Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Ny Carlsberg Brewhouse
The Ny Carlsberg Brewhouse is a historic, listed building in the Carlsberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark, on the border between Vesterbro and Valby. The Ny Carlsberg Brewhouse was built by Carl Jacobsen as the new brewhouse of his Ny Carlsberg Brewery which he had founded after a conflict with his father, Carlsberg-founder J. C. It was designed by Vilhelm Klein and completed in 1901, replacing a smaller still to be seen on the opposite side of the road. The new brewhouse complex included a storage house to the east. In 1920 the brewhouse complex was extended northward by Carl Harild, when the facilities became outdated, the buildings were put to other use. In 2006, Carlsberg decided to close the Valby brewery and instead redevelop the area, in 2008, the year beer production on the site was discontinued, the brewhouse became a listed building. In early 2011 it was stripped of its inventory and most of its furnishings to prepare it for other use, the Ny Carlsberg Brewhouse is built in the Historicist style which characterizes the rest of the Carlsberg area.
The main source of inspiration comes from Italian Renaissance architecture, the buildings facade with its balcony is inspired by Palazzo Bevilacqua in Verona. On the roof stands Carl Johan Bonnesens large group sculpture Thors battle against the Jötunns, the group of figures was originally a competition proposal for a monument at Langelinie which was won by Anders Bundgaards Gefion Fountain. Carl Jacobsen subsequently asked Bonnesen to produce a copy for his new brewhouse
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Meatpacking District, Copenhagen
The Meatpacking District is a district of Vesterbro in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is situated between the lines going into Copenhagen Central Station and the street Sønder Boulevard. The modern English-language name Meatpacking District is taken from the Meatpacking District in New York, the district consists of three separate areas, referred to as the White and Brown Kødby for the dominant colour of their buildings. The brown part is the oldest area, closest to the Central Station and it has since c.2000 been changed into a new creative cluster with galleries, art cafés, nightlife and small creative businesses like studios and architecture firms in the historical buildings. It is home to DGI-byen, a sports and conference complex, the newer white area is a 400 ×600 m enclave of white modernistic structures, built in 1934 to the design of city architect Poul Holsøe. A municipal master plan aims at creating an area, encouraging cultural, design. In 1671 a cattle market was established at the initiative of Court Butcher Niels Olufsen at the border of Frederiksberg.
Called Trommesalen because it was opened to the sound of a drum in the morning, in 1878, due to shortage of space and fear of cholera epidemics, the City decided to construct a new cattle market. A municipal committee suggested a location at Kalvebod Beach, which at the time was situated where the square Halmtorvet is today, the site was located on the grounds of a large estate which the city had acquired from the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society in 1870. The new cattle market was constructed partly on an area occupied by shooting ranges. The new market opened on 28 November 1879, planned and designed by architect Hans Jørgen Holm, the market, stretching from Halmtorvet to the gasworks harbour, was dissected by a broad internal road lined with cattle stables, sheep pens and dealers offices on both sides. In 1883, three slaughterhouse for cattle were constructed and a slaughterhouse for pigs and two slaughterhouses for cattle and lambs were added, the market area housed cooling houses and various rendering businesses like tallow melting houses and blood dryers producing blood meal.
Mandatory meat control was introduced, requiring all fresh meat coming into the city to be inspected and stamped. In 1901, the market was extended with construction of Øksnehallen. It housed dealers offices and had a capacity for 1600 head of cattle, the extension included new pens for cattle and sheep and was built by city architect L. P. Fenger. With no vacant space at the market area, the new market hall was placed on reclaimed land where the Falck Headquarters is today. On April 15,1910, the a new complex was inaugurated, besides a 6,500 m² market hall, it included a cooling house and administration. From that date all trade in pork at Gammeltorv was prohibited
Det Ny Teater
Det Ny Teater is an established theatre in Copenhagen, first opened in 1908. It is based in a building which spans a passage between Vesterbrogade and Gammel Kongevej in Copenhagens theatre district on the border between Vesterbro and Frederiksberg, with more than 12,000 m2 it is one of Denmarks largest theaters. It has two stages, the auditorium which seats more than 1,000 and Sceneriet, a smaller theatre established in the cellar in 1994. In March 1907, Bona commissioned the architect Lorenz Gudme to draw up a project and he had previously worked for Ove Petersen, who was responsible for both the Royal Theatre, in collaboration with Vilhelm Dahlerup, and the Dagmar Theatre. His proposal was accepted and the fundaments were laid on 14 August 1907, shortly after construction start, a disagreement occurred between Bona and Gudme who was ultimately fired from the project which was instead completed by Ludvig Andersen. When the theatre was inaugurated on 19 September 1908 it was the second largest theatre in the country, DKK1,200,000 and DKK600,000 for the site.
