Eleusis is a town and municipality in West Attica Regional unit in Greece. It is situated about 18 kilometres northwest from the centre of Athens and is part of its Metropolitan area, it is located at the northernmost end of the Saronic Gulf. North of Eleusis are Magoula, while Aspropyrgos is to the northeast, it is the birthplace of Aeschylus. Today, Eleusis is a major industrial centre, with the largest oil refinery in Greece as well as the home of the Aeschylia Festival, the longest-lived arts event in the Attica Region. On 11 November 2016 Eleusis was named the European Capital of Culture for 2021; the word Eleusis first appears at the Orphic hymn «Δήμητρος Ελευσινίας, θυμίαμα στύρακα». Hesychius of Alexandria reports that the older name for Eleusis was Saesara. Saesara was the mythic daughter of Celeus and granddaughter of Eleusinus, the first settler of Eleusis; the municipality Elefsina was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following two former municipalities, that became municipal units: Elefsina MagoulaThe municipality has an area of 36.589 km2, the municipal unit 18.455 km2.
Eleusis was a deme of ancient Attica, belonging to the phyle Hippothoöntis. It owed its celebrity to its being the chief seat of the worship of Demeter and Persephone, to the mysteries celebrated in honour of these goddesses, which were called the Eleusinia, continued to be regarded as the most sacred of all the Grecian mysteries down to the fall of paganism. Eleusis stood upon a height at a short distance from the sea, opposite the island of Salamis, its situation possessed three natural advantages. It was on the road from Athens to the Isthmus of Corinth; the town itself dates from the most ancient times. It appears to have derived its name from the supposed advent of Demeter, though some traced its name from an eponymous hero Eleusis, it was one of the 12 independent states into which Attica was said to have been divided. It was related that in the reign of Eumolpus, king of Eleusis, Erechtheus, king of Athens, there was a war between the two states, in which the Eleusinians were defeated, whereupon they agreed to acknowledge the supremacy of Athens in every thing except the celebration of the mysteries, of which they were to continue to have the management.
Eleusis afterwards became an Attic deme, but in consequence of its sacred character it was allowed to retain the title of polis and to coin its own money, a privilege possessed by no other town in Attica, except Athens. The history of Eleusis is part of the history of Athens. Once a year the great Eleusinian procession travelled from Athens along the Sacred Way. Eleusis was the site of the Eleusinian Mysteries, or the Mysteries of Demeter and Kore, which became popular in the Greek speaking world as early as 600 BC, attracted initiates during Roman Empire before declining mid-late 4th century AD; these Mysteries revolved around a belief that there was a hope for life after death for those who were initiated. Such a belief was cultivated from the introduction ceremony in which the hopeful initiates were shown a number of things including the seed of life in a stalk of grain; the central myth of the Mysteries was Demeter's quest for her lost daughter, abducted by Hades. It was here that Demeter, disguised as an old lady, abducted by pirates in Crete, came to an old well where the four daughters of the local king Keleos and his queen Metaneira found her and took her to their palace to nurse the son of Keleos and Metaneira, Demophoon.
Demeter raised Demophoon, anointing him with nectar and ambrosia, until Metaneira found out and insulted her. Demeter arose insulted, casting off her disguise, and, in all her glory, instructed Meteneira to build a temple to her. Keleos, informed the next morning by Metaneira, ordered the citizens to build a rich shrine to Demeter, where she sat in her temple until the lot of the world prayed to Zeus to make the world provide food again. During the Greco-Persian Wars, the ancient temple of Demeter at Eleusis was burnt by the Persians in 484 BC; when the power of the Thirty Tyrants was overthrown after the Peloponnesian War, they retired to Eleusis, which they had secured beforehand, but where they maintained themselves for only a short time. Under the Romans Eleusis enjoyed great prosperity, as initiation into its mysteries became fashionable among the Roman nobles, it was destroyed by Alaric I in 396 CE, from that time disappears from history. Pausanias has left us only a brief description of Eleusis.
They say that the Rharian plain was the first place in which corn was sown and first produced a harvest, that hence barley from this plain is employed for making sacrificial cakes. There the so-called threshing-floor and altar of Triptolemus are shown; the things within the wall of the Hierum a dream forbade me to describe. The Rharian plain is mentioned in the Homeric Hymn to Artemis; the temple of De
Kishwaukee River State Fish and Wildlife Area is an Illinois state park on 570 acres in DeKalb County, United States. The land for the Kishwaukee River State Fish and Wildlife Area was acquired by the state of Illinois in 2002; that year, the state purchased 570 acres of land along the South Branch Kishwaukee River in DeKalb County. While the state acquired the 570-acre parcel south of the riverbank, DeKalb County was working on acquiring 300 acres north of the river; the state purchase was facilitated by US$2.68 million from the Illinois Open Land Trust. Kishwaukee River State Fish and Wildlife Area is located along the south bank of the South Branch Kishwaukee River just west of Kirkland, in DeKalb County, Illinois; the state property is located adjacent to the DeKalb County Forest Preserve's MacQueen Forest Preserve. The county completed the purchase of the land on the north bank, across from the Fish and Wildlife Area, designated it the Potawatomi Woods Forest Preserve. Between state and local land acquisitions more than 900 acres abutting 3.2 miles of the river are publicly owned.
