Electrician's Mate is a United States Navy and United States Coast Guard occupational rating. The Electrician's Mate's NOS is B210; the Navy Electrician rating was established in 1883 promptly disestablished in 1884, only to be re-established as a Navy rating in 1898. The Electrician rating changed to its current name, Electrician's Mate, in 1921. Electrician's Mates stand watch on generators, control equipment and electrical equipment. A pre-qualified and selected group of Electrician's Mates attend the Naval Nuclear Power Training Command and are employed onboard nuclear-powered ships and submarines to maintain the control of electrical systems and subsystems for nuclear reactors. Electrician's Mate class "A" school is 18 weeks long, the school is located in Great Lakes, Illinois; the EM rating requires a 5-year minimum enlistment contract. The Nuclear Electrician's Mate "A" school is 6 months long, is followed by an additional 6-month "Power" school 6 months of "Prototype" operational reactor time.
The EMN rating requires a minimum 6-year enlistment contract. The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery minimum scores required for the conventional EM rating must be 50 and are the sum of: Sum of word knowledge and paragraph comprehension Arithmetic reasoning Mathematics knowledge Mechanical comprehension List of United States Coast Guard ratings List of United States Navy ratings Generalhttps://www.cool.navy.mil/enlisted/rating_info_cards/em.pdf
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
Aviation electrician's mate
Aviation Electrician's Mate is a United States Navy occupational rating. Aviation Electrician's Mates maintain electrical and instrument systems, including power generation and distribution systems; the primary "A" School training for AE's is located at Naval Aviation Technical Training Center aboard NAS Pensacola. There was another "A" School for AE's in NAS Jacksonville from which the last class graduated in May 2008. Secondary "C" Schools are located at various locations nationwide with the most common being NAS Lemoore, CA and NAS Oceana, VA. List of United States Navy ratings Aviation Everything Media related to Aviation Electrician's Mate at Wikimedia Commons Aviation Electrician's Mate rating information site
Ammunition is the material fired, dropped or detonated from any weapon. Ammunition is both expendable weapons and the component parts of other weapons that create the effect on a target. Nearly all mechanical weapons require some form of ammunition to operate; the term ammunition can be traced back to the mid-17th century. The word comes for the material used for war. Ammunition and munitions are used interchangeably, although munition now refers to the actual weapons system with the ammunition required to operate it. In some languages other than English ammunition is still referred to as munition, such as French, German or Italian; the purpose of ammunition is to project a force against a selected target to have an effect. The most iconic example of ammunition is the firearm cartridge, which includes all components required to deliver the weapon effect in a single package. Ammunition comes in a great range of sizes and types and is designed to work only in specific weapons systems. However, there are internationally recognized standards for certain ammunition types that enable their use across different weapons and by different users.
There are specific types of ammunition that are designed to have a specialized effect on a target, such as armor-piercing shells and tracer ammunition, used only in certain circumstances. Ammunition is colored in a specific manner to assist in the identification and to prevent the wrong ammunition types from being used accidentally. A round is a single cartridge containing a projectile, propellant and casing. A shell is a form of ammunition, fired by a large caliber cannon or artillery piece. Before the mid-19th century, these shells were made of solid materials and relied on kinetic energy to have an effect. However, since that time, they are more filled with high-explosives. A shot refers to a single release of a weapons system; this may involve firing just one round or piece of ammunition, but can refer to ammunition types that release a large number of projectiles at the same time. A dud refers to loaded ammunition that fails to function as intended failing to detonate on landing. However, it can refer to ammunition that fails to fire inside the weapon, known as a misfire, or when the ammunition only functions, known as a hang fire.
Dud ammunition, classified as an unexploded ordnance, is regarded as dangerous. In former conflict zones, it is not uncommon for dud ammunition to remain buried in the ground for many years. Large quantities of ammunition from World War I continue to be found in fields throughout France and Belgium and still claim lives. Although classified as an unexploded ordnance, landmines that have been left behind after conflict are not considered duds as they have not failed to work and may still be functioning and forgotten. A bomb, or more a guided or unguided bomb, is an airdropped, unpowered explosive weapon. Mines and the warheads used in guided missiles and rockets are referred to as bomb-type ammunition. Ammunition design has evolved throughout history as different weapons have been developed and different effects required. Ammunition was of simple design and build, but as weapon designs developed and became more refined, the requirement for more specialized ammunition increased. Modern ammunition can vary in quality but is manufactured to high standards.
