Hugh Le Caine
Hugh Le Caine was a Canadian physicist and instrument builder. Le Caine was brought up in Port Arthur in northwestern Ontario. At a young age, he began making musical instruments. In youth, he started imagining "beautiful sounds", he attended high school in Port Arthur at Port Arthur Collegiate Institute. After completing his master of science degree from Queen's University in 1939, Le Caine was awarded a National Research Council of Canada fellowship to continue his work on atomic physics measuring devices at Queen's, he worked with the NRC in Ottawa from 1940 to 1974. During World War II, he assisted in the development of the first radar systems. On an NRC grant he studied nuclear physics from 1948 to 1952 in England. Le Caine wanted to devise new ways to produce those "beautiful sounds", so he established his own electronic music studio where he began to build new electronic instruments after World War II. At home, he pursued a lifelong interest in electronic sound generation. In 1937, Le Caine designed an electronic free reed organ, in the mid-1940s, he built the Electronic Sackbut, now recognised to be one of the first synthesizers.
After the success of public demonstrations of his instruments, he was permitted to move his musical activities to the NRC and to work on them full-time in 1954, where he gained funding in order to open ELMUS, the Canadian Electronic Music Laboratory. Over the next twenty years, he built over twenty-two different new instruments and helped Canadian universities establish their own studios in the new electronic music medium. One of Le Caine's most notable inventions was the Special Purpose Tape Recorder. Experiments with his recorder led the composition of Dripsody in 1955; the subtitle of the piece is "An Étude for Variable Speed Recorder". French for "study", it allows an instrument to study a specific technical difficulty. Between 1955 and his retirement from the NRC in 1973, Le Caine produced at least fifteen electroacoustic compositions in order to demonstrate the capabilities of his new devices, he created a score of new devices and presented his ideas and inventions to learned bodies and the general public.
But while Le Caine did get excellent responses from both the learned bodies and the public, he did not get a satisfactory response from industry. A few people did come into Le Caine's life to make him feel his efforts were of some value. One of these people was Israeli composer Josef Tal. In the summer of 1958, Tal had travelled to Ottawa under a UNESCO grant to visit major electronic music studios. Tal grew excited about the instruments that Le Caine had built, but he did not realize what this meant to Le Caine until the following day when Le Caine and several technicians were having lunch in a small restaurant. Tal noticed that not only had Le Caine been rather silent on this day, but on close inspection at the table, Le Caine had tears running down his cheeks and falling silently into his soup; when an opportunity arose, Tal delicately asked one of the technicians about this and was told that Le Caine had felt no composer in Canada had a use for his instruments and that Tal was the first composer who had shown any interest in his work.
In 1962 Le Caine arrived in Jerusalem to install his Creative Tape Recorder in the Centre for Electronic Music in Israel, established by Josef Tal. Le Caine collaborated in the development of pioneering electronic music studios at the University of Toronto in 1959 and at McGill University in 1964. Though his composition output was small, Le Caine is remembered as one of the great pioneer composers of musique concrète, his best known work being Dripsody, a piece of musique concrète based on the sound of a single drop of water that over the course of the piece is permuted and contorted into a variety of sounds. Le Caine used a metal wastebasket filled with two inches of water, held an eyedropper ten inches above the wastebasket, tape-recorded the water drops for thirty minutes. After reviewing the resulting recording, Le Caine selected one of the water drops and spliced it onto a short tape loop; this allowed the water drop to repeat like a traditional ostinato figure. Le Caine wrote down rhythmic figures he felt stimulated the sound of water drops he decided how loud to make each figure, writing down a corresponding decibel number.
He correlated the time values of the rhythms with different lengths of tape. Coming back to the tape recorder, Le Caine used that new tool to perform five kinds of operations or manipulations, all with a different effect; the first operation, the changing of tape speed, was his primary technique. The faster the tape is played, the higher the pitch and vice versa. Tape speed is measured by ips or inches per second. So slowing a recording by half, lowers all pitches by an octave. Le Caine created a three-octave keyboard. All the different pitches during Dripsody were achieved by changing the tape speed. He, sometime in the process of creating the keyboard, assembled the pitches into a pentatonic scale pattern; the second operation's objective was to play the recorded sound backwards, reversing the direction of the tape. Acoustically, the effect is to change the amplitude. What we experience with amplitude is, for example, pressing a key on a piano, a loud sound emerges slowly fades away. Le Caine used four different tape loops to produce ostinato patterns heard in Dripsody.
