Art rock is a subgenre of rock music that reflects a challenging or avant-garde approach to rock, or which makes use of modernist, experimental, or unconventional elements. Art rock aspires to elevate rock from entertainment to an artistic statement, opting for a more experimental and conceptual outlook on music. Influences may be drawn from genres such as experimental rock, avant-garde music, classical music, jazz, its music was created with the intention of listening and contemplation rather than for dancing, is distinguished by the use of electronic effects and easy listening textures far removed from the propulsive rhythms of early rock. The term may sometimes be used interchangeably with "progressive rock", though the latter is instead characterized in particular by its employment of classically trained instrumental technique and symphonic textures; the genre's greatest level of popularity was in the early 1970s through British artists. The music, as well as the theatrical nature of performances associated with the genre, was able to appeal to artistically inclined adolescents and younger adults due to its virtuosity and musical/lyrical complexity.
Art rock is most associated with a certain period of rock music, beginning in 1966–67 and ending with the arrival of punk in the mid 1970s. After, the genre would be infused within popular music genres of the 1970s–90s. Critic John Rockwell says that art rock is one of rock's most wide-ranging and eclectic genres with its overt sense of creative detachment, classical music pretensions, experimental, avant-garde proclivities. In the rock music of the 1970s, the "art" descriptor was understood to mean "aggressively avant-garde" or "pretentiously progressive". "Art rock" is used synonymously with progressive rock. The term has been used to describe at least two related, but distinct, types of rock music; the first is progressive rock, while the second usage refers to groups who rejected psychedelia and the hippie counterculture in favor of a modernist, avant-garde approach defined by the Velvet Underground. Essayist Ellen Willis compared these two types: From the early sixties … there was a counter-tradition in rock and roll that had much more in common with high art—in particular avant-garde art—than the ballyhooed art-rock synthesis.
While art rock was implicitly based on the claim that rock and roll was or could be as worthy as more established art forms, rock-and-roll art came out of an obsessive commitment to the language of rock and roll and an obsessive disdain for those who rejected that language or wanted it watered down, made easier … the new wave has inherited the counter-tradition. Art rock emphasizes Romantic and autonomous traditions, in distinction to the aesthetic of the everyday and the disposable embodied by art pop. Larry Starr and Christopher Waterman's American Popular Music defines art rock as a "form of rock music that blended elements of rock and European classical music", citing the English rock bands King Crimson, Lake & Palmer, Pink Floyd as examples. Common characteristics include album-oriented music divided into compositions rather than songs, with complicated and long instrumental sections, symphonic orchestration, its music was traditionally used within the context of concept records, its lyrical themes tended to be "imaginative" and politically oriented.
Differences have been identified between art rock and progressive rock, with art rock emphasizing avant-garde or experimental influences and "novel sonic structure", while progressive rock has been characterized as putting a greater emphasis on classically trained instrumental technique, literary content, symphonic features. Compared to progressive rock, art rock is "more challenging and unconventional" and "less classically influenced", with more of an emphasis on avant-garde music. Similarities are that they both describe a British attempt to elevate rock music to new levels of artistic credibility, became the instrumental analog to concept albums and rock operas, which were more vocal oriented. Art rock can refer to either classically driven rock, or to a progressive rock-folk fusion. Bruce Eder's essay The Early History of Art-Rock/Prog Rock states that "'progressive rock,' sometimes known as'art rock,' or'classical rock'" is music in which the "bands playing suites, not songs; the boundaries between art and pop music became blurred throughout the second half of the 20th century.