Kishwaukee River North Branch Kishwaukee River Specific General "Kishwaukee River State Fish and Wildlife Area". Illinois Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original on 2007-06-16. Retrieved 2007-05-25. USGS. "USGS Kirkland Quad". TopoQuest. Retrieved 2008-07-05
Oi known as Telemar, is the largest fixed telephone operator and the fourth mobile telephone operator in Brazil, being the third largest telecommunication company in Latin America. It is headquartered in Rio de Janeiro. Oi's major subsidiaries include Brasil Telecom. In 2013, Oi announced its merger with Portugal Telecom, the largest telecommunication company in Portugal, in order to strengthen the Brazilian firm and simplify its ownership structure. In June 2015 Portugal Telecom was acquired by Altice Group. On June 20, 2016, Oi filed for a US$19 billion bankruptcy protection, the largest on record for Brazil. In March 2017, Oi had 63 million revenue generating units, including 40 million for personal mobile service, 16.3 million for landline, 6.5 million for B2B. Nowadays, it has 2 million hotspots to Oi WIFI network around Brazil. In March 2019, Oi reported a fourth-quarter net loss of 3.359 billion reais, widening 66 percent from its year-earlier loss. Total revenue fell 7.9 percent. Oi's chief executive officer is Eurico Teles, who serves as the company's chief financial officer and director of investor relations.
Oi was formed as Tele Norte Leste to merge sixteen state-owned incumbent local exchange carriers, during the privatization of Brazilian telecommunications system. Each carrier served a particular Brazilian state in the northern and southeastern part of the country. In the break-up of Telebras in 1998 it was sold to a consortium led by the Brazilian construction firm Andrade Gutierrez and Inepar Holdings as well as other Brazilian corporate and individual investors; the consortium paid 3.434 billion reais. The states that formed the base of Telemar at its inception were Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Sergipe, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte, Piauí, Ceará, Maranhão, Pará, Amapá and Roraima, corresponding to 65% of the Brazilian territory and 20 million households. Telemar was allowed to offer only local voice and data services and interstate long distance voice services. Today and its subsidiaries offer local, long distance and international voice and data services, besides a growing mobile phone network.
In April 2006, it was announced that Telemar would restructure itself, merging its three holding companies into a single company, that would have been named either Telemar Participações S. A. or Oi Participações S. A. However, those plans failed, but on March 1, 2007, Telemar rebranded itself to "Oi", unifying all of its companies and services under the Oi umbrella. The company is still known as "Telemar Norte Leste S. A.", "Tele Norte Leste Participações S. A." and "Telemar Participações S. A.". Oi owns the brands: Oi Fixo Oi Móvel Oi Velox Oi Internet 31 Oi Wi-Fi Oi TV Oi Voip In 2010, Portugal Telecom acquired 22.4% of Oi shares. In February 2014, Oi announced it would raise $5.9 billion in a share offering as part of the firm's merger process with Portugal Telecom. Oi launched its mobile network in 2002 in its license states, it was the first network using GSM in Brazil. Oi has the practice of not calling its phones "cell phones", but rather "Ois". In 2007, Oi started focusing on SIM card and plan sales.
In October 2007, Oi acquired a license to operate with GSM in São Paulo, where the network went live on October 24, 2008. In December 2007, Oi purchased licenses to operate a 3G network in its area, including São Paulo, but with the exception of the Franca area; that network is expected to go live in 2009. In December 2007, Oi announced its purchase of Amazônia Celular, a condition of the sale of its sister company, Telemig Celular, to Vivo. Oi Internet is an ISP, launched in 2004. Oi Internet started services with a promotion that offered 31% off the dial-up connection costs on the subscriber's bill. However, the Brazilian telecom regulator, did not allow this practice; the ISP relaunched the promotion, offering 31% of the dial-up connection costs deposited in the subscriber's bank account or twice of that on a prepaid Oi phone. The Oi Internet dial-up dialer can send SMS messages to Oi phones. In early 2005, Oi Internet launched its broadband services available only for Oi's Oi Velox DSL subscribers, but now available for Brasil Telecom Turbo and Telefónica Speedy subscribers.
In 2008, Oi announced it would purchase Brasil Telecom, creating a major Brazilian telecommunications company nicknamed "Supertele" or "SuperOi". That takeover required changes in legislation, which at the time prohibited a fixed telephone company from purchasing another fixed telephone company in a different license area; that legislation has changed since, Oi completed its purchase of Brasil Telecom on January 9, 2009. Rollout of the Oi brand in the Brasil Telecom area starts with prepaid mobile service on May 17, 2009. Oi has been criticized and fined by Anatel due to not being able to meet quality goals in their mobile phone service. Brazilian Olympic Committee Sandro Dias São Paulo Fashion Week Fashion Rio - Rio Fashion Week 2007 Pan American Games, held in Rio de Janeiro Oi Casa Grande - teatro no Rio de Janeiro Oi FM - online radio station Oi Fashion Rocks Brasil 2009, 2010 X Games Brasil 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil 2002-2013: Simples assim