Three different speeds creates twelve different loops not needing to add additional splices. Howe
Canada Science and Technology Museum
The Canada Science and Technology Museum is located in Ottawa, Canada, on St. Laurent Boulevard, to the south of the Queensway; the role of the museum is to help the public to understand the technological and scientific history of Canada and the ongoing relationships between science and Canadian society. The National Museum of Science and Technology was established in 1967 as a Centennial project by the Canadian Government. In October 1966 the government appointed David McCurdy Baird as the first director of the museum, he found and arranged the purchase of a large former bakery on St. Laurent Boulevard with truck bays and high ceilings; the government had an aeronautical collection and a collection of railroad artifacts, within a few months these were installed in the building. A collection of farm equipment from Massey Ferguson arrived soon after. In 2001, the museum began looking for a new location to move to, citing a lack of space and accessibility; the desire for more scenic surroundings was a factor, as the museum is surrounded by warehouses and strip malls.
Four locations were considered: the western section of LeBreton Flats, on the Rockcliffe Parkway next to the Canada Aviation and Space Museum, in Jacques Cartier Park on Rue Laurier, a site on Rue Montcalm. In 2006, Conservative cabinet minister and MP for Pontiac Lawrence Cannon put his support behind the Jacques Cartier Park option. During routine maintenance on a leaky roof in September 2014, workers discovered that the roof was in danger of collapse and that mould was spreading from the building's south wall; the museum closed to visitors, the staff offered to lend out some of the exhibits to other museums while renovation and repairs were made to the building. Most of the original building was demolished, leaving only the "crazy kitchen" and the hall of trains. $80 million was spent to create a modern replacement on the same site. The museum reopened on November 17, 2017; the main museum building on St Laurent Boulevard houses a number of permanent displays, as well as temporary exhibits of the museum's collection and visiting exhibitions.
The most famous of these exhibitions is the crazy kitchen, a room, built on a tilted surface, thus causing gravity to pull visitors towards the wall, but has all its furniture nailed to the floor so they won't fall, thus creating the illusion that the room is on an ordinary, flat surface. This competing information confuses visitors' brains. Artifact Alley, which runs diagonally across the building, displays about 700 historical objects at any one time; the Ingenium storage facility, located at 1867 St. Laurent Blvd, it includes more than over 268,000 artifacts, such as a prototype for the Bombardier Innovia ART 100, a driverless rail car, an Iron Lung once used at the Ottawa Civic Hospital, the FIU-301, the Ontario Provincial Police's first Unmanned Aerial vehicle; the museum is operated by Ingenium, a Crown corporation that reports to the Department of Canadian Heritage, responsible for preserving and protecting Canada's scientific and technical heritage. The Corporation has a staff of about 275 and is responsible for three museums: the Canada Science and Technology Museum, the Canada Agriculture and Food Museum and the Canada Aviation and Space Museum.
The museum is affiliated with: Canadian Museums Association, Canadian Heritage Information Network, Virtual Museum of Canada. Canadian university scientific research organizations Canadian industrial research and development organizations Technological and industrial history of Canada Natural scientific research in Canada Canada lunar sample displays Invention in Canada Official website CSTM Origins: A History of the Canada Science and Technology Museum Canada Science and Technology Museum at Google Cultural Institute
A sackbut is a type of trombone from the Renaissance and Baroque eras, characterised by a telescopic slide, used to vary the length of the tube to change pitch. Unlike the earlier slide trumpet from which it evolved, the sackbut possesses a U-shaped slide, with two parallel sliding tubes, which allows for playing scales in a lower range. Records of the term "trombone" predates the term "sackbut" by two decades, evidence for the German term "Posaune" is older. "Sackbut" a French term, was used in England until the instrument fell into disuse in the eighteenth century. In modern English, an older trombone or its replica is called a sackbut. An older instrument differs from modern trombones by its smaller, more cylindrically-proportioned bore, its less-flared bell; the bell section was more resonant. These traits produce a "covered, blended sound, a timbre effective for working with voices... zincks and crumhorns", as in an alta capella. The revived instrument had changed in specific ways. In the mid-18th century, the bell flare increased, crooks fell out of use, flat, removable stays were replaced by tubular braces.
