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Elementary particle

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a subatomic particle with no sub structure, thus not composed of other particles. Particles thought to be elementary include the fundamental fermions, which are "matter particles" and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons, which are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions. A particle containing two or more elementary particles is a composite particle. Ordinary matter is composed of atoms, once presumed to be elementary particles—atom meaning "unable to cut" in Greek—although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1910, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, matter as composed of energy. Subatomic constituents of the atom were identified in the early 1930s. At that time, the recent advent of quantum mechanics was radically altering the conception of particles, as a single particle could span a field as would a wave, a paradox still eluding satisfactory explanation.

Via quantum theory and neutrons were found to contain quarks—up quarks and down quarks—now considered elementary particles. And within a molecule, the electron's three degrees of freedom can separate via the wavefunction into three quasiparticles, yet a free electron—which is not orbiting an atomic nucleus and lacks orbital motion—appears unsplittable and remains regarded as an elementary particle. Around 1980, an elementary particle's status as indeed elementary—an ultimate constituent of substance—was discarded for a more practical outlook, embodied in particle physics' Standard Model, what's known as science's most experimentally successful theory. Many elaborations upon and theories beyond the Standard Model, including the popular supersymmetry, double the number of elementary particles by hypothesizing that each known particle associates with a "shadow" partner far more massive, although all such superpartners remain undiscovered. Meanwhile, an elementary boson mediating gravitation—the graviton—remains hypothetical.

As hypotheses indicate, spacetime is quantized, so there most exist "atoms" of space and time itself. All elementary particles fermions; these classes are distinguished by their quantum statistics: fermions obey Fermi–Dirac statistics and bosons obey Bose–Einstein statistics. Their spin is differentiated via the spin–statistics theorem: it is half-integer for fermions, integer for bosons. Notes: 1; the antielectron is traditionally called positron. 2. The known force carrier are therefore vector bosons; the hypothetical graviton is a tensor boson. In the Standard Model, elementary particles are represented for predictive utility as point particles. Though successful, the Standard Model is limited to the microcosm by its omission of gravitation and has some parameters arbitrarily added but unexplained. According to the current models of big bang nucleosynthesis, the primordial composition of visible matter of the universe should be about 75% hydrogen and 25% helium-4. Neutrons are made up of one up and two down quarks, while protons are made of two up and one down quark.

Since the other common elementary particles are so light or so rare when compared to atomic nuclei, we can neglect their mass contribution to the observable universe's total mass. Therefore, one can conclude that most of the visible mass of the universe consists of protons and neutrons, like all baryons, in turn consist of up quarks and down quarks; some estimates imply that there are 1080 baryons in the observable universe. The number of protons in the observable universe is called the Eddington number. In terms of number of particles, some estimates imply that nearly all the matter, excluding dark matter, occurs in neutrinos, which constitute the majority of the 1086 elementary particles of matter that exist in the visible universe. Other estimates imply that 1097 elementary particles exist in the visible universe photons and other massless force carriers; the Standard Model of particle physics contains 12 flavors of elementary fermions, plus their corresponding antiparticles, as well as elementary bosons that mediate the forces and the Higgs boson, reported on July 4, 2012, as having been detected by the two main experiments at the Large Hadron Collider.

However, the Standard Model is considered to be a provisional theory rather than a fundamental one, since it is not known if it is compatible with Einstein's general relativity. There may be hypothetical elementary particles not described by the Standard Model, such as the graviton, the particle that would carry the gravitational force, sparticles, supersymmetric partners of the ordinary particles; the 12 fundamental fermions are divided into 3 generations of 4 particles each. Half of the fermions are leptons, three of which have an electric charge of −1, called the electron, the muon, the tau; the remaining six particles are quarks. The following table lists current measured masses and mass estimates for all the fermions, using the same scale of measure: millions of electron-volts relative to square of light speed (MeV/c²

Stein, Aargau

Stein is a municipality in the district of Rheinfelden in the canton of Aargau, Switzerland. The town lies across the Rhine River from Bad Säckingen in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Two bridges link one vehicular and the other, the Holzbrücke pedestrian bridge; the Stein-Säckingen railway station is located in Stein. Stein has an area, as of 2009, of 2.81 square kilometers. Of this area, 0.8 km2 or 28.5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.62 km2 or 22.1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 1.1 km2 or 39.1 % is settled, 0.29 km2 or 10.3 % is either lakes. Of the built up area, industrial buildings comprise 8.9% of the total area. Out of the forested land, 19.9% of the total land area is forested and 2.1% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 19.9% is used for growing crops and 7.1% is pastures, while 1.4% is used for orchards or vine crops. All the water in the municipality streams; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules. Stein has a population of 3,198 As of 33.6 % of whom are foreign nationals.

Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 18.7%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and Albanian being third; the age distribution, as of 2008, in Stein is. Of the adult population, 407 people or 14.4 % of the population are between 29 years old. 404 people or 14.3% are between 30 and 39, 513 people or 18.2% are between 40 and 49, 400 people or 14.2% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 264 people or 9.3% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 168 people or 5.9% are between 70 and 79, there are 94 people or 3.3% who are between 80 and 89,and there are 10 people or 0.4% who are 90 and older. As of 2000 the average number of residents per living room was 0.58 the same as the cantonal average of 0.57 per room. In this case, a room is defined as space of a housing unit of at least 4 m2 as normal bedrooms, dining rooms, living rooms and habitable cellars and attics. About 38.7 % of the total households were in other words did not pay rent.

As of 2000, there were 104 homes with 1 or 2 persons in the household, 657 homes with 3 or 4 persons in the household, 255 homes with 5 or more persons in the household. As of 2000, there were 1,037 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.3 persons per household. In 2008 there were 330 single family homes out of a total of apartments. There were a total of 7 empty apartments for a 0.6% vacancy rate. As of 2007, the construction rate of new housing units was 17.6 new units per 1000 residents. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the SP, the FDP and the CVP. In the federal election, a total of 600 votes were cast, with a voter turnout of 37.8%. The historical population is given in the following table: The Säckingerbrücke at Schaffhauserstrasse is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance; as of 2007, Stein's unemployment rate was 3.77%. As of 2005, there were 11 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 5 businesses involved in this sector.

1,611 people are employed in the secondary sector. 597 people are employed with 89 businesses in this sector. In 2000 there were 1,251 workers. Of these, 855 or about 68.3% of the residents worked outside Stein while 1,446 people commuted into the municipality for work. There were a total of 1,842 jobs in the municipality. Of the working population, 18.6% used public transportation to get to work, 46.2% used a private car. From the 2000 census, 1,100 or 45.6% were Roman Catholic, while 688 or 28.5% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were around 30 individuals who belonged to the Christian Catholic faith; the entire Swiss population is well-educated. In Stein about 65.4% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Of the school age population, there are 200 students attending primary school, there are 81 students attending secondary school in the municipality

Big Brother (Dutch season 5)

Big Brother 2005 was the fifth season of the Dutch version of Big Brother. Three years after its initial cancellation, Big Brother was brought back. John de Mol decided to air it on his own TV station Talpa. Although he did not own the rights anymore after he left Endemol, it lasted from 24 August to 22 December 2005 for a total of 121 days. The season was shown with moderate success in the early evening; the house had moved from Almere to Aalsmeer, the presenters were Bridget Maasland and Ruud de Wild. The theme for this season was Secrecy. Housemates entered with a secret. Aside from usual weekly tasks, the housemates received secret missions to spark distrust and conflicts; some gained cash. The season was dominated by the relationship between Dido and Roel, who shared his bed with Lieske and Linda as well; the season borrowed elements from foreign series. However, most attention was directed at Tanja, seven months pregnant. Tanja could be evicted. Tanja s smoking during pregnancy were debated in the media, as well as the role of the father who didn't want any responsibility but enjoyed his fame.

On 18 October 2005, Tanja gave birth to her daughter Joscelyn Savanna in front of the cameras, it's a Big Brother first. Because of limitations by the Dutch Labour Inspectorate, the baby wasn't allowed to be shown for extended periods. Tanja voluntary left with her daughter on Day 65 as she felt she was being poorly treated by her fellow housemates. Towards the end of the season, producers were accused of tampering with the results of the SMS-and telephone votes during eviction rounds. A campaign by third season housemate Gert-Jan de Boer called for the attendance of a Notary at least during the finals, Endemol gave in. In the end, the winner of the season was Joost. ^Note 1: When Ralph entered the house on Day 2, he came with an envelope which he had to give to one of his housemates. Ralph was not informed of the contents of the envelope, he chose to give the envelope to Rob, whilst the other housemates thought Rob to be evicted, he was watching his other housemates from a secret room. Rob returned to the main house on Day 5.

^Note 2: Big Brother put an envelope in the house following nominations, whoever opened the envelope would be given immunity. Since Lieske opened the envelope she was no longer nominated for eviction and became immune for the week. ^Note 3: Rikkert, evicted last week, could choose another housemate to be up for eviction and he chose Roel. ^Note 4: Menno was nominated, but received immunity. ^Note 5: Big Brother asked one housemate to open an envelope, Tanja decided to open it and therefore had to choose a housemate that would be up for eviction, she chose Nathalie. ^Note 6: Following Tanjas voluntary exit, producers decided to go through with the eviction. Rob was evicted with 27% to save, but the public was given the choice to vote to keep him in the house as Tanjas replacement; the public voted. ^Note 7: Evicted housemate Menno had to deduct 1 point from someone's score and was able to nominate someone himself. He gave a nomination point to Nathalie. ^Note 8: Housemates had to nominate a second person this time as only 2 housemates were nominated from their first choices.