Lindstrøm himself left the theatre after just three years due to an insignificant debts, the director from 1944 to 1966 was Peer Gregaard and he dramatically changed the repertoire from with a combination of classics and contemporary Danish and European drama. During this era, Det Ny Teater came to challenge the Royal Danish Theatre as the theatrical stage in Denmark. Im the 1960s it became evident that it was difficult to operate theatres without subsidies, in 1991, when the theatre, by in a poor state of neglect, lost its support, it had to close indefinitely. The owners succeeded in raising funds for a thorough renovation, bent Mejding was the driving force behind the restoration of the theater, which he and Niels-Bo Valbro reopened as a venue for operetta and musicals with a production of Die Fledermaus in 1994. Since the theatre has produced a number of productions, the most successful of which and audience-wise, has been Phantom of the Opera. The theatre building spans a passage between Vesterbrogade and Gammel Kongevej and has a front on both sides.
The complex includes the surrounding buildings, the theatre was the first in Denmark to feature a revolving stage. Other state-of-the-art features were an advanced system in case of fire on stage. For the audience there were comfortable family boxes, an elegant marble staircase, the renovation in 1994 received the Europa Nostra award from the European Union. Since the renovation, the theatre has two stages, the large auditorium seats app.1,000 while the small one, built in the cellar in connection with the 1994 renovation, seats an audience of 250 to 300. The main repertoire is still musicals, the theatre plays host to a variety of other events and is available on hire
Valby is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is in the corner of Copenhagen Municipality, and has a mixture of different types of housing. Valby Hill marks the boundary between Valby and the — more central and more urban — neighbouring Vesterbro district, the expression west of Valby Hill is in Danish often used as a metonym for the provinces or outside Copenhagen. With the progressing redevelopment of the Carlsberg area into a new lively, high-density neighbourhood, other former industrial sites are under redevelopment and Valby is today one of the districts in Copenhagen with the fastest growing population. Valby covers an area of 9.23 km² and has a population of 46,161, the most distinctive geographical features of the district are Valby Hill in its north-eastern corner and Harrestrup Å which marks its western boundary. Valby borders on Damhus Lake in its extreme north-western corner, the Danshøj tumulus, along with many other archeological finds in the area, provides evidence that the Valby area has been inhabited since ancient times.
Modern Valby has developed around the two villages of Valby and Vigerslev, the first recorded mention of the name Valby is from 1186, as Walbu, but the history of both settlements probably goes back considerably longer. Valby means village/house on the plain, in the early Middle Ages both villages came under Utterslev, a Crown estate which included most of the area around Havn, the small market town which became Copenhagen. In 1682, Valby had 13 farms and 25 houses with no more land than a modest garden, at the time, the Valby community did not have its own church but instead, since 1628, belonged to Hvidovre Parish. In 1675, Hvidovre Church was extended with a Valby nave, in the 17th century, the road to Roskilde was taken through Valby and an inn opened. The first holder of the license was Hans Pedersen Bladt, a merchant who was elected mayor of Copenhagen in 1675. Valby profited from the proximity of Frederiksberg Palace which was constructed from 1699 to 1703 atop Valby Hill as a new residence for King Frederick IV.
