The Holy Island of Lindisfarne known as Holy Island, is a tidal island off the northeast coast of England, which constitutes the civil parish of Holy Island in Northumberland. Holy Island has a recorded history from the 6th century AD. After the Viking invasions and the Norman conquest of England, a priory was reestablished. A small castle was built on the island in 1550; the island of Lindisfarne appears under the Old Welsh name Medcaut in the 9th century Historia Brittonum. Following up on a suggestion by Richard Coates, Andrew Breeze proposes that the name derives from Latin Medicata, owing to the island's reputation for medicinal herbs. Both the Parker Chronicle and Peterborough Chronicle annals of AD 793 record the Old English name, Lindisfarena; the soubriquet Holy Island was in use by the 11th century. The reference was to Saints Cuthbert; the name Lindisfarne has an uncertain origin. The first part, Lindis-, may refer to people from the Kingdom of Lindsey in modern Lincolnshire, referring to either regular visitors or settlers.
Alternatively the name may be Celtic in origin, with the element Lindis- meaning "stream or pool". It is not known if this is a small lake on the island; the second element, -farne comes from farran, meaning "land", but may come from faran, meaning "traveller". There is a supposition that the nearby Farne Islands are fern like in shape and the name may have come from there; the island measures 3 miles from east to west and 1 1⁄2 miles from north to south, comprises 1,000 acres at high tide. The nearest point of the island is about 1 mile from the mainland of England; the island of Lindisfarne is located along the northeast coast of England, close to the border with Scotland. It is accessible, most times, at low tide by crossing sand and mudflats which are covered with water at high tides; these sand and mud flats carry an ancient pilgrims' path, in more recent times, a modern causeway. Lindisfarne is surrounded by the 8,750-acre Lindisfarne National Nature Reserve, which protects the island's sand dunes and the adjacent intertidal habitats.
As of 27 March 2011, the island had a population of 180. Warning signs urge visitors walking to the island to keep to the marked path, to check tide times and weather and to seek local advice if in doubt. For drivers, tide tables are prominently displayed at both ends of the causeway and where the Holy Island road leaves the A1 Great North Road at Beal; the causeway is open from about three hours after high tide until two hours before the next high tide, but the period of closure may be extended during stormy weather. Tide tables giving the safe crossing periods are published by Northumberland County council. Despite these warnings, about one vehicle each month is stranded on the causeway, requiring rescue by HM Coastguard, Seahouses RNLI lifeboat, or RAF helicopter. A sea rescue costs £1,900, while an air rescue costs more than £4,000. Local people have opposed a causeway barrier on convenience grounds. Trinity House operates two lighthouses to guide vessels entering Holy Island Harbour, named Guile Point East and Heugh Hill.
The former is one of a pair of stone obelisks standing on a small tidal island on the other side of the channel. The obelisks are leading marks; when Heugh Hill bears 310° the bar is cleared and there is a clear run into the harbour. Since the early 1990s, a sector light has been fixed to it about one-third of the way up Guile Point East; the latter is a metal framework tower with a black triangular day mark, situated on a ridge on the south edge of Lindisfarne. Before November 1995 both were owned/operated by Newcastle-upon-Tyne Trinity House. Nearby is a former coastguard station. An adjacent ruin is known as the Lantern Chapel. Not a lighthouse but a daymark for maritime navigation, a white brick pyramid, 35 feet high and built in 1810, stands at Emmanuel Head, the north-eastern point of Lindisfarne, it is said to be Britain's earliest purpose-built daymark. The northeast coast of England was unsettled by Roman civilians apart from the Tyne valley and Hadrian's Wall; the area had been little affected during the centuries of nominal Roman occupation.