Lieske and Roel could not be nominated in the second round of nominations because they faced the public vote from the first round. ^Note 9: Following Rob's eviction, Big Brother informed the housemates that if one of them volunteered to be nominated and survived the vote, they would be exempt from all future votes and would be guaranteed a place in the final. Joost accepted the offer. ^Note 10: Housemates were offered the chance for one of them to leave the house for a sum of money taken from the prize fund. The decision had to be unanimous; the decision was made and Ingrid left the house with €37,500. World of Big Brother

Springer, New Mexico

Springer is a town in Colfax County, New Mexico, United States. Its population was 1,047 at the 2010 census, it is noted for its speed traps. Springer was the county seat of Colfax County from 1882—1897. Springer was part of the Lucien B. Maxwell land grant, it is near the Cimarron Cutoff of the Santa Fe Trail. There was a range war in Springer in 1881; the former Colfax County Courthouse in Springer is now museum. It was built for $9,800 in the early 1880s, it has had multiple uses over the years, including the site of the Raton Reform School for Boys. It has been a library, the Springer town hall, a jail. Outside the courthouse museum is a tall monument to the Ten Commandments. There is a marker honoring Lance Corporal Chad Robert Hildebrandt, the first casualty in the Iraq War from Springer; the Springer Correctional Center, operated by the New Mexico Corrections Department, is located 2 miles northwest of Springer. The correctional center is one of New Mexico's oldest detention facilities, having begun operation in 1909 as the New Mexico Boys' School.

Springer is located in southern Colfax County at 36°21′50″N 104°35′37″W. It is in the valley of the Cimarron River, 6 miles west of where that river flows into the Canadian River. Interstate 25 passes along the west side of the town, with access from exits 412 and 414. I-25 leads north 40 miles to Raton, the county seat, southwest 68 miles to Las Vegas, New Mexico; the western terminus of U. S. Routes 56 and 412 is in the center of Springer; the two routes together lead 82 miles east to Clayton. According to the United States Census Bureau, Springer has a total area of 1.5 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,285 people, 520 households, 372 families residing in the town; the population density was 876.6 people per square mile. There were 605 housing units at an average density of 412.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 79.46% White, 1.09% Native American, 14.94% from other races, 4.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 69.96% of the population.

There were 520 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.2% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% were non-families. 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.86. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, 21.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $27,850, the median income for a family was $34,563. Males had a median income of $24,479 versus $19,000 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,606. About 14.9% of families and 16.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.0% of those under age 18 and 8.9% of those age 65 or over.

Antoun Saadeh - Lebanese politician and founder of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party Fred Graham - athlete and actor Ernest Medina - former captain of infantry in the United States Army Springer Municipal Schools Springer Economic Development

HMS Bristol (1711)

HMS Bristol was a 50-gun fourth-rate ship of the line built for the Royal Navy in the first decade of the 18th century. Bristol had a length at the gundeck of 108 feet at the keel, she had a depth of hold of 14 feet. The ship's tonnage was 722 ​68⁄94 tons burthen. Bristol was armed with twenty-two 18-pounder cannon on her main gundeck, twenty-two 9-pounder cannon on her upper gundeck, four 6-pounder cannon each on the quarterdeck and forecastle; the ship had a crew of ratings. Bristol, named after the eponymous port, was ordered on 24 April 1709; the ship was built by Master Shipwright John Lock at Plymouth Dockyard according to the 1706 Establishment, launched on 8 May 1711. She was assigned to The Downs Squadron; the following year, the ship sailed to Gibraltar and to Salé in 1713. Bristol had a major refit from August 1716 to April 1718 at Portsmouth that cost £6,825 and a lesser one in Aug-October 1738 that cost £1,435; the ship commissioned in August under the command of Captain William Chambers for service in home waters.

