FMC Corporation is an American chemical manufacturing company headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The company was founded by chemist John Bean in 1883 as the Bean Spray Pump Company in Los Gatos, producing piston pumps for insecticides. In 1928, Bean Spray Pump purchased two companies: the Anderson-Barngrover Sprague-Sells Co.. At this time the company changed its name to Food Machinery Corporation, began using the initials FMC. In 1941 the company FMC received a contract to design and build amphibious tracked landing vehicles for the United States Department of War, afterwards the company continued to diversify its products. FMC produced the M113, one of the most used AFVs ever. FMC employs 7,000 people worldwide, had gross revenues of US$2.8 billion in 2017. Founded in 1883 as the Bean Spray Pump Company in Los Gatos, California by chemist John Bean; the company's first product was a piston pump. Bean invented the pump to spray insecticide on the many fruit orchards in the area. A Bean sprayer was on display at the Forbes Mill museum in Los Gatos until its closure in 2014.
Bean Avenue in downtown Los Gatos is named after John Bean. In 1928, Bean Spray Pump purchased two companies: the Anderson-Barngrover Sprague-Sells Co.. The Anderson-Barngrover Co. manufactured a sealed can rotary pressure sterilizer and the Sprague-Sells Co. manufactured canning machinery. At this time the company changed its name to Food Machinery Corporation, began using the initials FMC. FMC received a contract to design and build amphibious tracked landing vehicles for the United States War Department in 1941. FMC ranked 64th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. In 1961, the U. S. Navy's Bureau of Ships issued bids for a high performance amphibious ship-to-shore cargo carrier capable of moving over water at 35 knots and over ground at the same speed, it had to carry five tons of cargo across water, through the surf, across the beach, inland. The vehicle had to be loaded and unloaded under combat conditions. FMC's Ordnance Division in San José, California built and tested two prototypes named "LVHX2 Landing Vehicle, Hydrofoil" for the U.
S. Marine Corps; these were the first amphibious landing vehicles to make use of hydrofoils for high speed ship-to-shore operation. Although the LVHX2 never went into production, the Marine Corps used the prototypes in their continuous research and development program to develop better equipment for amphibious assault operations. FMC built the M113 Armored Personnel Carrier, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle, the XR311 at its former facility in Santa Clara, California, it purchased the rights to manufacture some foreign military hardware, including the Brazilian EE-9 Cascavel, under license. Bean manufactured firefighting equipment in the 1960s through the 1980s under the FMC and the Bean names. In 1972, personnel were transferred from ordnance to building RVs; the oil crisis and high prices led production to end after five years. FMC produced fire truck fire pumps and pumper bodies, it had an original equipment manufacturer arrangement with Ladder Towers Inc. to market aerial ladders. In the early 1980s the fire apparatus division of FMC tried to expand its role in aerial ladders on fire trucks, leveraging the Link-Belt crane division.
FMC's expansion into production of aerial ladders failed: the FMC Fire Apparatus division was shut down in 1990. FMC sells chemical products used by beef and poultry processors to reduce pathogens, such as E. coli and salmonella, on uncooked beef and poultry. FMC obtained a patent on a method for sanitizing fowl that have been killed and eviscerated by contacting the fowl with an aqueous acid solution and maintaining that contact for a time sufficient to sanitize the fowl. In 1946, FMC bought Garden Equipment. FMC changed its name again in 1948, becoming Chemical Corporation. In 1961 the name was changed to FMC Corporation. In 1967, the FMC Corporation merged with the Link-Belt Company; the company produced FMC Link-Belt branded excavators. In 1986, the Link-Belt Construction Equipment Company was formed as a joint venture between FMC Corporation and Sumitomo Heavy Industries. Between 1965 and 1985 FMC was the owner of the Gunderson metal works in Springfield, Oregon USA, during that period it was known as the'Marine and Rail Equipment Division of FMC', it was sold in 1985 to The Greenbrier Companies.