The countryside had been subject to raids from both Scots and Picts and was "not one to attract early Germanic settlement". King Ida started the sea-borne settlement of the coast, establishing an urbs regia at Bamburgh across the bay from Lindisfarne; the conquest was not straightforward, however. The Historia Brittonum recounts how, in the 6th century, prince of Rheged, with a coalition of North British kingdoms, besieged Angles led by Theodric of Bernicia at the island for three days and nights, until internal power struggles led to the Britons' defeat; the monastery of Lindisfarne was founded circa 634 by Irish monk Saint Aidan, sent from Iona off the west coast of Scotland to Northumbria at the request of King Oswald. The priory was founded before the end of 634 and Aidan remained there until his death in 651; the priory remained the only seat of a bishopric in Northumbria for nearly thirty ye
Taliesin was an early Brythonic poet of Sub-Roman Britain whose work has survived in a Middle Welsh manuscript, the Book of Taliesin. Taliesin was a renowned bard, believed to have sung at the courts of at least three Brythonic kings. Ifor Williams identified eleven of the medieval poems ascribed to Taliesin as originating as early as the sixth century, so being composed by a historical Taliesin; the bulk of this work praises King Urien of Rheged and his son Owain mab Urien, although several of the poems indicate that he served as the court bard to King Brochfael Ysgithrog of Powys and his successor Cynan Garwyn, either before or during his time at Urien's court. Some of the events to which the poems refer, such as the Battle of Arfderydd, are referred to in other sources. In legend and medieval Welsh poetry, he is referred to as Taliesin Ben Beirdd, he is mentioned as one of the five British poets of renown, along with Talhaearn Tad Awen, Aneirin and Cian Gwenith Gwawd, in the Historia Brittonum, is mentioned in the collection of poems known as Y Gododdin.
Taliesin was regarded in the mid-12th century as the supposed author of a great number of romantic legends. According to legend Taliesin was adopted as a child by Elffin, the son of Gwyddno Garanhir, prophesied the death of Maelgwn Gwynedd from the Yellow Plague. In stories he became a mythic hero, companion of Bran the Blessed and King Arthur, his legendary biography is found in several late renderings, the earliest surviving narrative being found in a manuscript chronicle of world history written by Elis Gruffydd in the 16th century. Details of Taliesin's life are sparse; the first mention of him occurs in the Saxon genealogies appended to four manuscripts of the Historia Brittonum. The writer names five poets, among them Taliesin, who lived in the time of Ida of Bernicia and a British chieftain, utigirn; this information is considered credible, since he is mentioned by Aneirin, another of the five mentioned poets, famed as the author of Y Gododdin, a series of elegies to the men of the kingdom of Gododdin who died fighting the Angles at the Battle of Catraeth around 600.
Taliesin's authorship of several praise-poems to Urien Rheged is accepted, these poems mention The Eden Valley and an enemy leader, identified as Ida or his son Theodric. These poems refer to victories of Urien at the battles of Argoed Llwyfain, The Ford of Clyde and Gwen Ystrad. Taliesin sang in praise of Cynan Garwyn, king of Powys and Cynan's predecessor Brochwel Ysgithrog is mentioned in poems. According to legends that first appear in the Book of Taliesin Taliesin's early patron was Elffin, son of Gwyddno Garanhir, a lord of a lost land in Cardigan Bay, called Cantre'r Gwaelod, Taliesin defended Elffin and satirised his enemy, the powerful Maelgwn Gwynedd, shortly before the latter died. According to the Welsh Triads Taliesin had a son, accounted a great warrior who suffered a violent death in Lothian. Taliesin's own grave is held in folk-lore to be one near the village of Tre Taliesin near Llangynfelyn called Bedd Taliesin, but this is a Bronze Age burial chamber, the village of Tre-Taliesin, located at the foot of the hill, was named after the burial chamber in the 19th century though legend was traced by Edward Lhuyd to the 17th century.
More detailed traditions of Taliesin's biography arose from about the 11th century, in Historia Taliesin. In the mid-16th-century, Elis Gruffydd recorded a legendary account of Taliesin that resembles the story of the boyhood of the Irish hero Fionn mac Cumhail and the salmon of wisdom in some respects; the tale was recorded in a different version by John Jones of Gellilyfdy. This story agrees in many respects with fragmentary accounts in the Book of Taliesin. According to the Hanes Taliesin, he was known as Gwion Bach ap Gwreang, he was a servant of Cerridwen and was made to stir the Cauldron of Inspiration for one year to allow for Cerridwen to complete her potion of inspiration. Upon completion of this potion, three drops landed upon Gwion Bach's thumb. Gwion placed his thumb in his mouth to soothe his burns resulting in Gwion's enlightenment. Out of fear of what Cerridwen would do to him, Gwion fled and transformed into a piece of grain before being consumed by Cerridwen. Gwion was reborn and given the name Taliesin.
