World music is a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the globe, which includes many genres including some forms of Western music represented by folk music, Jazz, as well as selected forms of ethnic music, indigenous music, neotraditional music, music where more than one cultural tradition, such as ethnic music and Western popular music, intermingle. World music's inclusive nature and elasticity as a musical category may pose for some obstacles to a universal definition, but its ethic of interest in the culturally exotic is encapsulated in Roots magazine's description of the genre as "local music from out there"; the term was popularized in the 1980s as a marketing category for non-Western traditional music. Globalization has facilitated the expansion of scope, it has grown to include hybrid subgenres such as world fusion, global fusion, ethnic fusion, worldbeat. The term has been credited to ethnomusicologist Robert E. Brown, who coined it in the early 1960s at Wesleyan University in Connecticut, where he developed undergraduate through the doctoral programs in the discipline.
To enhance the process of learning, he invited more than a dozen visiting performers from Africa and Asia and began a world music concert series. The term became current in the 1980s as a marketing/classificatory device in the media and the music industry. There are several conflicting definitions for world music. One is that it consists of "all the music in the world", though such a broad definition renders the term meaningless; the term is taken as a classification of music that combines Western popular music styles with one of many genres of non-Western music that are described as folk music or ethnic music. However, world music is not traditional folk music, it may include cutting edge pop music styles as well. Succinctly, it can be described as "local music from out there", or "someone else's local music", it is a nebulous term with an increasing number of genres that fall under the umbrella of world music to capture musical trends of combined ethnic style and texture, including Western elements.
World music may incorporate distinctive non-Western scales, modes and/or musical inflections, features distinctive traditional ethnic instruments, such as the kora, the steel drum, the sitar or the didgeridoo. Music from around the world exerts wide cross-cultural influence as styles influence one another, in recent years world music has been marketed as a successful genre in itself. Academic study of world music, as well as the musical genres and individual artists associated with it appear in such disciplines as anthropology, performance studies and ethnomusicology. In the age of digital music production the increased availability of high-quality, ethnic music samples, sound bites and loops from every known region are used in commercial music production, which has exposed a vast spectrum of indigenous music texture to developing, independent artists; these influences proliferate in a web-based music industry, now percolating as a much larger, predominantly self-promoted menu, via an increasing number of indie-artist-friendly, streaming Internet options, such as Last.fm, Live365, Jango Artist Airplay and ReverbNation.
An amalgamation of roots music in the global, contemporary listening palette has become apparent, which weakens the role major entertainment labels can play in the cultural perception of genre boundaries. As a result, definitions of the genre have become varied, determined by wide-ranging and varied opinions. Similar terminology between distinctly different sub-categories under primary music genres, such as world and pop can be as ambiguous and confusing to industry moguls as it is to consumers; this is true in the context of world music, where branches of ethnically influenced pop trends are as genre-defined by consumer perception as they are by the music industry forums that govern the basis for categorical distinction. Academic scholars tend to agree that, in today's world of consumer music reviews and blogging, global music culture's public perception is what distils a prevailing basis for definition from genre ambiguity, regardless of how a category has been outlined by corporate marketing forums and music journalism.
The world music genre's gradual migration from a clear spectrum of roots music traditions to an extended list of hybrid subgenres is a good example of the motion genre boundaries can exhibit in a globalizing pop culture. The classic, original definition of world music was in part created to instill a perceived authenticity and distinction between indigenous music traditions and those that become diluted by pop culture, the modern debate over how possible it is to maintain that perception in the richly diverse genre of world music is ongoing. In a report on the 2014 globalFEST National Public Radio's Anastasia Tsioulcas said "Even within the "world music" community, nobody likes the term "world music." It smacks of all kinds of loaded issues, from cultural colonialism to questions about what's "authentic" and what isn't, forces an incredible array of styles that don't have anything in common under the label of "exotic Other." What's more: I believe that in many people's imaginations, "world music" means a kind of awful, hippy-ish, worldbeat fusion.