The first usage of the term "art rock", according to Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, was in 1968. As pop music's dominant format transitioned from singles to albums, many rock bands created works that aspired to make grand artistic statements, where art rock would flourish; as it progressed in the late 1960s – in tandem with the development of progressive rock – art rock acquired notoriety alongside experimental rock. The earliest figure of art rock has been assumed to be record producer and songwriter Phil Spector, who became known as an auteur for his Wall of Sound productions that aspired to a "classical grandiosity". According to biographer Richard Williams: " created a new concept: the producer as overall director of the creative process, from beginning to end, he took control of everything, he picked the artists, wrote or chose the material, supervised the arrangements, t
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
A synthesizer or synthesiser is an electronic musical instrument that generates audio signals that may be converted to sound. Synthesizers may imitate traditional musical instruments such as piano, vocals, or natural sounds such as ocean waves, they are played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other devices, including music sequencers, instrument controllers, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, electronic drums. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are called sound modules, are controlled via USB, MIDI or CV/gate using a controller device a MIDI keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals. Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, wavetable synthesis, frequency modulation synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis. Synthesizers were first used in pop music in the 1960s. In the late 1970s, synths were used in progressive rock and disco.
In the 1980s, the invention of the inexpensive Yamaha DX7 synth made digital synthesizers available. 1980s pop and dance music made heavy use of synthesizers. In the 2010s, synthesizers are used in many genres, such as pop, hip hop, metal and dance. Contemporary classical music composers from the 20th and 21st century write compositions for synthesizer; the beginnings of the synthesizer are difficult to trace, as it is difficult to draw a distinction between synthesizers and some early electric or electronic musical instruments. One of the earliest electric musical instruments, the Musical Telegraph, was invented in 1876 by American electrical engineer Elisha Gray, he accidentally discovered the sound generation from a self-vibrating electromechanical circuit, invented a basic single-note oscillator. This instrument used steel reeds with oscillations created by electromagnets transmitted over a telegraph line. Gray built a simple loudspeaker device into models, consisting of a vibrating diaphragm in a magnetic field, to make the oscillator audible.
This instrument was a remote electromechanical musical instrument that used telegraphy and electric buzzers that generated fixed timbre sound. Though it lacked an arbitrary sound-synthesis function, some have erroneously called it the first synthesizer. In 1897 Thaddeus Cahill was granted his first patent for an electronic musical instrument, which by 1901 he had developed into the Telharmonium capable of additive synthesis. Cahill's business was unsuccessful for various reasons, but similar and more compact instruments were subsequently developed, such as electronic and tonewheel organs including the Hammond organ, invented in 1935. In 1906, American engineer Lee de Forest invented the first amplifying vacuum tube, the Audion whose amplification of weak audio signals contributed to advances in sound recording and film, the invention of early electronic musical instruments including the theremin, the ondes martenot, the trautonium. Most of these early instruments used heterodyne circuits to produce audio frequencies, were limited in their synthesis capabilities.
The ondes martenot and trautonium were continuously developed for several decades developing qualities similar to synthesizers. In the 1920s, Arseny Avraamov developed various systems of graphic sonic art, similar graphical sound and tonewheel systems were developed around the world. In 1938, USSR engineer Yevgeny Murzin designed a compositional tool called ANS, one of the earliest real-time additive synthesizers using optoelectronics. Although his idea of reconstructing a sound from its visible image was simple, the instrument was not realized until 20 years in 1958, as Murzin was, "an engineer who worked in areas unrelated to music". In the 1930s and 1940s, the basic elements required for the modern analog subtractive synthesizers — electronic oscillators, audio filters, envelope controllers, various effects units — had appeared and were utilized in several electronic instruments; the earliest polyphonic synthesizers were developed in the United States. The Warbo Formant Orgel developed by Harald Bode in Germany in 1937, was a four-voice key-assignment keyboard with two formant filters and a dynamic envelope controller.