According to these texts Taliesin was the foster-son of Elffin ap Gwyddno, who gave him the name Taliesin, meaning "radiant brow", who became a king in Ceredigion, Wales. The legend states that he was raised at his court in Aberdyfi and that at the age of 13, he visited King Maelgwn Gwynedd, Elffin's uncle, prophesied the manner and imminence of Maelgwn's death. A number of medieval poems attributed to Taliesin allude to the legend but these postdate the historical poet's floruit considerably; the idea that he was a bard at the court of King Arthur dates back at least to the tale of Culhwch and Olwen a product of the 11th century. It is elaborated upon in modern English poetry, such as Tennyson's Idylls of the King and Charles Williams's Taliessin Through Logres, but the historical Taliesin's career can be shown to have fallen in the last half of the 6th century, while historians who argue for Arthur's existence date his victory at Mons Badonicus in the years either si
Peredur is the name of a number of men from the boundaries of history and legend in sub-Roman Britain. The Peredur, most familiar to a modern audience is the character who made his entrance as a knight in the Arthurian world of Middle Welsh prose literature. Gwrgi and Peredur are listed as sons of Eliffer "of the great warband" and as scions of the Coeling dynasty in the Harleian genealogies, making them first cousins of Urien. A pedigree from Jesus College MS 20 includes Gwrgi and Peredur as brothers together with one Arthur penuchel, their principal claim to fame rests on their having fought in the Battle of Arfderydd. The Annales Cambriae gives no further detail. A expansion of the entry names Gwrgi and Peredur, both described as sons of Eliffer, as the chieftains on the victorious side and tells that Gwenddoleu ap Ceidio was defeated and slain in the battle. Under the year 580, the Annales Cambriae record the deaths of his brother Peredur; these references give them a place as heroes in the Hen Ogledd of the late 6th century.
Further detail is supplied in legendary traditions, notably those represented by the Welsh Triads. One listing the three "Horse-Burdens" of Britain relates that Gwrgi, Dynod Bwr and Cynfelyn Drwsgl were carried by a horse called Corvan, which enabled them to watch the clouds of dust coming from Gwenddoleu and his forces in the battle of Arfderydd; the circumstances in which Gwrgi and Peredur died are alluded to in a Triad which explains that they had one of "Three Faithless Warbands of the Island of Britain". Their warband abandoned them at Caer Greu on the day before a battle with Eda Glinmaur and so they were slain; the Welsh Triads refer to family relations. One on the "Three Fair Womb-Burdens" of Britain, preserved incompletely in Peniarth MS 47, suggests that Peredur and Gwrgi had a sister called Arddun, while a variant version in Peniarth MS 50 calls the third sibling Ceindrech Pen Asgell and names the mother Efrddyl verch Gynfarch. Peredur is said to have had a son by the name of Gwgon Gwron, called one of the three "Prostrate Chieftains" because "they would not seek a dominion, which nobody could deny to them".
Still further allusions are found in early Welsh poetry. The poem Ymddiddan Myrddin a Thaliesi], which assumes the form of a dialogue between Myrddin Wyllt and the poet Taliesin, deals out praise to the brave "sons of Eliffer", saying that they did not avoid spears in the heat of battle; the apparent context is the battle of Arfderydd, where Myrddin fought as one of Gwenddoleu's warriors, went mad from terror and in this way, acquired the gift of prophecy. For some unknown reason, the poem extends the number of sons to seven. A warrior called Peredur is listed in one of the younger sections of Y Gododdin, which shows him as one of the heroes to have died fighting in battle as a member of the warband of Mynyddog Mwynfawr, chieftain of the Gododdin in "the Old North", it has been argued that Peredur's appearance here may have been due to a tendency in the growth of the poem to draw personages known from such sources as the Annales Cambriae into the orbit of its subject matter, assuming he is the same Peredur.