It's a problematic, horrible term that satisfies no one." Examples of popular forms of world music include the various forms of non-European classical music (e.g. Japanese koto and Chinese guzheng music, In
The Doors were an American rock band formed in Los Angeles in 1965, with vocalist Jim Morrison, keyboardist Ray Manzarek, guitarist Robby Krieger, drummer John Densmore. They were among the most controversial and influential rock acts of the 1960s because of Morrison's lyrics and his erratic stage persona, the group was regarded as representative of the era's counterculture; the band took its name from the title of Aldous Huxley's book The Doors of Perception, itself a reference to a quote by William Blake. After signing with Elektra Records, the Doors released eight albums in five years, some of which are considered among greatest of all time, including The Doors, Strange Days, L. A. Woman. By 1972 the Doors had sold over nearly 8 million singles. Morrison died in uncertain circumstances in 1971; the band continued as a trio until disbanding in 1973. They released three more albums in the 1970s, two of which featured earlier recordings by Morrison, over the decades reunited on stage in various configurations.
In 2002, Manzarek and Ian Astbury of the Cult on vocals started performing as the Doors of the 21st Century. Densmore and the Morrison estate sued them over the use of the band's name. After a short time as Riders on the Storm, they settled on the name Manzarek–Krieger and toured until Manzarek's death in 2013; the Doors were the first American band to accumulate eight consecutive gold LPs. According to the RIAA, they have sold 33 million records in the US and over 100 million records worldwide, making them one of the best-selling bands of all time; the Doors have been listed as one of the greatest artists of all time by magazines including Rolling Stone, which ranked them 41st on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". In 1993, they were inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame; the Doors began with a meeting between acquaintances Jim Morrison and Ray Manzarek, both of whom had attended the UCLA School of Theater and Television, on Venice Beach in July 1965. Morrison told Manzarek he had been writing songs and with Manzarek's encouragement sang "Moonlight Drive".
The members came from a varied musical background of jazz, rock and folk idioms. Keyboardist Manzarek was in a band called Rick & the Ravens with his brothers Rick and Jim, while drummer John Densmore was playing with the Psychedelic Rangers and knew Manzarek from meditation classes. In August 1965, Densmore joined the group, renamed the Doors; the five, along with bass player Patty Sullivan recorded a six-song demo on September 2, 1965 at World Pacific Studios, Los Angeles, California. This has circulated since as a bootleg recording; the band took their name from the title of Aldous Huxley's book The Doors of Perception, itself derived from a line in William Blake's The Marriage of Heaven and Hell: "If the doors of perception were cleansed, everything would appear to man as it is: infinite". In mid-1965, after Manzarek's two brothers left, guitarist Robby Krieger joined. From February to May 1966, the group had a residency at the "rundown" and "sleazy" Los Angeles club London Fog, appearing on the bill with "Rhonda Lane Exotic Dancer".
The experience gave Morrison confidence to perform in front of a live audience, the band as a whole to develop and, in some cases, lengthen their songs and work "The End", "When the Music's Over", "Light My Fire" into the pieces that would appear on their debut album. Ray Manzarek would say that at the London Fog the band "became this collective entity, this unit of oneness...that is where the magic began to happen."The Doors soon graduated to the more esteemed Whisky a Go Go, where they were the house band, supporting acts including Van Morrison's group Them. On their last night together the two bands joined up for "In the Midnight Hour" and a twenty-minute jam session of Them's "Gloria". On August 10, 1966, they were spotted by Elektra Records president Jac Holzman, present at the recommendation of Love singer Arthur Lee, whose group was with Elektra Records. After Holzman and producer Paul A. Rothchild saw two sets of the band playing at the Whisky a Go Go, they signed them to the Elektra Records label on August 18 – the start of a long and successful partnership with Rothchild and sound engineer Bruce Botnick.