The royal presence in the area brought along more activity in the village and it is said that Queen Marie Sophie, consort of King Frederick VI, often rode through Valby, handing out candy to the children. In 1721, the granted the community new trading privileges and a Rytterskole. Valby became particularly associated with raising poultry which the Valby women sold beside the Caritas Well on Gammeltorv in Copenhagen, the trade took place on Wednesdays and Saturdays, which were market days, until 1857. Instead Valby began to develop into an area where members of the bourgeoisie took up summer residency, one of the first to arrive in Valby proper was the actor James Price who spent his first summer there in 1795, shortly after his arrival in Denmark. He was followed by members of the bourgeoisie. When the first railway out of Copenhagen opened in 1847, a 30 km rail line to Roskilde, it had an intermediate station slightly east of where Valby station lies today
Piazza della Minerva
Piazza della Minerva is a piazza in Rome, near the Pantheon. Its name derives from the existence of a built on the site by Pompey dedicated to Minerva Calcidica. Facing this piazza are, the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, centre of the square, a convent of the Dominicans, who held the nearby church from the 13th century. This expanded over time to Via del Seminario and to the church of San Macuto, from the 17th century, the convent became the base of the Roman Inquisition or Holy Office, and it housed the trial and recantation of Galileo Galilei. The cloister now holds the library of the Italian Senate, dedicated to Giovanni Spadolini, at the centre of the piazza, backing onto the Inquisition convent, is the 1667 Elephant and Obelisk by Bernini. This obelisk was excavated in the cloister and came from the Iseum, the elephant was known as il pulcin della Minerva, or porcino, from the Roman peoples story that - uninspired by elephants - Bernini in fact sculpted a pig. Opposite the church is the Palazzo dellaccademia ecclesiastica, 14th century in origin and it is an academy that trains the diplomats of Vatican City
Enghave Plads is a central public square of the Vesterbro district in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located where Istedgade reaches Enghavevej, which separates the square from Enghave Park, Enghave Plads School opened on the square in 1892. Completed in 1900, Christ Church was the church to be built in the rapidly growing Vesterbro neighbourhood. A fountain, Boy with fiasco, designed by Jens Lund, was installed in the centre of the square in 1903, for many years, the square played host to an annual fun fair. The tram line was extended to Frederiksholm in 1915 and again from Frederiksholm to Mozarts Plads in 1937, the area on the other side of Enghavevej remained open land. The Royal Danish Horticultural Society established 478 allotments at the, the square was renovated and pedestrianized in 1995. The 114-year-old chestnut tree, which for decades had dominated the square, was removed in October 2011 to make way for the construction of Enghave Station, after a merger with Mathæusgade School in 2008, Enghave Plads School is now part of Tove Ditlevsens School.
Both buildings were designed by city architect Ludvig Fenger, Christ Church was designed by Valdemar Koch in an Italian style. He designed the two buildings that flank it on both sides. The buildings on the side of the square are from 1898 and were designed by Christian Mandrup-Poulsen. Jens Christian Kofoed contributed to the buildings around the square, a cluster of low buildings that were formerly used by the tram workers have been converted into a kindergarten
Halmtorvet is a public square in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located next to Copenhagen Central Station in front of the Meat District, the oblong square eventually turns into Sønder Boulevard, a broad street with a park strip in its central reserve, which continues to Enghavevej at Enghave station. Copenhagens haymarket was located just inside the Western City Gate where the City Hall Square lies today. It closed on 1 January 1888 and relocated to the area outside the new Livestock Market which had opened at the site in 1879. Market days were Wednesday and Saturday and up to several hundred loads of hay and straw were traded and distributed to cattle and horse stables around the city. Up through the 20th century, with improved infrastructure, livestock moved out of the city and horses lost their role in transportation, the area fell into despair and became associated with prostitution and drug dealing. The site was dominated by through traffic and goods transport. The area underwent gradual gentrification up through the 1990s and Halmtorvet was thoroughly refurbished from 1999 to 2003 as part of a programme for urban renewal in the Vesterbro area.
The first stage was designed by the office of the City Architect, the second and third stages were designed by the Park Office of the City and carried out in 2003. In order to obtain a coherent space in the area a large gas regulator in front of the Brown Meat District was removed, the square has an oblong shape. To make the more attractive to urban life, the new layout introduced one-way traffic which is taken along a single lane on the south side of the square. A roundabout on the corner of the Brown Meat District, distributes traffic south and north of the Central Station, in the centre of the square, in front of Øksnehallen, there is an oval pool surrounded by large open spaces and playgrounds. Other areas have elevated lawns and flower beds with terraced sides, other elements in the refurbishment include new paving and items of street furniture. The north side of the square is lined with buildings from the 1890s. Built in 1961, Borgenhus, at No,20, is the only building in Inner Vesterbro under City Plan West, a municipal plan from 1958 for condemnations and urban renewal in the area.