Geoffrey of Monmouth, the author of the Historia Regum Britanniae, mentions a Peredur in his Vita Merlini, an account of Merlin drawing on narrative traditions about Myrddin Wyllt. In an early episode based on the story of the Battle of Arfderydd, Peredur is joined by his allies Merlin, king of the South Welsh, Rhydderch Hael, king of the Cumbrians, when he engages Gwenddoleu, king of Scotland, in a battle at an unnamed site. Merlin loses three brothers and driven mad from grief, takes refuge in the woods. Peredur is here presented as prince of the North Welsh rather than a ruler in the British North. In his earlier and more famous work, Historia regum Britanniae, Geoffrey of Monmouth used the name Peredurus for a legendary ruler of Britain, the fifth and youngest son born to the legendary Morvidus, king of the Britons, he is said to have conspired with his brother Ingenius to capture and oust their brother Elidurus, locking him up in Trinovantum. When the brothers divided the kingdom between them, Peredur became ruler over the part north of the Humber, including'Albany', following Elidurus' death, succeeded to the entire kingdom.
In the same work, Geoffrey includes one Peredur map Peridur among the leading magnates of the realm who attended King Arthur's plenary Court in the City of the Legion. The Peredur, most familiar to a modern audience is the character of this name who made his entrance as a knight in the Arthurian world of Middle Welsh prose literature; the earliest such Arthurian text and Olwen, does not mention Peredur in any of its extended catalogues of famous and less famous warriors. He is, the protagonist of a Middle Welsh text, Peredur son of Efrawg, one of the Three Welsh Romances associated with the Mabinogion and the Matter of Britain, along with Owain, or the Lady of the Fountain and Geraint and Enid, it is acknowledged that the text is related to Chrétien de Troyes' unfinished Old French poem Perceval, but the nature of this relation has been a topic of lively debate, notably the question if and to what extent the Welsh tale was adapted from Perceval. The earliest four manuscripts in which Peredur is contained are: Aberystwyth, National Library
Kentigern, known as Mungo, was an apostle of the Scottish Kingdom of Strathclyde in the late 6th century, the founder and patron saint of the city of Glasgow. In Wales and England, this saint is known by his birth and baptismal name Kentigern; this name comes from the British *Cuno-tigernos, composed of the elements *cun, a hound, *tigerno, a lord, prince, or king. The evidence is based on the Old Welsh record Conthigirn. Other etymologies have been suggested, including British *Kintu-tigernos'chief prince' based on the English form Kentigern, but the Old Welsh form above and Old English Cundiʒeorn do not appear to support this. In Scotland, he is known by the pet name Mungo derived from the Cumbric equivalent of the Welsh: fy nghu'my dear'.. The Mungo pet name or hypocorism has a Gaelic parallel in the form Mo Choe or Mo Cha, under which guise Kentigern appears in Kirkmahoe, for example, in Dumfriesshire, which appears as'ecclesia Sancti Kentigerni' in the Arbroath Liber in 1321. An ancient church in Bromfield is named after him, as are Crosthwaite Parish Church and some other churches in the northern part of Cumberland.
The Life of Saint Mungo was written by the monastic hagiographer Jocelyn of Furness in about 1185. Jocelin states that he rewrote the ` life' from an Old Irish document. There are two other medieval lives: the earlier partial life in the Cottonian manuscript now in the British Library, the Life, based on Jocelyn, by John of Tynemouth. Mungo's mother Teneu was a princess, the daughter of King Lleuddun who ruled a territory around what is now Lothian in Scotland the kingdom of Gododdin in the Old North, she became pregnant after being raped by Owain mab Urien according to the British Library manuscript. However, other historic accounts claim Owain and Teneu had a love affair whilst he was still married to his wife Penarwen and that her father, King Lot, separated the pair after she became pregnant. After Penarwen died, Tenue/Thaney returned to King Owain and the pair were able to marry before King Owain met his death battling Bernicia in 597 AD, her furious father had her thrown from the heights of Traprain Law.