The Doors were fired from the Whisky on August 21, 1966 when Morrison added an explicit retelling and profanity-laden version of the Greek myth of Oedipus during "The End". The band recorded their first album from August 24 to 1966, at Sunset Sound Recording Studios; the debut album, The Doors, was released in the first week of January 1967. It included most of the major songs from their set, including the nearly 12-minute musical drama "The End". In November 1966, Mark Abramson directed a promotional film for the lead single "Break On Through". To promote the single, the Doors made several television appearances such as on Shebang, a Los Angeles TV show, miming to "Break On Through". In early 1967, the Doors appeared on The Clay Cole Show where they performed their single "Break On Through". Since "Break on Through" was not successful on the radio, the band turned to "Light My Fire". "Light My Fire" became the first single from Elektra Records to reach number one on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart, selling over one million copies.
From March 7 to 11, 1967, the Doors performed at the Matrix Club in California. The March 7 and 10 shows
The lied is a term in the German vernacular to describe setting poetry to classical music to create a piece of polyphonic music. The term is used for songs from the late fourteenth or early fifteenth centuries or to refer to Minnesang from as early as the 12th and 13th centuries, it came to refer to settings of Romantic poetry during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, into the early twentieth century. Examples include settings by Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms, Hugo Wolf or Richard Strauss. Among English speakers, however, "lied" is used interchangeably with "art song" to encompass works that the tradition has inspired in other languages; the poems that have been made into lieder center on pastoral themes or themes of romantic love. Lieder are arranged for a single singer and piano, lieder with orchestral accompaniment being a development; some of the most famous examples of lieder are Schubert's "Der Tod und das Mädchen", "Gretchen am Spinnrade", "Der Doppelgänger".
Sometimes lieder are composed in a song cycle, a series of songs tied by a single narrative or theme, such as Schubert's Die schöne Müllerin and Winterreise, or Robert Schumann's Frauenliebe und -leben and Dichterliebe. Schubert and Schumann are most associated with this genre developed in the Romantic era. For German speakers, the term "Lied" has a long history ranging from twelfth-century troubadour songs via folk songs and church hymns to twentieth-century workers' songs or protest songs; the German word Lied for "song" first came into general use in German during the early fifteenth century displacing the earlier word gesang. The poet and composer Oswald von Wolkenstein is sometimes claimed to be the creator of the lied because of his innovations in combining words and music; the late-fourteenth-century composer known as the Monk of Salzburg wrote six two-part lieder which are older still, but Oswald's songs far surpass the Monk of Salzburg in both number and quality. In Germany, the great age of song came in the nineteenth century.
German and Austrian composers had written music for voice with keyboard before this time, but it was with the flowering of German literature in the Classical and Romantic eras that composers found inspiration in poetry that sparked the genre known as the lied. The beginnings of this tradition are seen in the songs of Mozart and Beethoven, but it was with Schubert that a new balance was found between words and music, a new expression of the sense of the words in and through the music. Schubert wrote over 600 songs, some of them in sequences or song cycles that relate an adventure of the soul rather than the body; the tradition was continued by Schumann and Hugo Wolf, on into the 20th century by Strauss and Pfitzner. Composers of atonal music, such as Arnold Schoenberg and Anton Webern, composed lieder in their own style; the lied tradition is linked with the German language, but there are parallels elsewhere, notably in France, with the mélodies of such composers as Berlioz, Fauré, Francis Poulenc, in Russia, with the songs of Mussorgsky and Rachmaninoff in particular.
England too had a flowering of song, more associated, with folk songs than with art songs, as represented by Vaughan Williams, Benjamin Britten, Ivor Gurney, Gerald Finzi. American Heritage Dictionary, Editors of. 2018. "Lied". Random House Unabridged Dictionary. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Anon. 2014. "Lieder". GCSE Bitesize: BBC Schools. Böker-Heil, David Fallows, John H. Baron, James Parsons, Eric Sams, Graham Johnson, Paul Griffiths. "Lied". Grove Music Online, edited by Deane L. Root. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, accessed December 26, 2016. Collins English Dictionary, Editors of. N.d. "Lied". Collins English Dictionary online. Deaville, James. "A Multitude of Voices: The Lied at Mid Century". In The Cambridge Companion to the Lied, edited by James Parsons, 142–67. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80471-4. Encyclopædia Britannica, Editors of The. 1998. "Lied: German Song". Encyclopædia Britannica online. Gramit, David. "The Circulation of the Lied: The Double Life of an Art Form".
