Local government areas of Nigeria
Nigeria has 774 local government areas. Each local government area is administered by a Local Government Council consisting of a chairman, the Chief Executive of the LGA, other elected members who are referred to as Councillors; each of the areas is further subdivided into wards with a minimum of ten and a maximum of fifteen for each area. The functions of Local Governments are detailed in the Nigerian Constitution and include: Economic recommendations to the State. Local Government Areas In Nigeria By State: A comprehensive list of all Local Government Areas in Nigeria and their respective States. Nigeria Congress On Line Nigeria Sustainable Urban Development and Good Governance in Nigeria Thomas Brinkhoff: NIGERIA: Administrative Division, in www.citypopulation.de
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Okrika is a port town in Rivers State, capital of the Local Government Area of the same name. The town is situated on a small island just south of Port Harcourt, making it a suburb of the much larger city; the average elevation of Okrika is 452 metres. It lies on the north of the Bonny River and on Okrika Island, 35 miles upstream from the Bight of Biafra; the town can be reached by vessels of a draft of 29 feet or less. A small fishing village of the Ijo people in the mangrove swamps of the eastern Niger River delta, Okrika became the capital of the Okrika kingdom in the early 17th century and dealt in slaves, it served as a port for the exportation of palm oil after the abolition of the slave trade in the 1830s, but it was a less significant port facility than either Bonny or Opobo. By 1912, Okrika had been eclipsed by Port Harcourt, it was not revived as a commercial port until 1965, when the nearby Alesa-Eleme oil refinery was completed and pipelines were built to a jetty on Okrika Island.
It has a major gas plant facility that supplies to the refinery and others. Refined petroleum products are some of Okrika's significant exports; the town has considerable local trade in fish, oil palm produce, locally processed salt, taro and yams. The 2006 census determined the population of the Wakirike Local Government Area of the Rivers State of Nigeria was 222,026. An estimated 145,000 Okrika natives live elsewhere around the world in the United Kingdom and the United States; the local Kirike language is part of the ljoid group. Nine traditional towns constituted the Okrika Kingdom before 1913, these towns are Kirike, Ogu, Abuloma, Ibaka and Isaka. Most of these traditional towns have satellite villages. Today the constituent towns of Okrika kingdom has increased to eleven towns; the additional two towns are Koniju Town. Obumoton is a collective name for Okrika villages acquired by the British Colonial Government in 1913 to establish a sea port now Port Harcourt. Obumoton is part of Okrika Kingdom.
The Koniju section of Kirike was declared Koniju town by a Rivers State high court in 1995. It is now a constituent town of Okrika Kingdom; the traditional towns that constitutes the Okrika nation has therefore increased from nine towns prior to 1913 to thirteen towns as at 1995. The constituents towns are therefore: Okrika Town - the capital city of Okrika Ogolome Ogu Town Bolo Town Okuru Ama Amadi ama Tere - Ama Ozuboko Ama Abulome Ibaka Town Ogbogbo Town Ele Town Isaka Town Obumoton Koniju Town The Okrikans like all other Ijo sub-groups of the Niger Delta are organised into autonomous and co-equal War-Canoe houses. Kinsmen living together in the same area make up each War-Canoe House. Although the War-Canoe is an institution of kinship it deals principally with war and defence. War-Canoe houses may be different in terms of man power; however and community assets are shared to the War-Canoe house and not based on their numerical strength. Every War-Canoe House is headed by a Chief, assisted in various capacities by sub-chiefs.
The Chief is addressed as the'Warinyanabo' or'Waridabo' showing his status as head of the entire War-Canoe house. Each War-Canoe house known as Omuaru-wari or Warinyengi is constituted by sub-units known variously as'Warikubu' or'Oko'; each sub-unit is headed by a sub-chief known locally as the'Oko-tibidabo'. Each sub-unit is further divided into extended family units known as'Furo'. Characterised by strong kinship ties, the Furo is composed of grandfathers, uncles, brothers, cousins and nieces. Class System: Within each War-Canoe house, there are four classes for men and three for women. Classes are referred to as'Mumbu'. Male members of the War-Canoe house apart from the Chief and the King are classed into'Opu Mumbu','Ogbobiri Mumbu','Kala Mumbu' and'Owuapu-awo'. Females members of a War-Canoe house are classed into the'Opu Mumbu','Kala Mumbu' and'Iria-Soka Awo'; the class system is an ordinary ranking system, however it ensures hard work and progress within the War-Canoe House. Ranking is based on age and achievements.
