions were designed for two speeds, either 8 and 16 frame/s, or 16 and 32 frame/s, with one option for a 12-16-24 frame/s 3-speed camera.
Starting with the Model D in 1927, most versions could shoot a range of speeds up to 64 frames per second, although there was a superspeed version, the 70-B, designed to run at a single speed of 128 frame/s. This was used for motion analysis; the Model 70-E was a turretless version of the Model D, with a shorter range of speeds. The camera was built to the most precise standards in the industry, is still popular with student filmmakers. Durable and ruggedly built, it was standard equipment for U. S. military combat cameramen from World War II thru Vietnam, the workhorse silent news-gathering camera for TV stations from the 1950s through the 1970s, when electronic news gathering on video tape began to replace 16mm film. Most varieties are common, but special models like the Model 70-B, the 70-DB ) are quite rare, the Filmo 70-AC Morgana Color System camera, while advertised is unknown in any extant examples and may never have gone past the prototype stage. Filmo Operating and Repair Manuals Filmo History Bell & Howell movie cameras
In photography, a negative is an image on a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film, in which the lightest areas of the photographed subject appear darkest and the darkest areas appear lightest. This reversed order occurs because the light-sensitive chemicals a camera film must use to capture an image enough for ordinary picture-taking are darkened, rather than bleached, by exposure to light and subsequent photographic processing. In the case of color negatives, the colors are reversed into their respective complementary colors. Typical color negatives have an overall dull orange tint due to an automatic color-masking feature that results in improved color reproduction. Negatives are used to make positive prints on photographic paper by projecting the negative onto the paper with a photographic enlarger or making a contact print; the paper is darkened in proportion to its exposure to light, so a second reversal results which restores light and dark to their normal order. Negatives were once made on a thin sheet of glass rather than a plastic film, some of the earliest negatives were made on paper.
It is incorrect to call an image a negative because it is on a transparent material. Transparent prints can be made by printing a negative onto special positive film, as is done to make traditional motion picture film prints for use in theaters; some films used in cameras are designed to be developed by reversal processing, which produces the final positive, instead of a negative, on the original film. Positives on film or glass are known as transparencies or diapositives, if mounted in small frames designed for use in a slide projector or magnifying viewer they are called slides. A positive image is a normal image. A negative image is a total inversion, in which light areas appear vice versa. A negative color image is additionally color-reversed, with red areas appearing cyan, greens appearing magenta, blues appearing yellow, vice versa. Film negatives have less contrast, but a wider dynamic range, than the final printed positive images; the contrast increases when they are printed onto photographic paper.
When negative film images are brought into the digital realm, their contrast may be adjusted at the time of scanning or, more during subsequent post-processing. Film for cameras that use the 35 mm still format is sold as a long strip of emulsion-coated and perforated plastic spooled in a light-tight cassette. Before each exposure, a mechanism inside the camera is used to pull an unexposed area of the strip out of the cassette and into position behind the camera lens; when all exposures have been made the strip is rewound into the cassette. After the film is chemically developed, the strip shows a series of small negative images, it is then cut into sections for easier handling. Medium format cameras use 120 film, which yields a strip of negatives 60 mm wide, large format cameras capture each image on a single sheet of film which may be as large as 20 x 25 cm or larger; each of these photographed images may be referred to as a negative and an entire strip or set of images may be collectively referred to as "the negatives".
They are the master images, from which all positive prints will derive, so they are handled and stored with special care. Many photographic processes create negative images: the chemicals involved react when exposed to light, so that during development they produce deposits of microscopic dark silver particles or colored dyes in proportion to the amount of exposure. However, when a negative image is created from a negative image a positive image results; this makes most chemical-based photography a two-step process, which uses negative film and ordinary processing. Special films and development processes have been devised so that positive images can be created directly on the film. Despite the market's evolution away from film, there is still a desire and market for products which allow fine art photographers to produce negatives from digital images for their use in alternative processes such as cyanotypes, gum bichromate, platinum prints, many others; the 1980s TV show Tales from the Darkside opening sequence famously shows various images of a countryside, covered bridge, farm buildings, birch trees that flip over to another image of the countryside fading into a negative image.
The title appears and a door in the image opens to reveal the episode. Scanning film negatives at the Wayback Machine
Cable News Network is an American news-based pay television channel owned by WarnerMedia News & Sports, a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. CNN was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel. Upon its launch, CNN was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage, was the first all-news television channel in the United States. While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City, studios in Washington, D. C. and Los Angeles. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for weekend programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U. S. to distinguish the American channel from CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U. S. households. Broadcast coverage of the U. S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms, as well as carriage on subscription providers throughout Canada. As of July 2015, CNN is available to about 96,374,000 pay-television households in the United States.
Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories. The Cable News Network was launched at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on June 1, 1980. After an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast. Burt Reinhardt, the executive vice president of CNN at its launch, hired most of the channel's first 200 employees, including the network's first news anchor, Bernard Shaw. Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television providers, several websites, specialized closed-circuit channels; the company has 42 bureaus, more than 900 affiliated local stations, several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. The channel's success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for conglomerate Time Warner's eventual acquisition of the Turner Broadcasting System in 1996. A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of 30-minute news broadcasts.
The channel, which became known as CNN Headline News and is now known as HLN focused on live news coverage supplemented by personality-based programs during the evening and primetime hours. The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the channel past the "Big Three" American networks for the first time in its history due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the Coalition bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman and Peter Arnett; the moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Shaw on January 16, 1991, as follows: This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside.... Peter Arnett, join me here. Let's describe to our viewers what we're seeing... The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated.... We're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky. Unable to broadcast live pictures from Baghdad, CNN's coverage of the initial hours of the Gulf War had the dramatic feel of a radio broadcast – and was compared to legendary CBS news anchor Edward R. Murrow's gripping live radio reports of the German bombing of London during World War II.
Despite the lack of live pictures, CNN's coverage was carried by television stations and networks around the world, resulting in CNN being watched by over a billion viewers worldwide. The Gulf War experience brought CNN some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of obscure reporters. In 2000, media scholar and director of the Center for the Study of Popular Television at Syracuse University, Robert Thompson, stated that having turned 20, CNN was now the "old guard." Shaw, known for his live-from-Bagdhad reporting during the Gulf War, became CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour. Amanpour's presence in Iraq was caricatured by actress Nora Dunn as ruthless reporter Adriana Cruz in the 1999 film Three Kings. Time Warner-owned sister network HBO produced a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about CNN's coverage of the first Gulf War. Coverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government.
CNN was the first cable news channel. Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event, she broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. Eastern Time that morning and said:This just in. You are looking at a disturbing live shot there; that is the World Trade Center, we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story calling our sources and trying to figure out what happened, but something devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan; that is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center. Sean Murtagh, CNN vice president of finance and administration, was the first network employe