The Hammond Novachord released in 1939, was an electronic keyboard that used twelve sets of top-octave oscillators with octave dividers to generate sound, with vibrato, a resonator filter bank and a dynamic envelope controller. During the three years that Hammond manufactured this model, 1,069 units were shipped, but production was discontinued at the start of World War II. Both instruments were the forerunners of the electronic organs and polyphonic synthesizers. In the 1940s and 1950s, before the popularization of electronic organs and the introductions of combo organs, manufacturers developed various portable monophonic electronic instruments with small keyboards; these small instruments consisted of an electronic oscillator, vibrato effect, passive filters. Most were designed for conventional ensembles, rather than as experimental instruments for electronic music studios, but contributed to the evolution of modern synthesizers; these instruments include the Solovox, Multimonica and Clavioline.
In the late 1940s, Canadian inventor and composer, Hugh Le Caine invented the Electronic Sackbut, a voltage-controlled electronic musical instrument that provided the earliest real-time control of three aspects of sound —corresponding to today's touch-sensitive keyboard and modulation controllers. The controllers were impl
Simon Reynolds is an English music journalist and author who began his professional career on the staff of Melody Maker in the mid-1980s, has since gone on to freelance and publish a number of full-length books on music and popular culture, ranging from historical tomes on rave music, glam rock, the post-punk era to critical works such as The Sex Revolts: Gender and Rock'n' Roll and Retromania: Pop Culture's Addiction to Its Own Past. He has contributed to Spin, Rolling Stone, The New York Times, The Village Voice, The Guardian, The Wire and others. Reynolds grew up in Berkhamsted. Inspired by his younger brother Tim, he became interested in rock and punk in 1978. In the early Eighties, he attended Brasenose Collage at the University of Oxford. After graduating, in 1984 he co-founded the Oxford-based music journal Monitor with his friends and future Melody Maker colleagues Paul Oldfield and David Stubbs along with Hilary Little and Chris Scott. In 1986, Reynolds joined the staff of Melody Maker, where his writing was marked by enthusiasm for a wave of neo-psychedelic rock and hip hop artists that emerged in the mid-1980s.
During this period and his Melody Maker colleagues set themselves in opposition to what they characterized as the conservative humanism of the era's indie rock and pop music, as well as the unadventurous style and approach of most music criticism. Pieces from this late Eighties era would form the remixed collection Blissed Out: The Raptures of Rock, published in 1990. In 1990, Reynolds left the staff of Melody Maker and became a freelance writer, splitting his time between London and New York. In the early 1990s, he became involved in rave culture and the electronic dance music scene that of the UK, became a writer on the development of what he would conceptualise as the "hardcore continuum" along with its surrounding culture such as pirate radio. During this time, he theorized the concept of "post-rock", using the term first in a Melody Maker 1993 feature about Insides and in a more developed form in a May 1994 thinkpiece for The Wire and in a review of Bark Psychosis' album Hex, published in the March 1994 issue of Mojo magazine.
In late 1994, Reynolds moved to the East Village in Manhattan. In 1995, with his wife, Joy Press, Reynolds co-authored The Sex Revolts: Gender and Rock'n' Roll, a critical analysis of gender in rock. In 1998, Reynolds published Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture, a history of house music and rave genres like jungle music and gabber; the book was published that same year in America in abridged form, with the title Generation Ecstasy: Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture. In 1998 Reynolds became a senior editor at Spin magazine in the US. In 1999, he returned to freelance work. In 2005, Reynolds released Rip It Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978–1984, a history of the post-punk era. In 2007, Reynolds published Bring the Noise: 20 Years of Writing about Hip Rock and Hip Hop in the UK, a collection of his writing themed around the relationship between white bohemian rock and black street music. In 2008, an updated edition of Energy Flash was published, with new chapters on the decade of dance music following the appearance of the first edition.