However, the main factors that determines promotion to a given class may vary between War-Canoe Houses. As opposed to a Caste system, classes are not heritable nor transferable. Therefore, no member of the War-Canoe house is born into a class. Members higher up the class have a greater share of the benefits and financial burdens of the War-Canoe House but decision making within the War-Canoe house is democratic; the Languages spoken by the Okrika people include, but are not limited to, Kalabari. • Historically, the Okrika people of old were polytheist believing in several deities. Others where animist who believed in many spirits including marine spirits and in the spirits of their ancestors. Finibeso was considered the chief god of the ancient Okrika people and his priest where most reverend among other priests; the Fenibeso shrine was divine. Traditionally, no restrictions were imposed on the worship of any god, for there has always been a freedom of worship in Okrika. In modern Okrika, Christian religion has emerged as the dominant religion and the St Peters Cathedral is t
Rivers State known as Rivers, is one of the 36 states of Nigeria. According to census data released in 2006, the state has a population of 5,198,716, making it the sixth-most populous state in the country, its capital and largest city, Port Harcourt, is economically significant as the centre of Nigeria's oil industry. Rivers State is bounded on the South by the Atlantic Ocean, to the North by Imo and Anambra States, to the East by Akwa Ibom State, to the West by Bayelsa and Delta states, it is home to many indigenous ethnic groups: Ogoni, Ekpeye, Ibani, Eleme and Kalabari, Ogba, Egbema and others. The people from Rivers State are known as "Riverians"; the inland part of the state consists of tropical rainforest. Rivers State, named after the many rivers that border its territory, was part of the Oil Rivers Protectorate from 1885 till 1893, when it became part of the Niger Coast Protectorate. In 1900 the region was merged with the chartered territories of the Royal Niger Company to form the colony of Southern Nigeria.
The state was formed in 1967 with the split of the Eastern Region of Nigeria. In 1996 the state lost territory to form Bayelsa State. In the early days of the colonial period, several protection treaties were signed between various indigenous communities and the British colonial government. Between 1941 and 1952, agitation for the creation of Rivers province began with the formation of the Ijo Rivers People's League. By 1953, the Council of Rivers Chiefs was birthed as a replacement body for the League, the same year, another organisation, the Calabar Ogoja Rivers State Movement became existent; the Council of Rivers Chiefs was renamed in 1954 to Rivers Chiefs and People's Congress and in 1956, the organisation became known as the Rivers Chiefs People's Conference. Until 1958, hopes of an independent state resonated with the region, lingered in the minds of its natives. During the constitutional conference that year, the country's nationhood was affirmed while an agreement was reached on some measures to mitigate the fears of the ethnic minorities in the area.
Around this time, the COR State Movement had broken away to press their own case. Thereafter, the British launched a commission led by Sir Henry Willink to look into the misgivings of these autochthons; the Willink Commission initiated the conception of the Niger Delta Development Board. The purpose was to tackle the problems of underdevelopment, this failed to rise to the expectations of the masses. After much discontent, some of the people attempted to take the extralegal route to achieve their goals. In February 1966, Isaac Boro, Sam Owonaro and Nottingham Dick alongside their supporters proclaimed a "Delta People's Republic"; the rebellion was crushed by the Federal and the old Eastern Nigeria government. On 27 May 1967, under the administration of General Yakubu Gowon, decree No. 14 was issued, allowing the creation of Rivers State. From on, complaints about political marginalisation, environmental degradation and economic pauperisation remained among the Ijaw groups, such that a separate Bayelsa State was carved out of Rivers State by the military government during 1996.
Rivers State is a predominantly low-lying pluvial state in southern Nigeria, located in the eastern part of the Niger Delta on the oceanward extension of the Benue Trough. The inland part of the state consists of tropical rainforest, towards the coast, the typical Niger Delta environment features many mangrove swamps. Rivers State has a total area of 11,077 km², making it the 26th largest state in Nigeria. Surrounding states are Imo and Anambra to the north, Akwa Ibom to the east and Bayelsa to the west. On the south, it is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean, its topography ranges with a network of rivers to tributaries. Rainfall is seasonal, variable, as well as heavy, occurs between the months of March and October through November; the wet season peaks in July, lasting more than 290 days. The only dry months are February having little to no effect. Total annual rainfall decreases from about 4,700 mm on the coast, to about 1,700 mm in the extreme north, it is 4,698 mm at 1,862 mm at Degema. For Port Harcourt, temperatures throughout the year are constant with little variation throughout the course of the seasons.
Average temperatures are between 25 °C−28 °C. Some parts of the state still receive up to 150 mm of rainfall during the dry period. Relative humidity dips below 60% and fluctuates between 90% and 100% for most of the year; the land surface of Rivers State can be divided into three zones: freshwater swamps, mangrove swamps and coastal sand ridges. The freshwater zone extends north wards from the mangrove swamps; this land surface is less than 20m above sea level. As a lower Niger floodplain, it contains a greater silt and clay foundation and is more susceptible to perennial inundation by river floods; the floodplain's total thickness rises to about 45m in the northeast and over 9m in the beach ridge barrier zones to the southwest. On coastal sand ridges, the soils are sandy or sandy loams. Various crops are supported including oil palm, raffia palm and cocoyam; the drier upland region of Rivers State covers 61% of landmass while the riverine areas, with a relief range of 2m to 5m, take up 39%. Due to its geographical location, Rivers State has always played an important role in the natural history of Nigeria, having been found to host a vast array of wildlife and plants.