For example, ammunition for hunting can be designed to expand inside the target, maximizing the damage inflicted by a single round. Anti-personnel shells can affect a large area. Armor-piercing rounds are specially hardened to penetrate armor, while smoke ammunition covers an area with a fog that screens people from view. More generic ammunition can be altered to give it a more specific effect, whilst larger explosive rounds can be altered by using different fuzes; the components of ammunition intended for rifles and munitions may be divided into these categories: Fuze or primer explosive materials and propellants projectiles of all kinds cartridge casing The term "fuze" refers to the detonator of an explosive round or shell. The spelling is different in British English and American English and they are unrelated from a fuse. A fuse was earlier used to ignite the propellant until the advent of more reliable systems such as the primer or igniter, used in most modern ammunitions; the fuze of a weapon can be used to alter.
For example, a common artillery shell fuze can be set to'point detonation', time-delay and proximity. These allow a single ammunition type to be altered to suit the situation. There are many designs of a fuze, ranging from simple mechanical to complex radar and barometric systems. Fuzes are armed by the acceleration force of firing the projectile, arm several meters after clearing the bore of the weapon
Aviation electronics technician (United States Navy)
Aviation electronics technician is a US Navy enlisted rating or job specialty. At the paygrade of E-9 ATs merge with the aviation electrician's mate rating to become avionics technicians. There has been talk of merging the two ratings, but as yet no definite plans have been announced. Aviation electronics technicians wear the specialty mark of a winged Helium atom. Aviation electronics technicians perform intermediate level maintenance on aviation electronic components supported by conventional and automatic test equipment, including repair of weapons replaceable assemblies and shop replaceable assemblies and perform test equipment calibration/repair and associated test bench maintenance. Aviation electronics technicians perform organizational level maintenance on aviation electronics systems, to include: communications, navigation, antisubmarine warfare sensors, electronic warfare, data link, fire control and tactical displays with associated equipment; the rating now known as AT can trace its origin to World War II, when the rating of aviation radio technician was established on 11 December 1942.
This rating was re-designated aviation electronics technician's mate on 31 October 1945. Effective 2 April 1948 the name of the rating became aviation electronics technician. A separate rating, aviation electronicsman was absorbed in 1955; the former ratings of aviation fire control technician and aviation antisubmarine warfare technician were absorbed into the AT rating effective 1 January 1991. ATs were at one time further subdivided into aircraft equipment, ground equipment and navigation equipment and navigation equipment and airborne CIC equipment; the ground equipment duties are now served by an aircraft support equipmentman. The ordnance duties remain a separate rating, these personnel conduct far less electronics troubleshooting, their training is more aligned with explosives-handling. All of the other subdivisions have since been re-merged back into the AT rating. ATs perform duties ashore all over the world, they may work indoors, outdoors, in a shop environment, in an aircraft squadron or on an aircraft carrier.
They work with others, require little supervision, do mental and physical work of a technical nature. ATs, as well as the other members of the Navy's aviation community, are sometimes referred to as "airedales" by those in the surface or submarine forces, they are sometimes referred to as "trons", "tron chasers", or "tweaks", most as "tweets or tweety birds" within the aviation community. Billy C. Sanders, the fifth Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy, first served as an aviation electronics technician. There are two types of ATs: intermediate and organizational; these two levels do not change how they are addressed. However, their duties are different, I-level and O-level ATs take different advancement exams, as if they were different ratings. Furthermore, I-level technicians' A-school is twice as long as O-level technicians. I-level technicians work on the individual printed circuit boards within an actual component such as a radio, they are the technicians that connect the component to a test bench to simulate an aircraft, troubleshoot and repair the equipment.
In some instances the technician will not repair specific circuit card assemblies. I-level AT's are assigned to fleet readiness centers on shore or aircraft intermediate maintenance departments aboard ships; the most challenging and demanding specialty that AT's can have is to be a calibration technician. Without properly calibrated gear such as test sets, spectrum analyzers, frequency counters, gauges, torque wrenches, transducers, the rest of the maintenance ratings, for aircraft and ships alike, would not be able to do their jobs effectively. I-level AT's are expected to have some electronics engineering knowledge, are not expected to know much about aircraft-specific systems. O-level technicians troubleshoot various discrepancies with the use of multimeters and avionics test equipment to locate faults within the aircraft. An O-level AT will determine if the discrepancy that the aircrew reported is an aircraft-wiring problem or a system problem. If the problem is aircraft wiring, the AT will repair the wiring problem on the aircraft.
If the problem is determined to be an assembled component of a system, the assembly will be removed and turned in to AIMD for repair. The assembly can be replaced with parts that the squadron may keep as spares in order to keep the aircraft operational. Keeping spare parts at the squadron-level is not standard operating procedure, but these rules are relaxed during intense operations due to the need for expedient turn-around. In addition to their separate duties as electronics technicians, O-level AT's are sometimes combined with aviation electrician's mates and aviation ordnancemen into a work center called IWT; as electronics have migrated into other aircraft systems, the IWT team is given the duties of maintaining the armament and weapons systems, whereas a separate AT workcenter is responsible for non-weapons based electronics such as communications and navigation. This is done at the organizational level, is not Navy-wide. O-level AT's are as