In 2009, a companion volume to Rip It Up and Start Again was published, Totally Wired: Postpunk Interviews and Overviews, containing interview transcripts and new essays. In 2011, Reynolds published Retromania: Pop Culture's Addiction to Its Own Past, a critical investigation into what he perceives as the current situation of chronic retrogression in pop music, with a focus on the effects of the internet and digital culture on music consumption and musical creativity. In 2013, a second expanded update of Energy Flash was published, with new material on the rise of dubstep to worldwide popularity and the EDM or Electronic Dance Music explosion in America. Reynolds's eighth book, a history of the glam rock era and Awe: Glam Rock and Its Legacy, was published in October 2016. In addition to writing books, Reynolds has continued freelancing for magazines, giving lectures, appearing in music documentaries, he operates a blog, Blissblog along with various satellite blogs such as the book-focused outlets Energy Flash and Shock and Awe, the drivel blog Hardly Baked.
Reynolds maintains an archive for his writing, the blog ReynoldsRetro. He resides in Los Angeles. Reynolds' writing has blended cultural criticism with music journalism, he has written extensively on gender, class and sexuality in relation to music and culture. Early in his career, Reynolds made use of critical theory and philosophy in his analysis of music, deriving particular influence from thinkers such as Roland Barthes, Georges Bataille, Julia Kristeva, Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, he has on occasion used the Marxist concepts of commodity fetishism and false consciousness to describe attitudes prevalent in hip hop music. In discussing the relationship between class and music, Reynolds coined the term liminal class, defined as the upper-working class and lower-middle-class, a group he credits with "a lot of music energy". Reynolds has written about drug culture and its relationship to various musical developments and movements. In the 2000s, in tandem with fellow critic and blogger Mark Fisher, Reynolds made use of Jacques Derrida's concept of hauntology to describe a strain of music and popular art preoccupied with the disjointed temporality
Industrial rock is a musical genre that fuses industrial music and rock music. Experimental'60s group Cromagnon are said to have been one of the bands that helped foresee the birth of industrial rock, their song "Caledonia" has been noted for its "pre-industrial stomp". Krautrock musicians Michael Rother and Klaus Dinger included industrial noise in their track "Negativland". Neu! Inspired the opening track "Speed of Life" on David Bowie's Low recorded in Berlin. Bowie collaborated with Iggy Pop on his 1977 solo debut The Idiot; the closing track "Mass Production" features mechanical sounds sampled on tape loops which influenced Joy Division who were signed to the industrially themed label Factory Records, founded in 1978. Chrome has been credited as the "beginning of industrial rock" and their 1978 Half Machine Lip Moves was listed on Wire's 100 Records that set the world on fire. Industrial rock was created in the mid- to late 1970s, amidst the punk rock revolution and disco fever. Prominent early industrial musicians include Throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire, NON, SPK and Z'EV.
Many other artists have been cited as influences such as Kraftwerk and Gary Numan and Tubeway Army as well as Einstürzende Neubauten and Fad Gadget. Many other musical performers were incorporating industrial music elements into a variety of musical styles; some post-punk performers developed styles parallel to industrial music's defining attributes. Pere Ubu's debut, The Modern Dance, was described as "industrial". Killing Joke, considered by Simon Reynolds as "a post-punk version of heavy metal". According to Chris Connelly, Foetus "is the instigator when it comes to the marriage of machinery to hardcore punk."Others followed in their wake. The New York City band Swans were inspired by the local No Wave scene, as well as punk rock, noise music and the original industrial groups. Steve Albini's Big Black followed a similar path, while incorporating American hardcore punk. Big Black has been associated with post-hardcore and noise rock, though their ties to industrial music are apparent; the Swiss trio The Young Gods, who deliberately eschewed electric guitars in favor of a sampler took inspiration from both hardcore and industrial, being indebted to the Bad Brains and Foetus.
