An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields. Electronic components are industrial products, available in a singular form and are not to be confused with electrical elements, which are conceptual abstractions representing idealized electronic components. Electronic components leads; these leads connect to create an electronic circuit with a particular function. Basic electronic components may be packaged discretely, as arrays or networks of like components, or integrated inside of packages such as semiconductor integrated circuits, hybrid integrated circuits, or thick film devices; the following list of electronic components focuses on the discrete version of these components, treating such packages as components in their own right. Components can be classified as active, or electromechanic; the strict physics definition treats passive components as ones that cannot supply energy themselves, whereas a battery would be seen as an active component since it acts as a source of energy.
However, electronic engineers who perform circuit analysis use a more restrictive definition of passivity. When only concerned with the energy of signals, it is convenient to ignore the so-called DC circuit and pretend that the power supplying components such as transistors or integrated circuits is absent, though it may in reality be supplied by the DC circuit; the analysis only concerns the AC circuit, an abstraction that ignores DC voltages and currents present in the real-life circuit. This fiction, for instance, lets us view an oscillator as "producing energy" though in reality the oscillator consumes more energy from a DC power supply, which we have chosen to ignore. Under that restriction, we define the terms as used in circuit analysis as: Active components rely on a source of energy and can inject power into a circuit, though this is not part of the definition. Active components include amplifying components such as transistors, triode vacuum tubes, tunnel diodes. Passive components can't introduce net energy into the circuit.
They can't rely on a source of power, except for what is available from the circuit they are connected to. As a consequence they can't amplify, although they may increase current. Passive components include two-terminal components such as resistors, capacitors and transformers. Electromechanical components can carry out electrical operations by using moving parts or by using electrical connectionsMost passive components with more than two terminals can be described in terms of two-port parameters that satisfy the principle of reciprocity—though there are rare exceptions. In contrast, active components lack that property. Conduct electricity in one direction, among more specific behaviors. Diode, diode bridge Schottky diode – super fast diode with lower forward voltage drop Zener diode – passes current in reverse direction to provide a constant voltage reference Transient voltage suppression diode, unipolar or bipolar – used to absorb high-voltage spikes Varicap, tuning diode, variable capacitance diode – a diode whose AC capacitance varies according to the DC voltage applied.
Light-emitting diode – a diode that emits light Photodiode – passes current in proportion to incident light Avalanche photodiode – photodiode with internal gain Solar Cell, photovoltaic cell, PV array or panel – produces power from light DIAC, Trigger Diode, SIDAC) – used to trigger an SCR Constant-current diode Peltier cooler – a semiconductor heat pump Tunnel diode - fast diode based on quantum mechanical tunneling Transistors were considered the invention of the twentieth century that changed electronic circuits forever. A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. Transistors Bipolar junction transistor – NPN or PNP Photo transistor – amplified photodetector Darlington transistor – NPN or PNP Photo Darlington – amplified photodetector Sziklai pair Field-effect transistor JFET – N-CHANNEL or P-CHANNEL MOSFET – N-CHANNEL or P-CHANNEL MESFET HEMT Thyristors Silicon-controlled rectifier – passes current only after triggered by a sufficient control voltage on its gate TRIAC – bidirectional SCR Unijunction transistor Programmable Unijunction transistor SIT SITh Composite transistors IGBT Digital electronics Analog Hall effect sensor – senses a magnetic field Current sensor – senses a current through it Opto-electronics Opto-isolator, opto-coupler, photo-coupler – photodiode, BJT, JFET, SCR, TRIAC, zero-crossing TRIAC, open collector IC, CMOS IC, solid state relay Slotted optical switch, opto switch, optical switch LED display – seven-segment display, sixteen-segment display, dot-matrix display Current: Filament lamp Vacuum fluorescent display Cathode ray tube (monochro
Flex Ltd. is an American multinational technological manufacturer. It is the third largest global electronics manufacturing services, original design manufacturer company by revenue, behind only Taiwan's Pegatron to original equipment manufacturers. Flex's corporate headquarters are located in Singapore, its administrative headquarters are in San Jose, California; the company has manufacturing operations in over 40 countries, totalling about 200,000 employees. In 1969, the company was founded in Silicon Valley as Inc. by Joe McKenzie. In 1980, the company was sold to Joe Sullivan and Jack Watts. In 1981, Flextronics became a publicly held company. In 1990, the company returned to being a private company in a leveraged buyout and was renamed as Flextronics International, Ltd. with Singapore as its new base. In 1993, the company received venture capital funding through Sequoia Capital, became a public held company again in 1994; the company closed its contract electronic manufacturing plant in Richardson, Texas in 1996.