In the 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, FMC Corporation began spinning several of its divisions into separate companies, including United Defense and FMC Technologies, selling its divisions, including its automotive division to Snap-on Equipment, a division of Snap-on, in 1996. Snap-on renamed the division the "John Bean Company". Bolens was sold to Troy-Bilt in 1988. In 2001, FMC spun off its energy and food equipment businesses into a separate company named FMC Technologies. In 2006 FMC Corporation celebrated 75 years being listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Pierre Brondeau was named President and Chief Executive Officer succeeding William G. Walter, effective January 1, 2010. Brondeau had been with Dow Chemical and prior to that Haas. A former FMC site in San Jose, California is the location for Avaya Stadium, a new soccer stadium for the San Jose Earthquakes. In 2015, FMC completed the sale of its Alkali Chemicals business and acquisition of Cheminova, a multinational crop protection company, which aligns with the company’s corporate strategy to focus its portfolio on agriculture and nutrition end markets, lithium technologies.
FMC Corporation operated a phosphate mine and plant in Idaho on the Fort Hall Reservation of the federally recog
The T-90 is a third-generation Russian battle tank that entered service in 1993. The tank is a modern variation of the T-72B and incorporates many features found on the T-80U. Called the T-72BU, but renamed to T-90, it is an advanced tank in service with Russian Ground Forces and the Naval Infantry; the T-90 uses a 125 mm 2A46 smoothbore main gun, the 1A45T fire-control system, an upgraded engine, gunner's thermal sight. Standard protective measures include a blend of steel and composite armour, smoke grenade dischargers, Kontakt-5 explosive-reactive armour and the Shtora infrared ATGM jamming system, it was built by Uralvagonzavod, in Nizhny Tagil, Russia. Since 2011, the Russian armed forces have ceased any further orders for the T-90, are instead increasing their numbers of the T-14 Armata that began production in 2016; the T-90 has its origins in a Soviet-era program aimed at developing a singular replacement for the T-64, T-72 and T-80 series of main battle tanks. The T-72 platform was selected as the basis for the new generation of tank owing to its cost-effectiveness and automotive qualities.
The Kartsev-Venediktov Design Bureau from Nizhny Tagil was responsible for the design work and prepared two parallel proposals—the Object 188, a simple upgrade of the existing T-72B tank, the far more advanced Object 187—only vaguely related to the T-72 series and incorporating major improvements to the hull and turret design, armor and armament. Development work was approved in 1986 and the first prototypes were completed by 1988; the vehicles resulting from the Object 187 program have not been declassified to this date, but it was the lower risk Object 188 upgrade that would be approved for series production as the T-72BU. The T-72BU was accepted into service on 5 October 1992 by the Russian Ministry of Defence and renamed as the T-90 for marketing and propaganda purposes aimed at distancing the new type from existing T-72 variants; the principal upgrade in the T-90 is the incorporation of a modified form of the T-80U's more sophisticated 1A45T Irtysh fire control system and an upgraded V-84MS multi-fuel engine developing 830 hp.
The T-90 was manufactured at the Uralvagonzavod factory in Nizhny Tagil, with low-level production being carried out since 1993 and ceasing towards the end of the 1990s for the native market. Less than 200 T-90 tanks were delivered to the Russian Ground Forces before production was resumed in 2005 of an upgraded version. By September 1995, some 107 T-90 tanks had been located in the Siberian Military District. Facing tapering domestic orders and with the permanent closure of the last turret casting line in the former USSR, owned by Azovstal in Mariupol, the designers at Uralvagonzavod together with experts from NII Stali using trials data obtained from the Soviet-era, created a new, welded turret to offer further improvement and attract foreign buyers for the T-90. India signaled interest in the T-90 in response to Pakistan's acquisition of 320 Ukrainian T-84 tanks, an intuitive decision considering India held rights to manufacture the T-72M1 in Avadi, with production being adapted to assemble the T-90.
The first 42 complete Indian tanks were delivered in 2001 and were designated T-90S, still equipped with the older cast turrets of the early series and powered by the V-84 engine making 840 hp. This was followed up next year with delivery of 82 vehicles, now equipped with the new welded turrets and the V-92S2 engine, generating 1,000 hp; the initial contract stipulated the following batch of 186 tanks—now called the Bhishma—to be completed in India from Russian-supplied kits, gradually replaced with domestically manufactured parts, but the low rate of domestic Indian production compelled the Indian authorities to place an additional order for 124 complete vehicles in 2007 from Uralvagonzavod. In 2005 the Russian army resumed delivery of the T-90, requesting the "original" specification for the vehicle with a cast turret, but with the new order numbering a paltry 14 tanks, the large capital investment required to set up production of new cast turrets, the Russian Ministry of Defence agreed on a new configuration close to the Indian T-90S, expeditiously accepted into service without any trials as the Object 188A1 or T-90A.