The new shape produced a stronger sound, suitable to open-air performance in the marching bands where trombones became popular again in the 19th century. Before the early 19th century, most trombones adjusted tuning with a crook on the joint between the bell and slide or, more between the mouthpiece and the slide, rather than the modern tuning slide on the bell curve, whose cylindrical sections prevent the instrument from flaring smoothly through this section. Older trombones generally don't have water keys, stockings, a leadpipe, or a slide lock, but as these parts are not critical to sound, replicas may include them. Bore size remained variable; the first reference to a slide instrument was trompette des ménestrels, first found in Burgundy in the 1420s and in other regions of Europe. The name distinguished the instrument from the trompettes de guerre; the next word to appear in the 15th century that implied a slide was the sackbut group of words. There are two theories for the sources: it is either derived from the Middle French sacquer and bouter or from the Spanish sacar and bucha.
The term survives in numerous English spelling variations including sacbut, sagbut, sacabushe and shakbusshe. Related to sackbut was the name used in France: sacqueboute and in Spain, where it was sacabuche; these terms were used in France until the 18th century. In Scotland in 1538 the slide instrument is referred to as draucht trumpet as opposed to a weir trumpet, which had a fixed length. In Germany, the original word was Posaune, is still used today; this derives from busine, Latinate and meant straight trumpet. In Italy it was trombone, which derived from trumpet in the Latin tromba or drompten, used in the Low Countries; the first records of it being used are around 1440, but it is not clear whether this was just a nickname for a trumpet player. In 1487 a writer links the words trompone and sacqueboute and mentions the instrument as playing the contratenor part in a danceband; the trombone developed from the trumpet. Up until 1375 trumpets were a long straight tube with a bell flare. There are various uses of sackbut-like words in the Bible, which has led to a faulty translation from the Latin bible that suggested the trombones date back as far as 600 BC, but there is no evidence of slides at this time.
From 1375 the iconography sees trumpets being made with bends, some in'S' shapes. Around 1400 we see the "loop"-shaped trumpet appear in paintings and at some point in the 15th century, a single slide was added; this slide trumpet was known as a "trompette des ménestrels" in the alta capella bands. The earliest clear evidence of a double slide instrument is in a fresco painting by Filippino Lippi in Rome, The Assumption of the Virgin, dating from 1488–93. From the 15th to the 19th centuries, the instrument designs changed little overall, apart from a slight widening of the bell in classical era. Since the 19th century, trombone bore bells have increased significantly, it was one of the most important instruments in Baroque polychoral works, along with the cornett and organ. Sackbuts come in several sizes. According to Michael Praetorius, these were: The pitch of the trombones has moved up a semi-tone since the 17th century, this is explained in the section on pitch; because the tenor instrument is described as "Gemeine", this is the most used trombone.