In The Cambridge Companion to the Lied, edited by James Parsons, 301–14. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80471-4. Orrey and John Warrack. "Lied". The Oxford Companion to Music, edited by Alison Latham. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-866212-9. Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Editors of. 1997. "Lied". Random House Unabridged Dictionary. New York: Random House, Inc. reprinted on Infoplease.. Thyme, Jürgen. 2005. "Schubert’s Strategies in Setting Free Verse". In Word and Music Studies: Essays on Music and the Spoken Word and on Surveying the Field: Essays from the Fourth International Conference in Word and Music Stu
Theodore Meir Bikel was an Austrian-American actor, folk singer, composer and political activist. He appeared in films including The African Queen, Moulin Rouge, The Enemy Below, I Want to Live!, My Fair Lady and The Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming. For his portrayal of Sheriff Max Muller in The Defiant Ones, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, he made his stage debut in Tevye the Milkman in Tel Aviv, when he was in his teens. He studied acting at Britain's Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and made his London stage debut in 1948 and in New York in 1955, he was a recognized and recorded folk singer and guitarist. In 1959, he co-founded the Newport Folk Festival and created the role of Captain von Trapp opposite Mary Martin as Maria in the original Broadway production of Rodgers & Hammerstein's The Sound of Music. In 1969, Bikel began acting and singing on stage as Tevye in the musical Fiddler on the Roof, a role he performed more than any other actor to date.
The production was one of the longest-running musicals in Broadway history. Bikel was president of the Associated Actors and Artistes of America until 2014, was president of Actors' Equity in the late 1970s and early 1980s, he served as the Chair of the Board of Directors of Partners for Progressive Israel, where he lectured. Theodore Bikel was born into a Jewish family in Vienna, the son of Miriam and Josef Bikel, from Bukovina; as an active Zionist, his father named him after Theodor Herzl, the founder of modern Zionism. Following the German union with Austria in 1938, Bikel's family fled to Mandatory Palestine, where his father's contacts helped the family obtain British passports. Bikel joined Kibbutz Kfar HaMaccabi. Bikel started acting while in his teens, he performed with Habimah Theatre in 1943 and was one of the founding members of the Cameri Theatre, which became a leading Israeli theatre company. He described his acting experience there as similar to, if not better than, the Method acting techniques taught at the Actors Studio in New York.
"The Habimah people were much closer to the Method, than Lee Strasberg was, because they were direct disciples of Stanislavski."In 1945, he moved to London to study at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. Bikel moved to the United States in 1954 and became a naturalized citizen in 1961. Bikel did he take part in the 1948 Arab -- Israeli War. Bikel wrote in “Theo”: “A few of my contemporaries regarded as a character flaw, if not a downright act of desertion. In me there remains a small, still voice that asks whether I can fully acquit myself in my own mind.” In 1948, Michael Redgrave recommended Bikel to his friend Laurence Olivier as understudy for the parts of both Stanley Kowalski and Harold "Mitch" Mitchell in the West End premiere of Tennessee Williams' A Streetcar Named Desire. Aside from being an understudy, Bikel's main role in the production was the minor part of Pablo Gonzales. However, he graduated from supporting actor and understudy to star opposite the director's wife, Vivien Leigh, with a sudden unplanned performance when a co-star, playing the role of Mitch, came down with a case of flu.