That same year saw delivery of an additional 18 new tanks - enough to equip five tank platoons. These new Russian tanks were powered by the V-92S2 engine, carried a T01-K05 Buran-M gunner's sight and were protected by the most recent Kontakt-5 reactive armor with 4S22 explosive tiles; the years 2006-2007 saw the delivery of 31 T-90A tanks each, now fitted with passive ESSA main gunner's sights supplied by Peleng in Belarus and using the 2nd-generation thermal camera Catherine-FC from Thales, as well as improved 4S23 ERA tiles. The joint venture established on the basis of JSC Volzhsky Optical and Mechanical Plant" and Thales Optronics, produced Catherine-FC thermal imaging devices, which were further used to develop "ESSA", "PLISA" and "SOSNA-U" sighting systems produced for the Russian armoured vehicles, including T-72B3 tanks and export versions of T-90S, and since 2012, Russia was able to produce 3rd-generation of Catherine-XP cameras based on QWIP matrix technology. In 2012, the Russian-made commander of the combined sample of supervisory-sighting system "T01-K04DT/Agat-MDT" was presented
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Kinetic energy penetrator
A kinetic energy penetrator is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate vehicle armour. Like a bullet, this ammunition does not contain explosives and uses kinetic energy to penetrate the target. Modern KEP munitions are of the armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot type. Early cannons fired kinetic energy ammunition consisting of round balls of worked stone and of round balls of metal. From the beginning, combining high muzzle energy with projectile density and hardness have been the foremost factors in the design of such weapons; the foremost purpose of such weapons has been to defeat armour or other defensive structures, whether stone castle walls, ship timbers, or modern tank armour. Kinetic energy ammunition, in its various forms, has been the choice for those weapons due to the need for high muzzle energy; the development of the modern KE penetrator combines two aspects of artillery design: high muzzle velocity and concentrated force. High muzzle velocity is achieved by using a projectile with a low mass and large base area in the gun barrel.
Firing a small-diameter projectile wrapped in a lightweight outer shell, called a sabot, raises the muzzle velocity. Once the shell clears the barrel, the sabot falls off in pieces; this leaves the projectile traveling at high velocity with a smaller cross-sectional area and reduced aerodynamic drag during the flight to the target. Germany developed modern sabots under the name "treibspiegel" to give extra altitude to its anti-aircraft guns during the Second World War. Before this, primitive wooden sabots had been used for centuries in the form of a wooden plug attached to or breech loaded before cannonballs in the barrel, placed between the propellant charge and the projectile; the name "sabot" is the French word for clog. Concentration of force into a smaller area was attained by replacing the single metal shot with a composite shot using two metals, a heavy core inside a lighter metal outer shell; these designs were known as armour-piercing composite rigid by the British, high-velocity armor-piercing by the US, hartkern by the Germans.
On impact, the core had a much more concentrated effect than plain metal shot of the same weight and size. However, the air resistance and other effects were the same as for the shell of identical size. Between 1941 and 1943, the British combined the two techniques in the armour-piercing discarding sabot round; the sabot replaced the outer metal shell of the APCR. While in the gun, the shot had a large base area to get maximum acceleration from the propelling charge but once outside, the sabot fell away to reveal a heavy shot with a small cross-sectional area. High-velocity armor-piercing rounds were introduced by the United States Army, were used by tank destroyers; the principle of the kinetic energy penetrator is that it uses its kinetic energy, a function of its mass and velocity, to force its way through armor. If the armor is defeated, the heat and spalling generated by the penetrator going through the armor, the pressure wave that would develop, ideally destroys the target; the modern kinetic energy weapon maximizes the stress delivered to the target by: maximizing the mass – that is, using the densest metals practical, one of the reasons depleted uranium or tungsten carbide is used – and muzzle velocity of the projectile, as kinetic energy scales with the mass m and the square of the velocity v of the projectile.