The basses, due to their longer slides, have a hinged handle on the slide stay, used to reach the long positions. The giant Octav-Posaun / double bass trombone / contra-bass trombone in the style of those made in 16th/17th centuries is represented by only a few existing instruments. There is an original instrument made by Georg Nicolaus Öller built in Stockholm in 1639 and housed in the Scenkonstmuseet. In addition, Ewald Meinl has made a modern copy of this instrument, it is owned and played by Wim Becu; the bore size of renaissance/baroque trombones is 10 mm and the bell more than 10.5 cm in diameter. This compares with modern tenor trombones, which have bores 12.7 mm to 13.9 mm and bells 17.8 cm to 21.6 cm. Modern reproductions of sackbut
A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers or keys on a musical instrument. Keyboards contain keys for playing the twelve notes of the Western musical scale, with a combination of larger, longer keys and smaller, shorter keys that repeats at the interval of an octave. Depressing a key on the keyboard makes the instrument produce sounds—either by mechanically striking a string or tine, plucking a string, causing air to flow through a pipe organ, striking a bell, or, on electric and electronic keyboards, completing a circuit. Since the most encountered keyboard instrument is the piano, the keyboard layout is referred to as the piano keyboard; the twelve notes of the Western musical scale are laid out with the lowest note on the left. Because these keys were traditionally covered in ivory they are called the white notes or white keys; the keys for the remaining five notes—which are not part of the C major scale— are raised and shorter. Because these keys receive less wear, they are made of black colored wood and called the black notes or black keys.
The pattern repeats at the interval of an octave. The arrangement of longer keys for C major with intervening, shorter keys for the intermediate semitones dates to the 15th century. Many keyboard instruments dating from before the nineteenth century, such as harpsichords and pipe organs, have a keyboard with the colours of the keys reversed: the white notes are made of ebony and the black notes are covered with softer white bone. A few electric and electronic instruments from the 1960s and subsequent decades have done this; some 1960s electronic organs used reverse colors or gray sharps or naturals to indicate the lower part of a single keyboard divided into two parts, each controlling a different registration or sound. Such keyboards accommodate melody and contrasting accompaniment without the expense of a second manual, were a regular feature in Spanish and some English organs of the renaissance and baroque eras; the break was between middle C and C-sharp, or outside of Iberia between B and C.
Broken keyboards reappeared in 1842 with the harmonium, the split occurring at E4/F4. The reverse-colored keys on Hammond organs such as the B3, C3 and A100 are latch-style radio buttons for selecting pre-set sounds; the chromatic range of keyboard instruments has tended to increase. Harpsichords extended over five octaves in the 18th century, while most pianos manufactured since about 1870 have 88 keys; some modern pianos have more notes. While modern synthesizer keyboards have either 61, 76 or 88 keys, small MIDI controllers are available with 25 notes. Organs have 61 keys per manual, though some spinet models have 44 or 49. An organ pedalboard is a keyboard with long pedals played by the organist's feet. Pedalboards vary in size from 12 to 32 notes. In a typical keyboard layout, black note keys have uniform width, white note keys have uniform width and uniform spacing at the front of the keyboard. In the larger gaps between the black keys, the width of the natural notes C, D and E differ from the width of keys F, G, A and B.
This allows close to uniform spacing of 12 keys per octave while maintaining uniformity of seven "natural" keys per octave. Over the last three hundred years, the octave span distance found on historical keyboard instruments has ranged from as little as 125 mm to as much as 170 mm. Modern piano keyboards ordinarily have an octave span of 164–165 mm. Several reduced-size standards have been marketed. A 15/16 size and the 7/8 DS Standard keyboard developed by Christopher Donison in the 1970s and developed and marketed by Steinbuhler & Company. U. S. pianist Hannah Reimann has promoted piano keyboards with narrower octave spans and has a U. S. patent on the apparatus and methods for modifying existing pianos to provide interchangeable keyboards of different sizes. There have been variations in the design of the keyboard to address musical issues; the earliest designs of keyboards were based on the notes used in Gregorian chant and as such would include B♭ and B♮ both as diatonic "white notes," with the B♮ at the leftmost side of the keyboard and the B♭ at the rightmost.
Thus, an octave would have eight "white keys" and only four "black keys." The emphasis on these eight notes would continue for a few centuries after the "seven and five" system was adopted, in the form of the short octave: the eight aforementioned notes were arranged at the leftmost side of the keyboard, compressed in the keys between E and C. During the sixteenth century, when instruments were tuned in meantone temperament, some harpsichords were constructed with the G♯ and E♭ keys split into two. One portion of the G♯ key operated a string tuned to G♯ and the other operated a string tuned to A♭
A synthesizer or synthesiser is an electronic musical instrument that generates audio signals that may be converted to sound. Synthesizers may imitate traditional musical instruments such as piano, vocals, or natural sounds such as ocean waves, they are played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other devices, including music sequencers, instrument controllers, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, electronic drums. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are called sound modules, are controlled via USB, MIDI or CV/gate using a controller device a MIDI keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals. Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, wavetable synthesis, frequency modulation synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis. Synthesizers were first used in pop music in the 1960s. In the late 1970s, synths were used in progressive rock and disco.