Bikel showed up backstage and went directly to Leigh's dressing room to ask if she wanted to rehearse with him, to make sure he was right for the role. She replied that she did not need to: "Go and do it," she said. "You are a professional, Larry gave you this job because he trusted you to do it well." After the show, Leigh told him, "Well done."For most of his acting career, he became known for his versatility in playing characters of different nationalities, claiming he took on those different personalities so his acting would "never get stale." On television, he played an Armenian merchant on Ironside, a Polish professor on Charlie's Angels, an American professor on The Paper Chase, a Bulgarian villain on Falcon Crest, a Russian on Star Trek: The Next Generation, an Italian on Murder, She Wrote. In movies, he played a German officer in The African Queen and The Enemy Below, a Southern sheriff in The Defiant Ones, a Russian submarine captain in the comedy The Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming.
He portrayed the sadistic General Jouvet in The Pride and the Passion, was screen tested for the role of Auric Goldfinger in the James Bond film Goldfinger. In My Fair Lady, he played an overbearing Hungarian linguist, he made his Broadway debut in 1955 in "Tonight in Samarkand" and in 1958 was nominated for a Tony for "The Rope Dancers". In 1959, he created the role of Captain von Trapp in the original production of The Sound of Music, which earned him a second Tony nomination. However, Bikel did not like his role because his ability to sing was underutilized, nor did he like performing the same role of the Captain repeatedly; when the composers and Hammerstein, realized Bikel was an accomplished folksinger, they wrote the song "Edelweiss" for him to sing and accompany himself on the guitar. In 1964, he played the dialect expert, in the film version of My Fair Lady. Since his first appearance as Tevye in the musical Fiddler on the Roof, Bikel had performed the role more than any other actor.
When an injury required 74-year-old fellow Israeli performer Chaim Topol to withdraw from a high-budget, much-promoted 2009 North American tour of the musical, Bikel substituted for him in several appea
Capitol Records, Inc. is an American record label owned by Universal Music Group through its Capitol Music Group imprint. It was founded as the first West Coast-based record label in the United States in 1942 by Johnny Mercer, Buddy DeSylva, Glenn E. Wallichs. Capitol was acquired by British music conglomerate EMI as its North American subsidiary in 1955. EMI was acquired by Universal Music Group in 2012 and was merged with the company a year making Capitol and the Capitol Music Group both a part of UMG; the label's circular headquarter building in Hollywood is a recognized landmark of California. Capitol's roster includes Katy Perry, Sir Paul McCartney, Mary J. Blige, the Beach Boys, the Beastie Boys, Neil Diamond, Brian Wilson, Avenged Sevenfold, 5 Seconds of Summer, Don Henley, Sam Smith, Migos, NF, Emeli Sandé, Troye Sivan, Calum Scott, Tori Kelly, Jon Bellion, Niall Horan. Songwriter Johnny Mercer founded Capitol Records in 1942 with financial help from songwriter and film producer Buddy DeSylva and the business acumen of Glenn Wallichs, owner of Wallichs Music City.
Mercer raised the idea of starting a record company while golfing with Harold Arlen and Bobby Sherwood and with Wallichs at Wallichs's record store. On February 2, 1942, Mercer and Wallichs met DeSylva at a restaurant in Hollywood to talk about investment by Paramount Pictures. On March 27, 1942, the three men incorporated as Liberty Records. In May 1942, the application was amended to change the company's name to Capitol Records. On April 6, 1942, Mercer supervised Capitol's first recording session where Martha Tilton recorded the song "Moon Dreams". On May 5, Bobby Sherwood and his orchestra recorded two tracks in the studio. On May 21, Freddie Slack and his orchestra recorded three tracks in the studio. On June 4, 1942, Capitol opened its first office in a second-floor room south of Sunset Boulevard. On that same day, Wallichs presented the company's first free record to Los Angeles disc jockey Peter Potter. On June 5, 1942, Paul Whiteman and his Orchestra recorded four songs at the studio. On June 12, the orchestra recorded five more songs in the studio, including "Trav'lin' Light" with Billie Holiday, On June 11, Tex Ritter recorded " Jingle Jangle Jingle" and "Goodbye My Little Cherokee" for his first Capitol recording session, the songs formed Capitol's 110th produced record.