Minimizing the width, since if the projectile does not tumble, it will hit the target face first. The opposite technique to KE-penetrators uses chemical energy penetrators. There are two types of these shells in use: high-explosive squash head, they have been used against armour in the past and still have a role but are less effective against modern composite armour, such as Chobham as used on main battle tanks today. Main battle tanks use KE-penetrators, while HEAT is found in missile systems that are shoulder-launched or vehicle-mounted, HESH is favored for fortification demolition. Röchling shell Compact Kinetic Energy Missile Dart Earthquake bomb Flechette Impact depth Kinetic bombardment MGM-166 LOSAT
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield manoeuvrability. They are a key part of combined arms combat. Modern tanks are versatile mobile land weapon system platforms, mounting a large-calibre cannon in a rotating gun turret, supplemented by mounted machine guns or other weapons, such as ATGMs, or rockets, they combine this with heavy vehicle armour which provides protection for the crew, the vehicle's weapons, its propulsion systems, operational mobility, due to its use of tracks rather than wheels, which allows the tank to move over rugged terrain and adverse conditions such as mud, be positioned on the battlefield in advantageous locations. These features enable the tank to perform well in a variety of intense combat situations both offensively with fire from their powerful tank gun, defensively due to their near invulnerability to common firearms and good resistance to heavier weapons, all while maintaining the mobility needed to exploit changing tactical situations.
Integrating tanks into modern military forces spawned a new era of combat, armoured warfare. There are classes of tanks, some being larger and heavily armoured, with high calibre guns, while others smaller armoured, equipped with a smaller calibre, lighter gun; these smaller tanks move over terrain with speed and agility and can perform a reconnaissance role in addition to engaging enemy targets. The smaller faster tank would not engage in battle with a larger armoured tank, except during a surprise flanking manoeuvre; the modern tank is the result of a century of development from the first primitive armoured vehicles, due to improvements in technology such as the internal combustion engine, which allowed the rapid movement of heavy armoured vehicles. As a result of these advances, tanks underwent tremendous shifts in capability in the years since their first appearance. Tanks in World War I were developed separately and by Great Britain and France as a means to break the deadlock of trench warfare on the Western Front.
The first British prototype, nicknamed Little Willie, was constructed at William Foster & Co. in Lincoln, England in 1915, with leading roles played by Major Walter Gordon Wilson who designed the gearbox and hull, by William Tritton of William Foster and Co. who designed the track plates. This was a prototype of a new design that would become the British Army's Mark I tank, the first tank used in combat in September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme; the name "tank" was adopted by the British during the early stages of their development, as a security measure to conceal their purpose. While the British and French built thousands of tanks in World War I, Germany was unconvinced of the tank's potential, built only twenty. Tanks of the interwar period evolved into the much larger and more powerful designs of World War II. Important new concepts of armoured warfare were developed. Less than two weeks Germany began their large-scale armoured campaigns that would become known as blitzkrieg – massed concentrations of tanks combined with motorised and mechanised infantry and air power designed to break through the enemy front and collapse enemy resistance.
The widespread introduction of high-explosive anti-tank warheads during the second half of World War II led to lightweight infantry-carried anti-tank weapons such as the Panzerfaust, which could destroy some types of tanks. Tanks in the Cold War were designed with these weapons in mind, led to improved armour types during the 1960s composite armour. Improved engines and suspensions allowed tanks of this period to grow larger. Aspects of gun technology changed as well, with advances in shell design and aiming technology. During the Cold War, the main battle tank concept became a key component of modern armies. In the 21st century, with the increasing role of asymmetrical warfare and the end of the Cold War, that contributed to the increase of cost-effective anti-tank rocket propelled grenades worldwide and its successors, the ability of tanks to operate independently has declined. Modern tanks are more organized into combined arms units which involve the support of infantry, who may accompany the tanks in infantry fighting vehicles, supported by reconnaissance or ground-attack aircraft.