In the 1980s, the invention of the inexpensive Yamaha DX7 synth made digital synthesizers available. 1980s pop and dance music made heavy use of synthesizers. In the 2010s, synthesizers are used in many genres, such as pop, hip hop, metal and dance. Contemporary classical music composers from the 20th and 21st century write compositions for synthesizer; the beginnings of the synthesizer are difficult to trace, as it is difficult to draw a distinction between synthesizers and some early electric or electronic musical instruments. One of the earliest electric musical instruments, the Musical Telegraph, was invented in 1876 by American electrical engineer Elisha Gray, he accidentally discovered the sound generation from a self-vibrating electromechanical circuit, invented a basic single-note oscillator. This instrument used steel reeds with oscillations created by electromagnets transmitted over a telegraph line. Gray built a simple loudspeaker device into models, consisting of a vibrating diaphragm in a magnetic field, to make the oscillator audible.
This instrument was a remote electromechanical musical instrument that used telegraphy and electric buzzers that generated fixed timbre sound. Though it lacked an arbitrary sound-synthesis function, some have erroneously called it the first synthesizer. In 1897 Thaddeus Cahill was granted his first patent for an electronic musical instrument, which by 1901 he had developed into the Telharmonium capable of additive synthesis. Cahill's business was unsuccessful for various reasons, but similar and more compact instruments were subsequently developed, such as electronic and tonewheel organs including the Hammond organ, invented in 1935. In 1906, American engineer Lee de Forest invented the first amplifying vacuum tube, the Audion whose amplification of weak audio signals contributed to advances in sound recording and film, the invention of early electronic musical instruments including the theremin, the ondes martenot, the trautonium. Most of these early instruments used heterodyne circuits to produce audio frequencies, were limited in their synthesis capabilities.
The ondes martenot and trautonium were continuously developed for several decades developing qualities similar to synthesizers. In the 1920s, Arseny Avraamov developed various systems of graphic sonic art, similar graphical sound and tonewheel systems were developed around the world. In 1938, USSR engineer Yevgeny Murzin designed a compositional tool called ANS, one of the earliest real-time additive synthesizers using optoelectronics. Although his idea of reconstructing a sound from its visible image was simple, the instrument was not realized until 20 years in 1958, as Murzin was, "an engineer who worked in areas unrelated to music". In the 1930s and 1940s, the basic elements required for the modern analog subtractive synthesizers — electronic oscillators, audio filters, envelope controllers, various effects units — had appeared and were utilized in several electronic instruments; the earliest polyphonic synthesizers were developed in the United States. The Warbo Formant Orgel developed by Harald Bode in Germany in 1937, was a four-voice key-assignment keyboard with two formant filters and a dynamic envelope controller.
The Hammond Novachord released in 1939, was an electronic keyboard that used twelve sets of top-octave oscillators with octave dividers to generate sound, with vibrato, a resonator filter bank and a dynamic envelope controller. During the three years that Hammond manufactured this model, 1,069 units were shipped, but production was discontinued at the start of World War II. Both instruments were the forerunners of the electronic organs and polyphonic synthesizers. In the 1940s and 1950s, before the popularization of electronic organs and the introductions of combo organs, manufacturers developed various portable monophonic electronic instruments with small keyboards; these small instruments consisted of an electronic oscillator, vibrato effect, passive filters. Most were designed for conventional ensembles, rather than as experimental instruments for electronic music studios, but contributed to the evolution of modern synthesizers; these instruments include the Solovox, Multimonica and Clavioline.