In the 1990s, industrial rock broke into the mainstream with artists and bands such as Nine Inch Nails, Rob Zombie, White Zombie, Marilyn Manson. In December 1992, Nine Inch Nails' EP Broken was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. Nine Inch Nails gained further popularity with the release of their 1994 album The Downward Spiral; the Downward Spiral was certified 4x platinum by the RIAA in 1998. Nine Inch Nails' 1999 album The Fragile was certified 2x platinum in January 2000. With the success of Nine Inch Nails, the band's debut album Pretty Hate Machine was certified 3x platinum by the RIAA. In the 1990s, four Nine Inch Nails songs went on the Billboard Hot 100. Several industrial rock and industrial metal artists such as KMFDM, Fear Factory, Gravity Kills and Sister Machine Gun appeared on the 1995 Mortal Kombat: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack; the soundtrack was certified platinum by the RIAA in January 1996. Marilyn Manson released their album Antichrist Superstar in 1996.
The album was certified platinum by the RIAA two months after its release date. In the United States, Antichrist Superstar sold at least 1,900,000 units. Marilyn Manson's EP Smells Like Children was certified platinum in May 1998. Marilyn Manson's album Mechanical Animals went to number 1, selling 223,000 copies in its first week in stores, knocking The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill by Lauryn Hill off of the top spot. Mechanical Animals was certified platinum by the RIAA in February 1999 and sold at least 1,409,000 copies in the United States. Orgy experienced mainstream success during the 1990s; the band's 1998 album Candyass was certified platinum by the RIAA in July 1999. Orgy's cover of New Order's song "Blue Monday" went to number 56 on the Billboard Hot 100 and number 2 on the Dance Club Songs chart. White Zombie experimented with industrial metal on its 1995 album Astro-Creep 2000, certified 2x platinum by the RIAA in March 1996. White Zombie's vocalist Rob Zombie began creating pure industrial metal albums in his solo career.
Rob Zombie's solo debut studio album Hellbilly Deluxe was certified 3x platinum by the RIAA less than two years after its release date. In November 1999, Powerman 5000's album Tonight the Stars Revolt! was certified platinum by the RIAA. The album sold at least 1,316,172 units in the United States. Wax Trax! Records Nothing Records Industrial rock musical groups Industrial rock sales and awards List of industrial music bands Blush, Steven. American Hardcore: A Tribal History. Los Angeles, CA: Feral House. Chantler, Chris. "Splitting heirs". Terrorizer, 96: 54-5. Connelly, Chris. Concrete, Invisible + Fried: My Life as a Revolting Cock. London: SAF Publishing. Irvin, Jim; the Mojo Collection: The greatest albums of all time. Edinburgh: Canongate. Licht, Alan. "Tunnel vision". The Wire, 233: 30-37. Mörat. "Ye gods!" Kerrang!, 411: 12. Reynolds, Simon. Rip it up and start again: Postpunk 1978-1984. London: Faber and Faber Limited. Sharp, Chris. "Atari Teenage Riot: 60 second wipe out". The Wire, 183: 48-49. Stud, B.
& Stud, T.. "Heaven up here". Melody Maker: 26-27. Vale, Vivian. RE/Search #6-#7: Industrial culture handbook. San Francisco, CA: RE/SEARCH PUBLICATIONS. Reed, S. Ale
Pink Floyd were an English rock band formed in London in 1965. They achieved international acclaim with their psychedelic music. Distinguished by their philosophical lyrics, sonic experimentation, extended compositions, elaborate live shows, they are one of the most commercially successful and influential groups in popular music history. Pink Floyd were founded by students Syd Barrett on guitar and lead vocals, Nick Mason on drums, Roger Waters on bass and vocals, Richard Wright on keyboards and vocals, they gained popularity performing in London's underground music scene during the late 1960s, under Barrett's leadership released two charting singles and a successful debut album, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn. Guitarist and vocalist David Gilmour joined in December 1967. Waters became the band's primary lyricist and conceptual leader, devising the concepts behind their albums The Dark Side of the Moon, Wish You Were Here, The Wall and The Final Cut; the Dark Side of the Moon and The Wall became two of the best-selling albums of all time.