The earliest recording artists included co-owner Mercer, Johnnie Johnston, Morse, Jo Stafford, the Pied Pipers, Tex Ritter, Paul Weston and Margaret Whiting Capitol's first gold single was Morse's "Cow Cow Boogie" in 1942. Capitol's first album was Capitol Presents Songs by Johnny Mercer, a three disc set with recordings by Mercer and the Pied Pipers, all with Weston's Orchestra; the label's other 1940s musicians included Les Baxter, Les Brown, Jimmy Bryant, Billy Butterfield, Nat King Cole, Sammy Davis Jr. Dinning Sisters, Tennessee Ernie Ford, Mary Ford, Benny Goodman, Skitch Henderson, Betty Hutton, Stan Kenton, Peggy Lee, Billy May, Les Paul, Alvino Rey, Andy Russell, Smilin' Jack Smith, Kay Starr, Speedy West, Cootie Williams. Musicians on the Capitol Americana label included Lead Belly, Cliffie Stone, Hank Thompson, Merle Travis, Wesley Tuttle, Jimmy Wakely, Tex Williams. Capitol was the first major west coast label to compete with labels on the east coast such as Columbia, RCA Victor.
In addition to its Los Angeles recording studio, Capitol owned a second studio in New York City and sent mobile recording equipment to New Orleans and other cities. In 1946, writer-producer Alan W. Livingston created Bozo the Clown for the company's children's record library. Examples of notable Capitol albums for children during that era are Sparky's Magic Piano and Rusty in Orchestraville. Capitol developed a noted jazz catalog that included the Capitol Jazz Men and issued the Miles Davis's album Birth of the Cool Capitol released a few classical albums in the 1940s, some of which contained a embossed, leather-like cover; these recordings appeared on 78 rpm format released on the 33 format in 1949. Among the recordings: Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos' Choros No. 10, with contributions from a Los Angeles choral group and the Janssen Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Werner Janssen. In 1949, Capitol opened a branch office in Canada and purchased KHJ Studios on Melrose Avenue adjacent to Paramount in Hollywood.
By the mid-1950s, Capitol had become a huge company. The label's roster included the Andrews Sisters, Ray Anthony, Shirley Bassey, June Christy, Tommy Duncan, Tennessee Ernie Ford, the Four Freshmen, the Four Knights, the Four Preps, Jane Froman, Judy Garland, Jackie Gleason, Andy Griffith, Dick Haymes, Harry James, the Kingston Trio, the Louvin Brothers, Dean Martin, Al Martino, Skeets McDonald, Louis Prima, Nelson Riddle, Dinah Shore, Frank Sinatra, Keely Smith. Capitol began recording roll acts such as the Jodimars and Gene Vincent. There were comedy records by Stan Freberg, Johnny Standley, Mickey Katz. Children listened to Capitol's Bozo the Clown albums. Although various people played Bozo the Clown on television, Capitol used the voice of Pinto Colvig, the voice of Goofy in Walt Disney cartoons. Don Wilson released children's records. In June 1952, Billboard magazine contained a chronicle of the label's first ten years in business. In 1955, the British record company EMI ended its 55-year mutual distribution
Paul Vaughn Butterfield was an American blues harmonica player and singer. After early training as a classical flautist, he developed an interest in blues harmonica, he explored the blues scene in his native Chicago, where he met Muddy Waters and other blues greats, who provided encouragement and opportunities for him to join in jam sessions. He soon began performing with fellow blues enthusiasts Nick Gravenites and Elvin Bishop. In 1963, he formed the Paul Butterfield Blues Band, which recorded several successful albums and was popular on the late-1960s concert and festival circuit, with performances at the Fillmore West, in San Francisco; the band was known for combining electric Chicago blues with a rock urgency and for their pioneering jazz fusion performances and recordings. After the breakup of the group in 1971, Butterfield continued to tour and record with the band Paul Butterfield's Better Days, with his mentor Muddy Waters, with members of the roots-rock group the Band. While still recording and performing, Butterfield died in 1987 at age 44 of a heroin overdose.