The company acquired two companies in Hong Kong, Astron Group and FICO Plastics Ltd. and a Swedish-based company, Ericsson Business Networks. In 2000, the company ranked third on "100 Best-Managed Companies" by IndustryWeek. In 2005, the company purchased the manufacturing division of Nortel Networks, Solectron in 2007. In 2006 Flextronics took over a part of the production of Lego, but in 2009 Lego decided to end relations with Flextronics and purchase the production facilities in Mexico and Hungary. On 4 June 2007, Flextronics offered to purchase Solectron for US$3.6 billion and thus making Solectron a subsidiary of Flextronics. The acquisition of Solectron was completed by end of October 2007, earlier than anticipated. On 18 March 2009, Flextronics was invited to ring the NASDAQ stock market opening bell, signifying the day's start of trading and celebrated 15-year NASDAQ-listed anniversary. Mike McNamara and a group of top executives represented the company at the ringing of the bell. On 25 August 2009, Flextronics announced that it was chosen by LG Electronics, a global provider of advanced digital products and applied technologies, to manufacture 19, 22, 26, 32, 37-inch LCD television receivers at its Ciudad Juárez, Mexico facility for distribution to the North and South American markets.
On 2 September 2009, Flextronics announced that Multek received Danaher Test and Measurement's 2009 Outstanding Supplier Award. The award was given based on quality, delivery performance, engineering support and cost for work with two of Danaher's business units and Fluke. On 15 September 2010, Flextronics announced that it had been chosen by Brammo, Inc. a global leader in the electric motorcycle business, to be its manufacturing partner for the production and distribution of plug-in electric motorcycles and components. The partnership represented an expansion of Flextronics' Automotive Division's portfolio for battery-powered vehicles and complemented its expertise in high voltage and energy recuperation for the automotive market. In 2010, the company signed an agreement with Lenovo to provide manufacturing for Europe; that same year, Flextronics signed an agreement with Brammo to provide acquisition and manufacturing in North America and Europe. In 2012, Flextronics incubated Elementum, a start-up supply chain management company based in Mountain View, California.
In 2014, Elementum was spun off from Flextronics as its own separate entity. In 2014, Flextronics was named as the manufacturer of the Fitbit Force by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission in the context of a complete recall of the product due to rashes developing on the wrists of its users. In July 2015 the company announced that it will change the company name from Flextronics to just Flex. In September 2015, Flex acquired NEXTracker, one of the leading solar tracker companies, for $330 million. In August 2016, NEXTracker bought Bright Box Technologies, a leader in predictive modeling software and machine-learning technologies, expanding its capabilities in advanced diagnostics and real-time control of solar tracking systems. In November 2015, acquired Wink smart home platform to bring the Intelligence of Things "Home". Flex has been a strategic partner to Wink, serving as their primary supplier of hardware and firmware, including the Wink Hub and Wink Relay, which include core intellectual property developed within Flex.
In July 2017, Flex sold Wink to i.am+ for $38.7 million. In August 2016, the state of Massachusetts and the city of Boston offered the company more than $3 million in public aid to entice the company to open its Flex Boston Innovation Center on the South Boston waterfront; the 17,000 square feet facility will employ 25 people and be located in a former military storehouse in the Seaport, now called the Innovation and Design Building. On December 31, 2018, Michael M. McNamara resigned as the company's Chief Executive Officer. McNamara worked at Flex for twenty-four year, he served as the company's CEO from 2006 to 2018. At the time of his retirement, Flex over 200,00 employees worldwide; the Board of Directors hired an executive recruiting company to assist with its search for a new CEO. On February 11, 2019, Flex announced Revathi Advaithi as CEO. Prior to Flex, Ms. Advaithi was president and chief operating officer for the Electrical Sector business for Eaton Corporation. In 2013, Flextronics launched Lab IX, an accelerator program based out of Milpitas, which will award $500,000 to each selected company to grow their ideas and bring it to market.
The focus of Lab IX is to find start-ups that are less than three years old, have less than $5 million in fund
Printed circuit board
A printed circuit board mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate. Components are soldered onto the PCB to both electrically connect and mechanically fasten them to it. Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products, they are used in some electrical products, such as passive switch boxes. Alternatives to PCBs include wire wrap and point-to-point construction, both once popular but now used. PCBs require additional design effort to lay out the circuit, but manufacturing and assembly can be automated. Specialized CAD software is available to do much of the work of layout. Mass-producing circuits with PCBs is cheaper and faster than with other wiring methods, as components are mounted and wired in one operation. Large numbers of PCBs can be fabricated at the same time, the layout only has to be done once.