Surviving, she was abandoned in a coracle in which she drifted across the River Forth to Culross in Fife. There Mungo was born. Mungo was brought up by Saint Serf, ministering to the Picts in that area, it was Serf. At the age of twenty-five, Mungo began his missionary labours on the Clyde, on the site of modern Glasgow, he built his church across the water from an extinct volcano, next to the Molendinar Burn, where the present medieval cathedral now stands. For some thirteen years, he laboured in the district, living a most austere life in a small cell and making many converts by his holy example and his preaching. A strong anti-Christian movement in Strathclyde, headed by a certain King Morken, compelled Mungo to leave the district, he retired to Wales, via Cumbria, staying for a time with Saint David at St David's, afterwards moving on to Gwynedd where he founded a cathedral at Llanelwy. While there, he undertook a pilgrimage to Rome. However, the new King of Strathclyde, Riderch Hael, invited Mungo to return to his kingdom.
He appointed Saint Asaph/Asaff as Bishop of Llanelwy in his place. For some years, Mungo fixed his Episcopal seat at Hoddom in Dumfriesshire, evangelising thence the district of Galloway, he returned to Glasgow where a large community grew up around him. It was nearby, in Kilmacolm, that he was visited by Saint Columba, at that time labouring in Strathtay; the two saints embraced, held long converse, exchanged their pastoral staves. In old age, Mungo became feeble and his chin had to be set in place with a bandage, he is said to have died on Sunday 13 January. In the Life of Saint Mungo, he performed four miracles in Glasgow; the following verse is used to remember Mungo's four miracles: The verses refer to the following: The Bird: Mungo restored life to a robin, killed by some of his classmates. The Tree: Mungo had been left in charge of a fire in Saint Serf's monastery, he fell asleep and the fire went out. Taking a hazel branch, he restarted the fire; the Bell: the bell is thought to have been brought by Mungo from Rome.
It was said to mourn the deceased. The original bell no longer exists, a replacement, created in the 1640s, is now on display in Glasgow; the Fish: refers to the story about Queen Languoreth of Strathclyde, suspected of infidelity by her husband. King Riderch demanded to see her ring. In reality the King had thrown it into the River Clyde. Faced with execution she appealed for help to Mungo, who ordered a messenger to catch a fish in the river. On opening the fish, the ring was miraculously found inside, which allowed the Queen to clear her name. Mungo's ancestry is recorded in the Bonedd y Saint, his father, Owain was a King of Rheged. His maternal grandfather, was a King of the Gododdin. There seems little reason to doubt that Mungo was one of the first evangelists of Strathclyde, under the patronage of King Rhiderch Hael, became the first Bishop of Glasgow. Jocelin seems to have altered parts of the original life; some new parts
Ceredigion is a county in Wales, known prior to 1974 as Cardiganshire. During the second half of the first millennium Ceredigion was a minor kingdom, it has been administered as a county since 1282. Welsh is spoken by more than half the population. Ceredigion is considered to be a centre of Welsh culture; the county is rural with over 50 miles of coastline and a mountainous hinterland. The numerous sandy beaches, together with the long-distance Ceredigion Coast Path provide excellent views of Cardigan Bay. In the 18th and early 19th century, Ceredigion had more industry; the economy became dependent on dairy farming and the rearing of livestock for the English market. During the 20th century, livestock farming became less profitable, the county's population declined as people moved to the more prosperous parts of Wales or emigrated. However, there has been a population increase caused by elderly people moving to the county for retirement, various government initiatives have encouraged tourism and other alternative sources of income.
Ceredigion's population at the 2011 UK census was 75,900. Its largest town, Aberystwyth, is one of the other being Aberaeron. Aberystwyth houses Bronglais Hospital and the National Library of Wales. Lampeter is home to part of the University of Wales Trinity Saint David. Ceredigion has been inhabited since prehistoric times. A total of 170 hill forts and enclosures have been identified across the county and there are many standing stones dating back to the Bronze Age. Around the time of the Roman invasion of Britain, the area was between the realms of the Demetae and Ordovices; the Sarn Helen road ran through the territory, with forts at Bremia and Loventium protecting gold mines near present-day Llelio. Following the Roman withdrawal, Irish raids and invasions were repulsed by the forces under a northerner named Cunedda; the 9th-century History of the Britons attributed to Nennius records that Cunedda's son Ceredig settled the area around the Teifi in the 5th century. The territory remained a minor kingdom under his dynasty until its extinction upon the drowning of Gwgon ap Meurig c.