Music critics have acknowledged his development of an original approach that places him among the best-known blues harp players. In 2006, he was inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame. Butterfield and the early members of the Paul Butterfield Blues Band were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2015. Both panels noted his harmonica skills and his contributions to bringing blues music to a younger and broader audience, he was just the second person after Little Walter to be inducted as a harmonica player. Butterfield was raised in the city's Hyde Park neighborhood; the son of a lawyer and a painter, he attended the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, a private school associated with the University of Chicago. Exposed to music at an early age, he studied classical flute with Walfrid Kujala, of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Butterfield was athletic and was offered a track scholarship to Brown University. However, a knee injury and a growing interest in blues music sent him in a different direction.
He met guitarist and singer songwriter Nick Gravenites, who shared an interest in authentic blues music. By the late 1950s, they were visiting blues clubs in Chicago, where musicians such as Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf, Little Walter, Otis Rush, encouraged them and let them sit in on jam sessions; the pair were soon performing as Paul in college-area coffee houses. In the early 1960s, Butterfield met aspiring blues guitarist Elvin Bishop. Bishop recalled: He was playing more guitar than harp when I first met him, but in about six months he became serious about the harp, he seemed to get about as good as he got in that six months. He was just a natural genius; this was in 1960 or 1961. By this time Butter had been hanging out in the ghetto for a couple of years, he was part of the scene and getting accepted. Butterfield, on vocals and harmonica, Bishop, accompanying him on guitar, were offered a regular gig at Big John's, a folk club in the Old Town district on Chicago's near North Side. With this booking, they persuaded bassist Jerome Arnold and drummer Sam Lay to form a group with them in 1963.
Their engagement at the club was successful and brought the group to the attention of record producer Paul A. Rothchild. During their engagement at Big John's, Butterfield met and sat in with guitarist Mike Bloomfield, playing at the club. By chance, producer Rothchild witnessed one of their performances and was impressed by the chemistry between the two, he persuaded Butterfield to bring Bloomfield into the band, they were signed to Elektra Records. Their first attempt to record an album, in December 1964, did not meet Rothchild's expectations, although an early version of "Born in Chicago", written by Gravenites, was included on the 1965 Elektra sampler Folksong'65 and created interest in the band. To better capture their sound, Rothchild convinced Elektra president Jac Holzman to record a live album. In the spring of 1965, the Butterfield Blues Band was recorded at the Cafe Au Go Go in New York City; these recordings failed to satisfy Rothchild, but the group's appearances at the club brought them to the attention of the East Coast music community.
Rothchild persuaded Holzman to agree to a third attempt at recording an album. In these recording sessions, Rothchild had assumed the role of group manager and used his folk contacts to secure the band more engagements outside of Chicago. At the last minute, the band was booked to perform at the Newport Folk Festival in July 1965, they were scheduled as the opening act the first night when the gates opened and again the next afternoon in an urban blues workshop at the festival. Despite limited exposure on the first night and a dismissive introduction the following day by the folklorist and blues researcher Alan Lomax, the band was able to attract an unusually large audience for a workshop performance. Maria Muldaur, with her husband Geoff, who toured and recorded with Butterfield, recalled the group's performance as stunning – it was the first time that many of the folk-music fans had heard a high-powered electric blues combo. Among those who took notice was festival regular Bob Dylan, who invited the band to back him for his first live electric performance.
With little rehearsal, Dylan performed a short, four-song set the next day with Bloomfield and Lay. The performan
Philip David Ochs was an American protest singer and songwriter, known for his sharp wit, sardonic humor, earnest humanism, political activism and alliterative lyrics, distinctive voice. He released eight albums. Ochs performed at many political events during the 1960s counterculture era, including anti-Vietnam War and civil rights rallies, student events, organized labor events over the course of his career, in addition to many concert appearances at such venues as New York City's Town Hall and Carnegie Hall. Politically, Ochs described himself as a "left social democrat" who became an "early revolutionary" after the protests at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago led to a police riot, which had a profound effect on his state of mind. After years of prolific writing in the 1960s, Ochs's mental stability declined in the 1970s, he succumbed to a number of problems including bipolar disorder and alcoholism, committed suicide in 1976. Some of Ochs's major musical influences were Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger, Buddy Holly, Elvis Presley, Bob Gibson, Faron Young, Merle Haggard.