PCBs can be made manually in small quantities, with reduced benefits. PCBs can be double-sided, or multi-layer. Multi-layer PCBs allow for much higher component density, because circuit traces on the inner layers would otherwise take up surface space between components; the rise in popularity of multilayer PCBs with more than two, with more than four, copper planes was concurrent with the adoption of surface mount technology. However, multilayer PCBs make repair and field modification of circuits much more difficult and impractical; the world market for bare PCBs exceeded $60.2 billion in 2014. In 2018, the Global Single Sided Printed Circuit Board Market Analysis Report estimated that the PCB market would reach $79 billion by 2024. Before the development of printed circuit boards electrical and electronic circuits were wired point-to-point on a chassis; the chassis was a sheet metal frame or pan, sometimes with a wooden bottom. Components were attached to the chassis by insulators when the connecting point on the chassis was metal, their leads were connected directly or with jumper wires by soldering, or sometimes using crimp connectors, wire connector lugs on screw terminals, or other methods.
Circuits were large, bulky and fragile, production was labor-intensive, so the products were expensive. Development of the methods used in modern printed circuit boards started early in the 20th century. In 1903, a German inventor, Albert Hanson, described flat foil conductors laminated to an insulating board, in multiple layers. Thomas Edison experimented with chemical methods of plating conductors onto linen paper in 1904. Arthur Berry in 1913 patented a print-and-etch method in the UK, in the United States Max Schoop obtained a patent to flame-spray metal onto a board through a patterned mask. Charles Ducas in 1927 patented a method of electroplating circuit patterns; the Austrian engineer Paul Eisler invented the printed circuit as part of a radio set while working in the UK around 1936. In 1941 a multi-layer printed circuit was used in German magnetic influence naval mines. Around 1943 the USA began to use the technology on a large scale to make proximity fuses for use in World War II. After the war, in 1948, the USA released the invention for commercial use.
Printed circuits did not become commonplace in consumer electronics until the mid-1950s, after the Auto-Sembly process was developed by the United States Army. At around the same time in the UK work along similar lines was carried out by Geoffrey Dummer at the RRDE; as circuit boards became available, the point-to-point chassis construction method remained in common use in industry into at least the late 1960s. Printed circuit boards were introduced to reduce the size and cost of parts of the circuitry. In 1960, a small consumer radio receiver might be built with all its circuitry on one circuit board, but a TV set would contain one or more circuit boards. Predating the printed circuit invention, similar in spirit, was John Sargrove's 1936–1947 Electronic Circuit Making Equipment which sprayed metal onto a Bakelite plastic board; the ECME could produce three radio boards per minute. During World War II, the development of the anti-aircraft proximity fuse required an electronic circuit that could withstand being fired from a gun, could be produced in quantity.
The Centralab Division of Globe Union submitted a proposal which met the requirements: a ceramic plate would be screenprinted with metallic paint for conductors and carbon material for resistors, with ceramic disc capacitors and subminiature vacuum tubes soldered in place. The technique proved viable, the resulting patent on the process, classified by the U. S. Army, was assigned to Globe Union, it was not until 1984 that the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers awarded Harry W. Rubinstein the Cledo Brunetti Award for early key contributions to the development of printed components and conductors on a common insulating substrate. Rubinstein was honored in 1984 by his alma mater, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, for his innovations in the technology of printed electronic circuits and the fabrication of capacitors; this invention represents a step in the development of integrated circuit technology, as not only wiring but passive components were fabricated on the ceramic substrate.
Every electronic component had
Logistics is the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation. In a general business sense, logistics is the management of the flow of things between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet requirements of customers or corporations; the resources managed in logistics can include physical items such as food, animals and liquids. The logistics of physical items involves the integration of information flow, materials handling, packaging, transportation and security. In military science, logistics is concerned with maintaining army supply lines while disrupting those of the enemy, since an armed force without resources and transportation is defenseless. Military logistics was practiced in the ancient world and as modern military have a significant need for logistics solutions, advanced implementations have been developed. In military logistics, logistics officers manage how and when to move resources to the places they are needed. Logistics management is the part of supply chain management that plans and controls the efficient, effective forward, reverse flow and storage of goods and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customer's requirements.