In the late 1940s, Canadian inventor and composer, Hugh Le Caine invented the Electronic Sackbut, a voltage-controlled electronic musical instrument that provided the earliest real-time control of three aspects of sound —corresponding to today's touch-sensitive keyboard and modulation controllers. The controllers were impl
National Research Council (Canada)
The National Research Council is the primary national research and technology organization of the Government of Canada, in science and technology research and development. The Minister of Innovation and Economic Development is responsible for the National Research Council; the transformation of the NRC into an RTO that focuses on "business-led research" was part of the federal government's Economic Action Plan. On 7 May 2013, the NRC launched its new "business approach" in which it offered four business lines: strategic research and development, technical services, management of science and technology infrastructure and NRC-Industrial Research Assistance Program. With these services, NRC intended to shorten the gap between early stage research and development and commercialization. At one point, NRC had over 30 approved programs; the tenure of John McDougall as President of the NRC was marked by a number of controversies. His presidency was characterised by a dramatic drop in publications and patents, by significant cuts in scientific staff, by a 23-month period during which NRC management was aware that the organization was contaminating the water table in a small Ontario community but did not inform that community's inhabitants.
John McDougall's departure – signalled by a sudden, three-line email to employees in March 2016 announced that he was going on personal leave. During this time Maria Aubrey, Vice President of NRC, filled the role as Acting President. Effective August 24, 2016, Iain Stewart became the new President of the NRC; the details regarding McDougall's personal leave were not publicly disclosed. NRC is a Government of Canada organization, its mandate is set out in the National Research Council Act. Under the Act, NRC is responsible for: Undertaking, assisting or promoting scientific and industrial research in fields of importance to Canada. In 2011, President John McDougall, began to oversee a change in research focus away from basic research and towards industry-relevant research; this included the development of multiple programs which shifted the research budget out of existing projects and into a number of focused programs. Approved programs are: Advanced photonic components for communications technology Aeronautics for the 21st century Aeronautical product development technologies Air defence systems Algal carbon conversion flagship Arctic Program Bioenergy systems for viable stationary applications Biologics program Building regulations for market access Canadian wheat improvement flagship Civilian unmanned aircraft systems Critical concrete infrastructure Energy storage for grid security and modernization Gallium nitride electronics Health Technologies High efficiency mining High performance buildings Industrial biomaterials Learning and performance support systems Light weighting of ground transportation vehicles Marine Vehicles Mid-rise wood buildings Marine infrastructure and Water Resources Measurement science for emerging technologies Metrology for industry and society Mining materials wear and corrosion Multimedia analytic tools for security National Institute for Nanotechnology Natural health products program Printable electronics flagship Quantum photonic sensing and security Reducing aviation icing risk Scientific support for the national measurement system Security materials technology Therapeutics beyond brain barriers program Vaccines program Working and travelling on aircraft The goal of the Algal Carbon Conversion Pilot Program was to develop of an algae system to recycle carbon emissions from the oil sands.
It contained plans for a $19 million facility to be constructed in Alberta, in partnership between the NRC ] and Pond Biofuels. In 2008 researchers from five I-CAN organizations were developing a Carbon Algae Recycling System to "feed waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 from industrial exhaust stacks to micro-algae growing in artificial ponds"; the "Algal Carbon Conversion", is related to prior interests of Mr. McDougall, as he headed Innoventures, a company involved in lobbying for the development of an algae system to recycle carbon emissions; the Algal Carbon Conversion Pilot Project, with plans for a $19 million facility to be constructed in Alberta, is a partnership between the NRC and industry partners, Canadian Natural Resources Limited and Pond Biofuels. The NRC was not involved in this area of research prior to the arrival of Mr. McDougall; the Canadian Wheat Improvement Program is a "strategic collaboration with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the University of Saskatchewan’s Crop Development Centre and the province of Saskatchewan".