His best-known songs include "I Ain't Marching Anymore", "Changes", "Crucifixion", "Draft Dodger Rag", "Love Me, I'm a Liberal", "Outside of a Small Circle of Friends", "Power and the Glory", "There but for Fortune", "The War Is Over". Phil Ochs was born in El Paso, Texas, to Jacob "Jack" Ochs, a physician, born in New York on August 11, 1910, Gertrude Phin Ochs, born on February 26, 1912, in Scotland, his parents married in Edinburgh where Jack was attending medical school. After their marriage, they moved to the United States. Jack, drafted into the army, was sent overseas near the end of World War II, where he treated soldiers at the Battle of the Bulge, his war experiences affected his mental health and he received an honorable medical discharge in November 1945. Suffering from bipolar disorder and depression on his return home, Jack was unable to establish a successful medical practice and instead worked at a series of hospitals around the country; as a result, the Ochs family moved frequently: to New York, when Ochs was a teenager.
Ochs grew up with an older sister, a younger brother, Michael. The Ochs family was middle class and Jewish, but not religious, his father was distant from his wife and children, was hospitalized for depression. As a teenager, Ochs was recognized as a talented clarinet player, his musical skills allowed him to play clarinet with the orchestra at the Capital University Conservatory of Music in Ohio, where he rose to the status of principal soloist before he was 16. Although Ochs played classical music, he soon became interested in other sounds he heard on the radio, such as early rock icons Buddy Holly and Elvis Presley and country music artists including Faron Young, Ernest Tubb, Hank Williams, Sr. and Johnny Cash. Ochs spent a lot of time at the movies, he liked big screen heroes such as John Wayne and Audie Murphy. On, he developed an interest in movie rebels, including Marlon Brando and James Dean. From 1956 to 1958, Ochs was a student at the Staunton Military Academy in rural Virginia, when he graduated he returned to Columbus and enrolled in the Ohio State University.
Unhappy after his first quarter, he went to Florida. While in Miami, the 18-year-old Ochs was jailed for two weeks for sleeping on a park bench, an incident he would recall: Somewhere during the course of those fifteen days I decided to become a writer. My primary thought was journalism... so in a flash I decided — I'll be a writer and a major in journalism. Ochs returned to Ohio State to study journalism and developed an interest in politics, with a particular interest in the Cuban Revolution of 1959. At Ohio State he met Jim Glover, a fellow student, a devotee of folk music. Glover introduced Ochs to the music of Pete Seeger, Woody Guthrie, The Weavers. Glover taught Ochs how to play guitar, they debated politics. Ochs began writing newspaper articles on radical themes; when the student paper refused to publish some of his more radical articles, he started his own underground newspaper called The Word. His two main interests and music, soon merged, Ochs began writing topical political songs. Ochs and Glover formed a duet called "The Singing Socialists" renamed "The Sundowners", but the duo broke up before their first professional performance and Glover went to New York City to become a folksinger.
Ochs's parents and brother had moved from Columbus to Cleveland, Ochs started to spend more time there, performing professionally at a local folk club called Farragher's Back Room. He was the opening act for a number of musicians in the summer of 1961, including the Smothers Brothers. Ochs met folksinger Bob Gibson that summer as well, according to Dave Van Ronk, Gibson became "the seminal influence" on Ochs's writing. Ochs continued at Ohio State into his senior year, but was bitterly disappointed at not being appointed editor-in-chief of the college newspaper, dropped out in his last quarter without graduating, he left for New York, as Glover had. Ochs arrived in New York City in 1962 and began performing in numerous small folk nightclubs becoming an integral pa