The south side of the square, from the roundabout up to the beginning of Sønder Boulevard, the section closest to the Central Station is known as the Brown Meat District. It is the part and generally dates from about 1900. Part of the Brown Meat District, Øksnehallen at No,11, a former market building, now serves as an exhibition venue which houses a broad variety of events and flea markets
A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation, a feature that stands out from its near environment and is often visible from long distances. In modern use, the term can be applied to structures or features. In old English the word landmearc was used to describe a set up to mark the boundaries of a kingdom, estate. 1560, this understanding of landmark was replaced by a general one. A landmark became an object in a landscape. A landmark literally meant a geographic feature used by explorers and others to find their way back or through an area. For example, the Table Mountain near Cape Town, South Africa is used as the landmark to sailors to navigate around southern tip of Africa during the Age of Exploration. Artificial structures are sometimes built to assist sailors in naval navigation. The Lighthouse of Alexandria and Colossus of Rhodes are ancient structures built to lead ships to the port, in modern usage, a landmark includes anything that is easily recognizable, such as a monument, building, or other structure.
In American English it is the term used to designate places that might be of interest to tourists due to notable physical features or historical significance. Landmarks in the British English sense are often used for casual navigation and this is done in American English as well. In urban studies as well as in geography, a landmark is furthermore defined as a point of reference that helps orienting in a familiar or unfamiliar environment. Landmarks are often used in verbal route instructions and as such an object of study by linguists as well as in fields of study. Landmarks are usually classified as either natural landmarks or man-made landmarks, a variant is a seamark or daymark, a structure usually built intentionally to aid sailors navigating featureless coasts. Natural landmarks can be characteristic features, such as mountains or plateaus, examples of natural landmarks are Table Mountain in South Africa, Mount Ararat in Turkey, Uluru in Australia, Mount Fuji in Japan and Grand Canyon in the United States.
Trees might serve as landmarks, such as jubilee oaks or conifers. Some landmark trees may be nicknamed, examples being Queens Oak, church spires and mosques minarets are often very tall and visible from many miles around, thus often serve as built landmarks. Also town hall towers and belfries often have a landmark character, cultural heritage management National landmark National symbol Media related to Landmarks at Wikimedia Commons
Kalvebod Brygge is a waterfront area in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The name refers to a section of the Ring 2 ring road follows the waterfront from Langebro in the north to the H. C. Ørsted Power Station in the south, the area is dominated by office buildings, Tivoli Conference Center, several hotels and the shopping centre Fisketorvet. The northern part of the road, northeast of Bernstoffsgade, belongs to the Indre By district and it is bounded to the north by the small Rysensteen Quarter where the Copenhagen Police Headquarters is located. Both Kalvebod Brygge and the terrain, which separates the area from the rest of Vesterbro, are located on reclaimed land. The coast south of Copenhagen was formerly known as Kalvebod Beach, the first land reclamations took place as early as 1755 when the area just outside the West Ramparts Rysensten Bastion was used for establishment of lumberyards. A little further to the south, Copenhagens first gasworks, known as Vestre Gasværk, the railway was constructed on reclaimed land between 1897 and 1901. A new goods station was built on the grounds.
It was designed by DSBs head architect Heinrich Wenck and opened in 1901 and it was replaced by a modern goods station designed by Ole Hagen in 1968. The new railway obstructed the Western Gasworks access to the harbor, the Danish State Railways therefore agreed to building a new Gasworks Harbour on the east side of the railway as part of the project. The waterfront was redeveloped in the late 1990s, beginning from the north, the buildings along the quay are Nykredits Head Office, Copenhagen Marriott Hotel, The Engineers House and the Fisketorvet shopping centre. The Havneholmen mixed-use development was built on reclaimed land in front of Fisketorvet. In 2011, Nykredit expanded their headquarters with a new building, The Crystal, a new plaza was created in front of the building. The Kalvebod Wave was designed by JDS Architects and Klar and inaugurated in 2013 and it consists of an undulating wooden boardwalk which creates various new spaces for sitting and water-related activities. A masterplan competition for the part of the railway terrain along Kalvebod Brygge was won by Lundgaard & Tranberg.
The plan involves a greenway which will connect the area around Copenhagen Central Station to the South Harbour. Lundgaard & Tranberg has designed two buildings for SEB Bank & Pension, which, on the corner of Bernstoffsgade and Kalvebod Brygge, the surrounding landscape is designed by Stig L. Anderson. The greenway continues across the roof of the goods station