The complexity of logistics can be modeled, analyzed and optimized by dedicated simulation software. The minimization of the use of resources is a common motivation in all logistics fields. A professional working in the field of logistics management is called a logistician; the term logistics is attested in English from 1846, is from French: logistique, where it was either coined or popularized by military officer and writer Antoine-Henri Jomini, who defined it in his Summary of the Art of War. The term appears in the 1830 edition titled Analytic Table, Jomini explains that it is derived from French: logis, lit.'lodgings', in the terms French: maréchal des logis, lit.'marshall of lodgings' and French: major-général des logis, lit.'major-general of lodging': Autrefois les officiers de l’état-major se nommaient: maréchal des logis, major-général des logis. The officers of the general staff were named: marshall of lodgings, major-general of lodgings; the term is credited to Jomini, the term and its etymology criticized by Georges de Chambray in 1832, writing: Logistique: Ce mot me paraît être tout-à-fait nouveau, car je ne l'avais encore vu nulle part dans la littérature militaire.
… il paraît le faire dériver du mot logis, étymologie singulière … Logistic: This word appears to me to be new, as I have not yet see it anywhere in military literature. … he appears to derive it from the word lodgings, a peculiar etymology … Chambray notes that the term logistique was present in the Dictionnaire de l'Académie française as a synonym for algebra. The French word: logistique is a homonym of the existing mathematical term, from Ancient Greek: λογῐστῐκός, translit. Logistikós, a traditional division of Greek mathematics; some sources give this instead as the source of logistics, either ignorant of Jomini's statement that it was derived from logis, or dubious and instead believing it was in fact of Greek origin, or influenced by the existing term of Greek origin. Jomini defined logistics as:... L'art de bien ordonner les marches d'une armée, de bien combiner l'ordre des troupes dans les colonnes, les tems de leur départ, leur itinéraire, les moyens de communications nécessaires pour assurer leur arrivée à point nommé...... the art of well ordering the functionings of an army, of well combining the order of troops in columns, the times of their departure, their itinerary, the means of communication necessary to assure their arrival at a named point...
The Oxford English Dictionary defines logistics as "the branch of military science relating to procuring and transporting material and facilities". However, the New Oxford American Dictionary defines logistics as "the detailed coordination of a complex operation involving many people, facilities, or supplies", the Oxford Dictionary on-line defines it as "the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation"; as such, logistics is seen as a branch of engineering that creates "people systems" rather than "machine systems". According to the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals, logistics is the process of planning and controlling procedures for the efficient and effective transportation and storage of goods including services and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements and includes inbound, outbound and external movements. Academics and practitioners traditionally refer to the terms operations or production management when referring to physical transformations taking place in a single business location and reserve the term logistics for activities related to distribution, that is, moving products on the territory.
Managing a distribution center is seen, therefore, as pertaining to the realm of logistics since, while in theory the products made by a factory are ready
Solectron Corporation was a global electronics manufacturing company for original equipment manufacturers. It was the first electronics manufacturing services industry in 1977. Solectron's first customer designed and distributed an electronic controller for solar energy equipment; the name "Solectron" was a portmanteau of the words "solar" and "electronics". The company was acquired by Flex on October 15, 2007. Solectron was established in 1977 to provide outsourced manufacturing services to third parties, it was a major manufacturer. Solectron founders Roy Kusumoto and Prabhat Jain saw a growing number of electronics companies in California's Silicon Valley. There was a need to provide printed circuit board assembly services, handling the manufacturing overflow from OEMs. Solectron aimed to provide high-tech companies the ability for their products to be produced and delivered more and efficiently than their competition, believed that their customers needed a greater level of service for assembly and manufacture of printed circuit boards,celluler phones, along the entire product supply chain.
In 1998, Solectron acquired the computer hardware manufacturing assets of NCR Corporation. Winston H. Chen, Ph. D. purchased Solectron in 1978, a year after he had left IBM to train his younger family members to run his family construction company in Taiwan after his father's passing. His operational strategy and culture allowed it to grow into the largest U. S. and international Electronic Manufacturing Services company. He was CEO and Chairman of the Board until Koichi Nishimura, Ph. D. became Chairman of the board, president and CEO from 1988 until January 2003, during which time Solectron grew from a regional entity into one of the world's largest EMS companies. Solectron won the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in 1997 and in 1991, after Nishimura worked to instill the certification criteria into the company's corporate culture and strategy. Solectron was the first company to win the Baldrige Award in the manufacturing category twice in the program's history. Michael R. Cannon was named president and chief executive officer in January 2003.
