Fița Lovin is a retired middle-distance runner from Romania. She competed at the 1980 and 1984 Olympics and won the bronze medal in 800 metres in 1984, she won the European 1500 m indoor title in 1984 and a silver medal at the 1982 IAAF World Cross Country Championships, placing fourth in 1985
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
The 1500 metres or 1,500-metre run is the foremost middle distance track event in athletics. The distance has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 and the World Championships in Athletics since 1983, it is equivalent to 1.5 kilometers or 15⁄16 miles. The demands of the race are similar to that of the 800 metres, but with a higher emphasis on aerobic endurance and a lower sprint speed requirement; the 1500 metre race is predominantly aerobic, but anaerobic conditioning is required. Each lap run during the world-record race run by Hicham El Guerrouj of Morocco in 1998 in Rome, Italy averaged just under 55 seconds. 1,500 metres is three-quarter laps around a 400-metre track. During the 1970s and 1980s this race was dominated by British runners, along with an occasional Finn, American, or New Zealander, but through the 1990s a large number of African runners began to take over in being the masters of this race, with runners from Kenya and Algeria winning the Olympic gold medals. In the Modern Olympic Games, the men's 1,500-metre race has been contested from the beginning, at every Olympic Games since.
The first winner, in 1896, was Edwin Flack of Australia, who won the first gold medal in the 800-metre race. The women's 1,500-metre race was first added to the Summer Olympics in 1972, the winner of the first gold medal was Lyudmila Bragina of the Soviet Union. During the Olympic Games of 1972 through 2008, the women's 1,500-metre race has been won by three Soviets plus one Russian, one Italian, one Romanian, one Briton, one Kenyan, two Algerians; the 2012 Olympic results are still undecided as a result of multiple doping cases. The best women's times for the race were controversially set by Chinese runners, all set in the same race on just two dates 4 years apart at the Chinese National Games. At least one of those top Chinese athletes has admitted to being part of a doping program; the women's record was surpassed by Genzebe Dibaba of Ethiopia in 2015. In American high schools, the mile run and the 1,600-metre run colloquially referred to as "metric mile", are more run than the 1,500-metre run, since US customary units are better-known in America.
Which distance is used depends on which state the high school is in, for convenience, national rankings are standardized by converting all 1,600-metre run times to their mile run equivalents. Many 1500 metres events at the championship level, turn into slow, strategic races, with the pace quickening and competitors jockeying for position in the final lap to settle the race in a final sprint; such is the difficulty of maintaining the pace throughout the duration of the event, most records are set in planned races led by pacemakers who sacrifice their opportunity to win by leading the early laps at a fast pace before dropping out. "The person who wins the race is behind watching" Correct as of September 2018. Below is a list of other times superior to 3:28.00: Hicham El Guerrouj ran 3:26.12, 3:26.89, 3:27.21, 3:27.64, 3:27.65. Bernard Lagat ran 3:27.40, 3:27.91. Asbel Kiprop ran 3:27.72. Correct as of September 2018. Below is a list of other times superior to 3:55.50: Genzebe Dibaba ran 3:54.11, 3:55.17i.
Tatyana Kazankina ran 3:55.0. Lixin Lan ran 3:55.01. Yunxia Qu ran 3:55.38. Zhang Ling ran 3:55.47. The following athlete had their performance annulled due to a doping violation: Mariem Selsouli 3:56.15 A Known as the World Indoor Games "i" indicates performance on 200m indoor track 1,500 metres is an event in swimming and speed skating. The world records for the distance in swimming for men are 14:31.02 by Sun Yang, 14:08.06 by Gregorio Paltrinieri. The world records for the distance in speed skating are 1:41.04 by Shani Davis and 1:50.85 by Heather Richardson-Bergsma. IAAF list of 1500-metres records in XML Statistics
Laura Muir is a Scottish middle-distance runner. She specialises in the 1500m, 3000m and 5000m, she is the 2018 European champion in the 1500 metres, a two-time 2017 European Indoor champion, winning the 1500m/3000m double, a feat repeated in 2019, a two-time 2018 World Indoor Championship medallist, with silver at 1500m and bronze at 3000m. Muir is a 2 time Diamond League champion in 1500 metres, winning in 2016 on the original points format, again in 2018 when she won the Diamond League Final in the new championship format. Muir first broke the British record in the 1500m at the London Diamond League in July 2016, before improving it to 3:55.22 a month at the Paris Diamond League. She went on to break the European indoor records at both 1000m and 3000m in 2017. In the 1500 metres, she finished fifth at the 2015 World Championships, seventh at the 2016 Olympic Games, fourth at the 2017 World Championships, her other best times include 4:18.03 for the Mile run, which ranks her in the world all-time top 20.