Its tropical rainforests are home to more species than all other local
Port Harcourt is the capital and largest city of Rivers State, Nigeria. It is located in the Niger Delta; as of 2016, the Port Harcourt urban area has an estimated population of 1,865,000 inhabitants, up from 1,382,592 as of 2006. The area that became Port Harcourt in 1912 was before that part of the farmlands of the Diobu village group of the Ikwerre, an Igbo sub-group; the colonial administration of Nigeria created the port to export coal from the collieries of Enugu located 243 kilometres north of Port Harcourt, to which it was linked by a railway called the Eastern Line built by the British. In 1956 crude oil was discovered in commercial quantities at Oloibiri, Port Harcourt's economy turned to petroleum when the first shipment of Nigerian crude oil was exported through the city in 1958. Through the benefits of the Nigerian petroleum industry, Port Harcourt was further developed, with aspects of modernization such as overpasses, city blocks and more substantial buildings. Oil firms that have offices in the city include Royal Dutch Shell and Chevron.
There are a number of institutions of tertiary education in Port Harcourt government-owned. These institutions include, Rivers State University, University of Port Harcourt, Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Ignatius Ajuru University and Rivers State College of Health Science and Technology; the current mayor is Victor Ihunwo. Port Harcourt's primary airport is Port Harcourt International Airport, located on the outskirts of the city; the port was built in 1912, but not given a name until August 1913, when the Governor of Nigeria, Sir Frederick Lugard, named it "Port Harcourt" in honor of Lewis Vernon Harcourt the Secretary of State for the Colonies. The Ikwerre name for the city is Iguocha, loaned from the Igbo word "Ụ́gwụ́ Ọ́chá". Port Harcourt was founded in 1912 by Frederick Lugard, governor of both the Northern Nigeria Protectorate and the Southern Nigeria Protectorate, its purpose was to export the coal that geologist Albert Ernest Kitson had discovered in Enugu in 1909. The colonial government caused the people of Diobu to cede their land, in 1912 the building of a port-town was started.
Other villages that were absorbed into the city included Oroworukwo and Rumuomasi. During the First World War, Port Harcourt was used as a point for military operations against the Central Powers in German Kamerun. After the discovery of crude oil in Oloibiri in 1956, Port Harcourt exported the first shipload from Nigeria in 1958. Port Harcourt became the center of the Nigerian oil economy and it subsequently reaped benefits of its associations with the petroleum industry by undergoing modernization and urbanization. Port Harcourt's growth is further due to its position as the commercial center and foremost industrial city of the former Eastern Region. After the Republic of Biafra seceded from Nigeria in 1967 Port Harcourt fell to Nigerian forces on 19 May 1968. From an area of 15.54 km2 in 1914, Port Harcourt grew uncontrolled to an area of 360 km2 in the 1980s. The main city of Port Harcourt is the Port Harcourt City in the Port Harcourt local government area, consisting of the former European quarters now called Old GRA and New Layout areas.
The urban area, on the other hand, is made up of the local government area itself and parts of Obio-Akpor and Eleme accordingly. Port Harcourt, the current capital of Rivers State, is congested as it is the only major city of the state. In 2009, a law was passed by the Rivers State House of Assembly and governor Amaechi's administration to spread development to the surrounding communities as part of the effort to decongest the Port Harcourt metropolis; the Greater Port Harcourt region, spans eight local government areas that include Port Harcourt, Obio-Akpor, Oyigbo, Ogu–Bolo and Eleme. Its total population was estimated at 2,000,000 as of 2009, making it one of the largest metropolitan areas in Nigeria. Port Harcourt features a tropical wet climate with lengthy and heavy rainy seasons and short dry seasons. Only the months of December and January qualifies as dry season months in the city; the harmattan, which climatically influences many cities in West Africa, is less pronounced in Port Harcourt.
Port Harcourt's heaviest precipitation occurs during September with an average of 367 mm of rain. December on average is the driest month of the year, with an average rainfall of 20 mm. Temperatures throughout the year in the city are constant, showing little variation throughout the course of the year. Average temperatures are between 25 °C-28 °C in the city. For more than two years, there's been a cloud of black soot hanging over the city. Residents state their clothes and everything outside is covered with a layer of black soot; some of Port Harcourt's more popular and well-known residential areas are known as Port Harcourt Township, GRA phases 1—5, Rumuomasi, D-line, Iboloji, Rumuola, Amadi Flats, Umuchitta and Borokiri. The main industrial area is located in Trans Amadi. Port Harcourt is a major industrial centre as it has a large number of multinational firms as well as other industrial concerns business related to the petroleum industry, it is the chief oil-refining city in Nigeria and has two m