871, after which it was administered by Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd before passing to his son Cadell, whose son Hywel Dda inherited its neighbouring kingdom Dyfed and established the realm of Deheubarth. Records are obscure. Many pilgrims passed through Cardiganshire on their way to St Davids; some came by sea and made use of the churches at Mwnt and Penbryn, while others came by land seeking hospitality at such places as Strata Florida Abbey. Both the abbey and Llanbadarn Fawr were important monastic sites of education. Place names including ysbyty denote their association with pilgrims. In 1282, Edward I of England divided the area into counties. One of thirteen traditional counties in Wales, Cardiganshire was a vice-county. Cardiganshire was split into the five hundreds of Genau'r-Glyn, Moyddyn and Troedyraur. Pen-y-wenallt was home to seventeenth Theophilus Evans. In the 18th century there was an evangelical revival of Christianity, non-conformism became established in the county as charismatic preachers like Daniel Rowland of Llangeitho attracted large congregations.
Every community built its own chapel or meeting house, Cardiganshire became one of the centres of Methodism in Wales with the Aeron Valley being at the centre of the revival. Cardigan was one of the major ports of southern Wales until its harbour silted in the mid-19th century; the Industrial Revolution passed by, not much affecting the area. In the uplands, wheeled vehicles were rare in the 18th century, horses and sleds were still being used for transport. On the coast, trade in herrings and corn took place across the Irish Sea. In the 19th century, many of the rural poor emigrated to the New World from Cardigan, between five and six thousand leaving the town between 1790 and 1860. Aberystwyth became the main centre for the export of lead and Aberaeron and Newquay did brisk coastal trade; the building of the railway from Shrewsbury in the 1860s encouraged visitors and hotels sprang up in the town to accommodate them. This area of the county of Dyfed became a district of Wales under the name Ceredigion in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, since 1996, has formed the county of Ceredigion.
According to the 2001 census, Ceredigion has the fourth highest proportion of Welsh speakers in the population at 61%. Ceredigion is a coastal county, bordered by Cardigan Bay to the west, Gwynedd to the north, Powys to the east, Carmarthenshire to the south and Pembrokeshire to the south-west, its area is 1,795 square kilometres. In 2010 the population was 76,938; the main settlements are Aberaeron, Aberystwyth, Cardigan, Llanarth, Llanddewi Brefi, Llanilar, Llanon, New Quay, Tregaron. The largest of these are Cardigan; the Cambrian Mountains cover much of the east of the county. In the south and west, the surface is less elevated; the highest point is Pumlumon at 2,467 feet, other Marilyns include Llan Ddu Fawr. On the slopes
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae. Other fish in the same family include trout, char and whitefish. Salmon are native to tributaries of the North Pacific Ocean. Many species of salmon have been introduced into non-native environments such as the Great Lakes of North America and Patagonia in South America. Salmon are intensively farmed in many parts of the world. Salmon are anadromous: they hatch in fresh water, migrate to the ocean return to fresh water to reproduce. However, populations of several species are restricted to fresh water through their lives. Folklore has it. Tracking studies have shown this to be true. A portion of a returning salmon run may spawn in different freshwater systems. Homing behavior has been shown to depend on olfactory memory. Salmon date back to the Neogene; the term "salmon" comes from the Latin salmo, which in turn might have originated from salire, meaning "to leap". The nine commercially important species of salmon occur in two genera.
The genus Salmo contains the Atlantic salmon, found in the north Atlantic, as well as many species named trout. The genus Oncorhynchus contains eight species which occur only in the North Pacific; as a group, these are known as Pacific salmon. Chinook salmon have been introduced in New Patagonia. Coho, freshwater sockeye, Atlantic salmon have been established in Patagonia, as well. † Both the Salmo and Oncorhynchus genera contain a number of species referred to as trout. Within Salmo, additional minor taxa have been called salmon in English, i.e. the Adriatic salmon and Black Sea salmon. The steelhead anadromous form of the rainbow trout migrates to sea, but it is not termed "salmon". A number of other species have common names which refer to them as being salmon. Of those listed below, the Danube salmon or huchen is a large freshwater salmonid related to the salmon above, but others are marine fishes of the unrelated Perciformes order: Eosalmo driftwoodensis, the oldest known salmon in the fossil record, helps scientists figure how the different species of salmon diverged from a common ancestor.