Cannon was president, CEO and a director of Maxtor Corporation, a supplier of hard disk drive storage products and solutions. Solectron implemented Lean Six Sigma operating principles, aiming to execute with greater precision and provide integrated supply chain services. From a single manufacturing location in the early days to eventual global manufacturing presence in Asia and the Americas, Solectron offered manufacturing, supply chain management and product life cycle services for technology companies. In 2007, Cannon announced his departure from Solectron to join Dell as their President of Global Operations. Solectron's Chief Financial Officer, Paul Tufano, was named interim CEO while the company searched for a replacement. On June 5, 2007, Flextronics International, Ltd. the Singapore-based contract electronic assembly firm in the U. S. announced its intention to buy Solectron. On October 15, 2007, the eve of the company's 30th anniversary, Solectron was acquired by Flextronics; the deal was concluded at a cost of US$3.6 billion in cash and bonds.
Solectron shareholders were offered their choice of either the June 1, 2007 price of the stock or one share of Flextronics stock for every three shares of Solectron stock. Solectron core businesses consisted of designing, manufacturing products and providing after-sales services for OEMs. Computing and Storage — Mainframe computers, PCs and notebooks, point-of-sale systems, storage systems and workstations. Networking — Core and edge routers and edge Ethernet switches, DSL and cable broadband equipment, NICs and optical interconnect. Telecommunications — Cellular infrastructure equipment, Voice-over-Internet Protocol equipment, IP PBX, wireless and wireline Broadband infrastructure, optical networking equipment and DSLAMS. Markets Automotive — ABS and airbag control modules, car audio and navigation systems and ignition control modules, telematics, HVAC units and body electronics. Consumer — Hand-held devices, video game systems, PDAs, personal video recorders and digital set-top boxes. Industrial — Process automation equipment and measurement instruments, security systems, semiconductor fabrication equipment controls and handheld instruments.
Medical — X-ray equipment, ultrasound equipment, foetal monitors, MRI scanners, blood analysers and surgical robotic systems. Field Services — Solectron held direct contracts with companies, providing an end user defect exchange service for electronic units in the field. Aftermarket services — warranty management, parts management and logistics and reverse logistics and return, asset recovery and remarketing. Solectron corporate website — from The Web Archive. Flextronics website
Quanta Computer Incorporated is a Taiwan-based manufacturer of notebook computers and other electronic hardware. Its customers include Apple Inc. Dell, Hewlett-Packard Inc. Alienware, Amazon.com, Fujitsu, Lenovo, LG, Maxdata, MPC, BlackBerry Ltd, Sharp Corporation, Siemens AG, Sun Microsystems, Verizon Wireless, Vizio. It was founded by Barry Lam in 1988. Lam continues to head the company. Quanta has extended its businesses into enterprise network systems, home entertainment, mobile communication, automotive electronics, digital home markets; the company designs and markets GPS systems, including handheld GPS, in-car GPS, Bluetooth GPS and GPS with other positioning technologies. Quanta Computer was announced as the original design manufacturer for the XO-1 by the One Laptop per Child project on December 13, 2005, took an order for one million laptops as of February 16, 2007. In October 2008, it was announced that Acer would phase out Quanta from the production chain, instead outsource manufacturing of 15 million Aspire One netbooks to Compal Electronics.
In 2011, Quanta designed servers in conjunction with Facebook as part of the Open Compute Project. It was estimated that Quanta had a 31% worldwide market share of notebook computers in the first quarter of 2008. Apple Watch Apple Macbook Air Apple Macbook Pro Subsidiaries of Quanta Computer include: Quanta Cloud Technology Inc - provider of data center hardware. FaceVsion Technology Inc - telecommunications and electronic products. CloudCast Technology Inc - information software and data processing - liquidated in February 2017. TWDT Precision Co. Ltd. - 55% ownership, sold in June 2016. Shanghai, China This was the first mainland China plant built by Quanta Computer, in December 2000, to focus on OEM and ODM production and employs nearly 30,000 people. Huangjian Tang, Quanta's Chairman for China, manages seven major plants, F1 to F7, two large warehouses, H1 and H2, the Q-BUS Research and Development facility. Chongqing, China Built in April 2010. Quanta Computer invested and built a plant in Chongqing, the third plant built by Quanta Computer in China.
2010 "Fortune" - the world's top 500 enterprises. Ranked 327 2009 topped the "World Magazine" Benchmarking Enterprise Reputation: Chairman Barry Lam won the "most respected entrepreneurs entrepreneurs" glory 2009 topped the U. S. "Business Week" - "Global Tech 100" Ranked 7 2008 topped the U. S. "Fortune" - "2008 World's most respected enterprises" Ranked 12 In 2008, LG Electronics sued Quanta Computer company for patent infringement, when Quanta used Intel components with non Intel components. The Supreme Court of the United States ruled that LG, who had a patent sharing deal with Intel did not have the right to sue, because Quanta, being a consumer, did not need to abide by patent agreements with Intel and LG. Official website Quanta market share
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c