Three years now under the command of Captain Benjamin Young, she accompanied a convoy bound for the West Indies in early 1741. On 22 November 1742 Bristol was ordered to be dismantled for rebuilding. Unlike the vast majority of ships of the line rebuilt during the Establishment era, Bristol was not reconstructed according to the establishment in effect at the time, she shared her dimensions with the newly built Rochester. Bristol was relaunched on 9 July 1746 and took part in the unsuccessful attack on Martinique in January 1759. Bristol was broken up in 1768. Clowes, William Laird; the Royal Navy, A History from the Earliest Times to 1900, Volume III. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 1-86176-012-4. Lavery, Brian; the Ship of the Line. 1: The Development of the Battlefleet 1650-1850. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-252-8. Winfield, Rif. British Warships in the Age of Sail, 1714-1792: Design, Construction and Fates. Barnsley, UK: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84415-700-6

Craniofacial surgery

Craniofacial surgery is a surgical subspecialty that deals with congenital and acquired deformities of the head, face, neck and associated structures. Although craniofacial treatment involves manipulation of bone, craniofacial surgery is not tissue-specific. Defects treated by craniofacial surgeons include craniosynostosis, rare craniofacial clefts and chronic sequellae of facial fractures, cleft lip and palate, Treacher Collins Syndrome, Apert's Syndrome, Crouzon's Syndrome, Craniofacial microsomia and other congenital ear anomalies, many others. Training in craniofacial surgery requires completion of a Craniofacial surgery fellowship; such fellowships are available to individuals who have completed residency in oral and maxillofacial surgery and reconstructive surgery, or ENT surgery. Those who have completed residency in oral and maxillofacial surgery may be either single degree or dual-degree surgeons with no differences. There is no specific board for craniofacial surgery. In the US, cleft and craniofacial centers are found in many major academic centers.

The bones of the human skull are joined together by cranial sutures. The anterior fontanelle is where the metopic and coronal sutures meet; the sutures fuse within the first few years after birth. In infants where one or more of the sutures fuses too early the growth of the skull is restricted, resulting in compensation mechanisms which cause irregular growth patterns. Growth in the skull is perpendicular to the sutures; when a suture fuses too early, the growth perpendicular to that suture will be restricted, the bone growth near the other sutures will be stimulated, causing an abnormal head shape. The expanding brain is the main stimulus for the rapid growth of the skull in the first years of life. Inhibited growth potential of the skull can restrict the volume, needed by the brain. In cases in which the compensation does not provide enough space for the growing brain, craniosynostosis results in increased intracranial pressure. Craniosynostosis is called simple when one suture is involved, complex when two or more sutures are involved.

It can occur as an isolated defect. In scaphocephaly the sagittal suture is prematurely fused; the sagittal suture runs from the front to the back of the head. The shape of this deformity is a long narrow head, formed like a boat; the compensatory head-growth forward at the coronal suture gives a prominent forehead, frontal bossing and a prominent back of the head, called coning. The incidence of scaphocephaly is 2.8 per 10 000 births in the Netherlands and is therefore the most common form of craniosynostosis. In trigonocephaly the metopic suture is prematurely fused; the metopic suture is situated in the medial line of the forehead. Premature fusion of this suture causes the forehead to become pointed, giving the head a triangular shape when viewed from above; the incidence of trigonocephaly is 1 - 1.9 per 10 000 births in the Netherlands. In plagiocephaly one of the coronal sutures is prematurely fused; the coronal sutures run over the top of the head, just in front of the ears. The shape of this deformity is an asymmetrical distortion as you can see in figure 2.

The incidence is 1 in 10 000 births. In brachycephaly both of the coronal sutures are prematurely fused; the shape of this deformity is a high head. The incidence at birth is 1/20 000. Craniofacial surgery and follow-up care are conducted by a multidisclinary team of doctors, surgeons and various therapists; as of 2016, there is a new multidisciplinary care team of Neuroplastic Surgeons working with Neurosurgeons to prevent and/or correct neurosurgical-related deformities and to maximize outcomes in adult patients. Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroplastic_surgery In cases where the forehead is involved, a technique called fronto-supraorbital advancement is used to correct the shape of the head. The procedure is performed at a young age in order to provide the brain with enough space to grow and prevent further abnormal growth of the skull. Fronto-orbital advancement means moving the front of the skull including the eye sockets forward. A section of the skull, ranging from the coronal sutures to the eye sockets is cut loose in order to correct the shape of the skull.

The incision is cut in a zigzag shape from ear to ear so that the hair will cover the scar and make it less visible. The incision is made to the bone only; the top half of the eye sockets is cut loose. Once the eye socket section has been cut loose, a vertical incision is made in the midline, the whole section of the eye socket is bent outwards in order to correct the pointed shape of the forehead; because the section is now too wide, a wedge needs to be cut on either side to allow the section to fit into the skull. Figure 4 shows the sections that are loosened and adjusted, figure 3 shows the location of the vertical incision and the two wedges. In scaphocephaly the sagittal suture is prematurely fused, preventing the skull from growing perpendicular to the suture, thus the head becomes narrow and long. If a scaphocephaly is diagnosed within 4 to 5 months after birth, it can be corrected with a simple procedure whereby the sagittal suture is surgically reopened. Once the suture has been opened the bone segments will be able to grow again and the head can regain its normal shape.

This operation is only performed on patients youn