Following creative tensions, Wright left Pink Floyd in 1979, followed by Waters in 1985. Gilmour and Mason continued as Pink Floyd; the three produced two more albums—A Momentary Lapse of Reason and The Division Bell —and toured through 1994. After nearly two decades of enmity, Gilmour and Mason reunited with Waters in 2005 to perform as Pink Floyd in London as part of the global awareness event Live 8. Barrett died in 2006, Wright in 2008; the last Pink Floyd studio album, The Endless River, was recorded without Waters and based entirely on unreleased material from The Division Bell recording sessions. Pink Floyd were inducted into the American Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005. By 2013, they had sold more than 250 million records worldwide. Roger Waters and Nick Mason met while studying architecture at the London Polytechnic at Regent Street, they first played music together in a group formed by Keith Noble and Clive Metcalfe with Noble's sister Sheilagh.
Richard Wright, a fellow architecture student, joined that year, the group became a sextet, Sigma 6. Waters played lead guitar, Mason drums, Wright rhythm guitar; the band performed at private functions and rehearsed in a tearoom in the basement of the Regent Street Polytechnic. They performed songs by the Searchers and material written by their manager and songwriter, fellow student Ken Chapman. In September 1963, Waters and Mason moved into a flat at 39 Stanhope Gardens near Crouch End in London, owned by Mike Leonard, a part-time tutor at the nearby Hornsey College of Art and the Regent Street Polytechnic. Mason moved out after the 1964 academic year, guitarist Bob Klose moved in during September 1964, prompting Waters' switch to bass. Sigma 6 went through several names, including the Meggadeaths, the Abdabs and the Screaming Abdabs, Leonard's Lodgers, the Spectrum Five, before settling on the Tea Set. In 1964, as Metcalfe and Noble left to form their own band, guitarist Syd Barrett joined Klose and Waters at Stanhope Gardens.
Barrett, two years younger, had moved to London in 1962 to study at the Camberwell College of Arts. Waters and Barrett were childhood friends. Mason said about Barrett: "In a period when everyone was being cool in a adolescent, self-conscious way, Syd was unfashionably outgoing. In December 1964, they secured their first recording time, at a studio in West Hampstead, through one of Wright's friends, who let them use some down time free. Wright, taking a break from his studies, did not participate in the session; when the RAF assigned Dennis a post in Bahrain in early 1965, Barrett became the band's frontman. That year, they became the resident band at the Countdown Club near Kensington High Street in London, where from late night until early morning they played three sets of 90 minutes each. During this period, spurred by the group's need to extend their sets to minimise song repetition, the band realised that "songs could be extended with lengthy solos", wrote Mason. After pressure from his parents and advice from his college tutors, Klose quit the band in mid-1965 and Barrett took over lead guitar.
The group first referred to themselves as the Pink Floyd Sound in late 1965. Barrett created the name on the spur of the moment when he discovered that another band called the Tea Set, were to perform at one of their gigs; the name is derived from the given names of two blues musicians whose Piedmont blues records Barrett had in his collection, Pink Anderson and Floyd Council. By 1966, the group's repertoire consisted of rhythm and blues songs and they had begun to receive paid bookings, including a performance at the Marquee Club in March 1966, where Peter Jenner, a lecturer at the London School of Economics, noticed them. Jenner was impressed by the sonic effects Barrett and Wright created, with his business partner and friend Andrew King became their manager; the pair had little experience in the music industry and used King's inheritance to set up Blackhill Enterprises, purchasing about £1,000 worth of new instruments and equipment for the band
Post-rock is a form of experimental rock characterized by a focus on exploring textures and timbre over traditional rock song structures, chords or riffs. Post-rock artists are instrumental combining rock guitars and drums with electronic instruments; the genre emerged within the indie and underground music scene of early 1990s. However, due to its abandonment of rock conventions, it bears little resemblance musically to contemporary indie rock, borrowing instead from diverse sources including ambient music and minimalist classical; the individual styles of bands that have been described as post-rock differ making the term controversial among listeners and artists alike. The concept of "post-rock" was coined by critic Simon Reynolds in his review of Bark Psychosis' album Hex, published in the March 1994 issue of Mojo magazine. Reynolds expanded upon the idea in the May 1994 issue of The Wire. Writing about artists like Seefeel, Disco Inferno, Techno Animal, Robert Hampson, Insides, Reynolds used the term to describe music "using rock instrumentation for non-rock purposes, using guitars as facilitators of timbre and textures rather than riffs and power chords".