Born in Inverness, Muir made her international debut in the 2011 European Cross-Country Championships, when she was part of the Great Britain junior women's team that won gold. At the end of the year, she was a nominee in the Daily Record Young Athlete of the Year awards. At the 2013 World Championships in Athletics Muir represented Great Britain in the 800 metres, she reached the semi-finals with a personal best time of 2:00.83. At the 2014 Diamond League event in Paris, she ran 4:00.07 in the 1500 metres, to break Yvonne Murray's 27-year-old Scottish record. At the 2016 Diamond League event at the Olympic Park in London 22 July she ran 3:57.49 for 1500 metres to break Kelly Holmes' British record. On 27 August 2016, at the Paris Diamond League meet, she lowered her Personal Best and the National 1500m record to 3:55.22 Her time made her the fastest woman in the world over 1500m for the year. In 2016, she became only the third British woman to win a Diamond League title as she won the 1500m title in Zurich.
Muir broke the British 1000m record held by Kelly Holmes at the Birmingham indoor Grand Prix with a time of 2:31.93 on 18 February 2017. She broke the British Indoor 5000m record on the 4th of January in a time of 14.49.12 At the 2017 European Athletics Indoor Championships in Belgrade, Muir took gold in the 1500 metres, breaking Doina Melinte's 32-year old championship record along the way, followed it up by taking a second title in the 3000 metres with another championship record the next day. Muir finished fourth in the sixth in the 5000m at the 2017 World Championships in London. Following the championships, she announced that she would miss the 2018 Commonwealth Games in April in order to focus on her veterinary medicine exams, she did compete in March 2018 at the World Indoor Championships in Birmingham, where she won a bronze medal in the 3000m, followed by a silver medal in the 1500m two days later. In August, she won the 1500 metres title at the 2018 European Championships in Berlin, the first British woman to win the European 1500m title.
She followed this breakthrough by winning her second Diamond League title over 1500 metres, her second, but her first since the move to a championship format. At the 2019 European Athletics Indoor Championships Muir took gold in the 3000 metres, with another championship record, the 1500 metres, repeating her acheivements in 2017. Muir attended Kinross High School, the same school as 400m hurdler Eilidh Doyle along with her brother Rory, two years younger than her, she studied veterinary medicine at the University of Glasgow where one of her lecturers was veterinary pathologist, distance runner and teammate at the 2014 Commonwealth Games, Hayley Haining. Won the 2016 Diamond League 1500 metres title Laura Muir at IAAF
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
Tamara Pangelova is a retired Ukrainian middle-distance runner who specialized in the 1500 m event. She won a bronze medal at the 1971 European Championships and set a world record on 12 March 1972, both indoors, she won a gold medal at the 1972 European indoor championships in Grenoble. In 1972 she placed seventh at the Munich Olympics
Agnese Possamai is a retired middle-distance runner from Italy. Her greatest achievements were the 1985 World Indoor silver medal as well as three European Indoor gold medals, she won eleven medals at senior level at the international athletics competitions. Her personal best times are 4:08.84 and 8:37.96. She has 60 caps in national team from 1977 to 1988. Agnese Possamai has won 24 times the individual national championship. Italian Athletics Championships 800 metres: 1978, 1979 3000 metres: 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1987 1500 metres indoor: 1979, 1980, 1981, 1984, 1986 3000 metres indoor: 1982, 1983, 1984 cross country running: 1978, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1986 Italian Mountain Running Championships Mountain running: 1980, 1981 Italy national athletics team - Multiple medalists Italian Athletics Championships - Women multi winners Italy national athletics team - Women's more caps Italian all-time top lists - 800 m Italian all-time top lists - 1500 m Agnese Possamai at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Agnese Possamai at IAAF