With a budget of $97 million, the Canadian Wheat Alliance will be conducting research on improving the yield of Canadian wheat crops and on the most efficient use of chemical fertilizers. Working with breeders and scientists at the Crop Development Centre and at AAFC, they will be integrating long term research with genetic improvement of wheat; the GaN Electronics program supports partner research and development activities with a goal of ensuring that GaN technology will cre
In music, timbre is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound or tone. Timbre distinguishes different types of sound production, such as choir voices and musical instruments, such as string instruments, wind instruments, percussion instruments, it enables listeners to distinguish different instruments in the same category. The physical characteristics of sound that determine the perception of timbre include spectrum and envelope. Singers and instrumental musicians can change the timbre of the music they are singing/playing by using different singing or playing techniques. For example, a violinist can use different bowing styles or play on different parts of the string to obtain different timbres. On electric guitar and electric piano, performers can change the timbre using effects units and graphic equalizers. In simple terms, timbre is what makes a particular musical sound have a different sound from another when they have the same pitch and loudness. For instance, it is the difference in sound between a guitar and a piano playing the same note at the same volume.
Both instruments can sound tuned in relation to each other as they play the same note, while playing at the same amplitude level each instrument will still sound distinctively with its own unique tone color. Experienced musicians are able to distinguish between different instruments of the same type based on their varied timbres if those instruments are playing notes at the same pitch and loudness. Tone quality and tone color are synonyms for timbre, as well as the "texture attributed to a single instrument". However, the word texture can refer to the type of music, such as multiple, interweaving melody lines versus a singable melody accompanied by subordinate chords. Hermann von Helmholtz used the German Klangfarbe, John Tyndall proposed an English translation, but both terms were disapproved of by Alexander Ellis, who discredits register and color for their pre-existing English meanings; the sound of a musical instrument may be described with words such as bright, warm and other terms. There are colors of noise, such as pink and white.
In visual representations of sound, timbre corresponds to the shape of the image, while loudness corresponds to brightness. The Acoustical Society of America Acoustical Terminology definition 12.09 of timbre describes it as "that attribute of auditory sensation which enables a listener to judge that two nonidentical sounds presented and having the same loudness and pitch, are dissimilar", adding, "Timbre depends upon the frequency spectrum, although it depends upon the sound pressure and the temporal characteristics of the sound". Timbre has been called "...the psychoacoustician's multidimensional waste-basket category for everything that cannot be labeled pitch or loudness.". Many commentators have attempted to decompose timbre into component attributes. For example, J. F. Schouten describes the "elusive attributes of timbre" as "determined by at least five major acoustic parameters", which Robert Erickson finds, "scaled to the concerns of much contemporary music": Range between tonal and noiselike character Spectral envelope Time envelope in terms of rise and decay Changes both of spectral envelope and fundamental frequency Prefix, or onset of a sound, quite dissimilar to the ensuing lasting vibrationAn example of a tonal sound is a musical sound that has a definite pitch, such as pressing a key on a piano.
Erickson gives a table of subjective experiences and related physical phenomena based on Schouten's five attributes: See Psychoacoustic evidence below. The richness of a sound or note a musical instrument produces is sometimes described in terms of a sum of a number of distinct frequencies; the lowest frequency is called the fundamental frequency, the pitch it produces is used to name the note, but the fundamental frequency is not always the dominant frequency. The dominant frequency is the frequency, most heard, it is always a multiple of the fundamental frequency. For example, the dominant frequency for the transverse flute is double the fundamental frequency. Other significant frequencies are called overtones of the fundamental frequency, which may include harmonics and partials. Harmonics are whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency, such as × 2, × × 4, etc.. Partials are other overtones. There are sometimes subharmonics at whole number divisions of the fundamental frequency. Most instruments produce harmonic sounds, but many instruments produce partials and inharmonic tones, such as cymbals and other indefinite-pitched instruments.
When the tuning note in an orchestra or concert band is played, the sound is a combination of 440 Hz, 880 Hz, 1320 Hz, 1760 Hz and so on. Each instrument in the orchestra or concert band produces a different combination of these frequencies, as well as harmonics and overtones; the sound waves of the different frequencies overlap and combine, the balance of these amplitudes is a major factor in the characteristic sound of each instrument. William