He further expounded on the term, Perhaps the provocative area for future development lies... in cyborg rock. Reynolds, in a July 2005 entry in his blog, claimed he had used the concept of "post-rock" before using it in Mojo referencing it in a feature on Insides for music newspaper Melody Maker, he said he found the term itself not to be of his own coinage, saying in his blog, "I discovered many years it had been floating around for over a decade." The term was used by American journalist James Wolcott in a 1975 article about musician Todd Rundgren, although with a different meaning. It was used in the Rolling Stone Album Guide to name a style corresponding to "avant-rock" or "out-rock"; the earliest use of the term dates back as far as September 1967. In a Time cover story feature on the Beatles, writer Christopher Porterfield hails the band and producer George Martin's creative use of the recording studio, declaring that this is "leading an evolution in which the best of current post-rock sounds are becoming something that pop music has never been before: an art form."
Another pre-1994 example of the term in use can be found in an April 1992 review of 1990s noise-pop band The Earthmen by Steven Walker in Melbourne music publication Juke, where he describes a "post-rock noisefest". The post-rock sound incorporates characteristics from a variety of musical genres, including krautrock, psychedelia, prog rock, space rock, math rock, tape music, minimalist classical, British IDM, dub reggae, as well as post-punk, free jazz, contemporary classical, avant-garde electronica, it bears similarities to drone music. Early post-rock groups often exhibited strong influence from the krautrock of the 1970s borrowing elements of "motorik", the characteristic krautrock rhythm. Post-rock compositions make use of repetition of musical motifs and subtle changes with an wide range of dynamics. In some respects, this is similar to the music of Steve Reich, Philip Glass and Brian Eno, pioneers of minimalism. Post-rock pieces are lengthy and instrumental, containing repetitive build-ups of timbre and texture.
Vocals are omitted from post-rock. When vocals are included, the use is non-traditional: some post-rock bands employ vocals as purely instrumental efforts and incidental to the sound, rather than a more traditional use where "clean" interpretable vocals are important for poetic and lyrical meaning; when present, post-rock vocals are soft or droning and are infrequent or present in irregular intervals. Sigur Rós, a band known for their distinctive vocals, fabricated a language they called "Hopelandic", which they described as "a form of gibberish vocals that fits to the music and acts as another instrument."In lieu of typical rock structures like the verse-chorus form, post-rock groups make greater use of soundscapes. Simon Reynolds states in his "Post-Rock" from Audio Culture that "A band's journey through rock to post-rock involves a trajectory from narrative lyrics to stream-of-consciousness to voice-as-texture to purely instrumental music". Reynolds' conclusion defines the sporadic progression from rock, with its field of sound and lyrics to post-rock, where samples are stretched and looped.
Wider experimentation and blending of other genres have taken hold in the post-rock scene. Cult of Luna, Russian Circles, Palms and Pelican have fused metal with post-rock styles; the resulting sound has been termed post-metal. More sludge metal has grown and evolved to include some elements of post-rock; this second wave of sludge metal has been pioneered by bands such as Giant Battle of Mice. This new sound is seen on the label of Neurot Recordings. Bands such as Altar of Plagues, Lantlôs and Agalloch blend between post-rock and black metal, incorporating elements of the former while using the latter. In some cases, this sort of experimentation and blending has gone beyond the fusion of post-rock with a single genre, as in the case of post-metal, in favor of an wider embrace of disparate musical influences as it can be heard in bands like Deafheaven. Post-rock appears to take a heavy influence from late 1960s