The tank is the 20th century realization of an ancient concept: that of providing troops with mobile protection and firepower. The internal combustion engine, armour plate, continuous track were key innovations leading to the invention of the modern tank. Many sources imply that Leonardo da Vinci and H. G. Wells in some way "invented" the tank. Leonardo's late 15th century drawings of what some describe as a "tank" show a man-powered, wheeled vehicle with cannons all around it; however the human crew would not have enough power to move it over larger distance, usage of animals was problematic in a space so confined. In the 15th century, Jan Žižka built armoured wagons containing cannons and used them in several battles; the continuous "caterpillar" track arose from attempts to improve the mobility of wheeled vehicles by spreading their weight, reducing ground pressure, increasing their traction. Experiments can be traced back as far as the 17th century, by the late nineteenth they existed in various recognizable and practical forms in several countries.
It is frequen
Newton's laws of motion
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, laid the foundation for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, its motion in response to those forces. More the first law defines the force qualitatively, the second law offers a quantitative measure of the force, the third asserts that a single isolated force doesn't exist; these three laws have been expressed in several ways, over nearly three centuries, can be summarised as follows: The three laws of motion were first compiled by Isaac Newton in his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published in 1687. Newton used them to investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. For example, in the third volume of the text, Newton showed that these laws of motion, combined with his law of universal gravitation, explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion. A fourth law is also described in the bibliography, which states that forces add up like vectors, that is, that forces obey the principle of superposition.
Newton's laws are applied to objects which are idealised as single point masses, in the sense that the size and shape of the object's body are neglected to focus on its motion more easily. This can be done when the object is small compared to the distances involved in its analysis, or the deformation and rotation of the body are of no importance. In this way a planet can be idealised as a particle for analysis of its orbital motion around a star. In their original form, Newton's laws of motion are not adequate to characterise the motion of rigid bodies and deformable bodies. Leonhard Euler in 1750 introduced a generalisation of Newton's laws of motion for rigid bodies called Euler's laws of motion applied as well for deformable bodies assumed as a continuum. If a body is represented as an assemblage of discrete particles, each governed by Newton's laws of motion Euler's laws can be derived from Newton's laws. Euler's laws can, however, be taken as axioms describing the laws of motion for extended bodies, independently of any particle structure.
Newton's laws hold only with respect to a certain set of frames of reference called Newtonian or inertial reference frames. Some authors interpret the first law as defining. Other authors do treat the first law as a corollary of the second; the explicit concept of an inertial frame of reference was not developed until long after Newton's death. In the given interpretation mass, acceleration and force are assumed to be externally defined quantities; this is the most common, but not the only interpretation of the way one can consider the laws to be a definition of these quantities. Newtonian mechanics has been superseded by special relativity, but it is still useful as an approximation when the speeds involved are much slower than the speed of light; the first law states that if the net force is zero the velocity of the object is constant. Velocity is a vector quantity which expresses both the object's speed and the direction of its motion; the first law can be stated mathematically when the mass is a non-zero constant, as, ∑ F = 0 ⇔ d v d t = 0.
An object, at rest will stay at rest unless a force acts upon it. An object, in motion will not change its velocity unless a force acts upon it; this is known as uniform motion. An object continues to do. If it is at rest, it continues in a state of rest. If an object is moving, it continues to move without changing its speed; this is evident in space probes. Changes in motion must be imposed against the tendency of an object to retain its state of motion. In the absence of net forces, a moving object tends to move along a straight line path indefinitely. Newton placed the first law of motion to establish frames of reference for which the other laws are applicable; the first law of motion postulates the existence of at least one frame of reference called a Newtonian or inertial reference frame, relative to which the motion of a particle not subject to forces is a straight line at a constant speed. Newton's first law is referred to as the law of inertia. Thus, a condition necessary for the uniform motion of a particle relative to an inertial reference frame is that the total net force acting on it is zero.
In this sense, the first law can be restated as: In every material universe, the motion of a particle in a preferential reference frame Φ is determined by the action of forces whose total vanished for all times when and only when the velocity of the particle is constant in Φ. That is, a particle at rest or in uniform motion in the preferential frame Φ continues in that state unless compelled by forces to change it. Newton's first and second laws are valid only in an inertial reference frame. Any reference frame, in uniform motion with respect to an inertial frame is an in
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K