The British Columbia salmon fossil provides evidence that the divergence between Pacific and Atlantic salmon had not yet occurred 40 million years ago. Both the fossil record and analysis of mitochondrial DNA suggest the divergence occurred by 10 to 20 million years ago; this independent evidence from DNA analysis and the fossil record rejects the glacial theory of salmon divergence. Atlantic salmon reproduce in northern rivers on both coasts of the Atlantic Ocean. Landlocked salmon live in a number of lakes in eastern North America and in Northern Europe, for instance in lakes Sebago, Ladoga, Saimaa, Vänern, Winnipesaukee, they are not a different species from the Atlantic salmon, but have independently evolved a non-migratory life cycle, which they maintain when they could access the ocean. Chinook salmon are known in the United States as king salmon or blackmouth salmon, as spring salmon in British Columbia. Chinook are the largest of all Pacific salmon exceeding 14 kg; the name tyee is used in British Columbia to refer to Chinook over 30 pounds, in the Columbia River watershed large Chinook were once referred to as June hogs.
Chinook salmon are known to range as far north as the Mackenzie River and Kugluktuk in the central Canadian arctic, as far south as the Central California coast. Chum salmon are known as dog, keta, or calico salmon in some parts of the US; this species has the widest geographic range of the Pacific species: south to the Sacramento River in California in the eastern Pacific and the island of Kyūshū in the Sea of Japan in the western Pacific. Coho salmon are known in the US as silver salmon; this species is found throughout the coastal waters of Alaska and British Columbia and as far south as Central California. It is now known to occur, albeit infrequently, in the Mackenzie River. Masu salmon or cherry salmon are found only in the western Pacific Ocean in Japan and Russia. A land-locked subspecies known as the Taiwanese salmon or Formosan salmon is found in central Taiwan's Chi Chia Wan Stream. Pink salmon, known as humpies in southeast and southwest Alaska, are found from northern California and Korea, throughout the northern Pacific, from the Mackenzie River in Canada to the Lena River in Siberia in shorter coastal streams.
It is the smallest of the Pacific species, with an average weight of 1.6 to 1.8 kg. Sockeye salmon are known in the US as red salmon; this lake-rearing species is found south as far as the Klamath River in California in the eastern Pacific and northern Hokkaidō island in Japan in the western Pacific and as far north as Bathurst Inlet in the Canadian Arctic in the east and the Anadyr River in Siberia in the west. Although most adult Pacific salmon feed on small fish and squid, sockeye feed on plankton they filter through gill rakers. Kokanee salmon are the land-locked form of sockeye salmon. Danube salmon, or huchen, are the largest permanent freshwater salmonid species. Salmon eggs are laid in freshwater streams at high latitudes; the eggs hatch into alevin or sac fry
The Caledonian Forest is the name given to the former temperate rainforest of Scotland. The Scots pines of the Caledonian Forest are directly descended from the first pines to arrive in Scotland following the Late Glacial; the forest reached its maximum extent about 5000 BC, after which the Scottish climate became wetter and windier. This changed climate reduced the extent of the forest by 2000 BC. From that date, human actions reduced it to its current extent. Today, that forest exists as 35 remnants, as authenticated by Steven & Carlisle covering about 180 square kilometres or 44,000 acres; the Scots pines of these remnants are, by definition, directly descended from the first pines to arrive in Scotland following the ice age. These remnants have adapted genetically to different Scottish environments, as such, are globally unique. To a great extent the remnants survived on land, either too steep, too rocky, or too remote to be agriculturally useful; the largest remnants are in Strathspey and Strath Dee on acidic drained glacial deposits that are of little value for cultivation and domestic stock.
An examination of the earliest maps of Scotland suggests that the extent of the Caledonian Forest remnants has changed little since 1600. Following the last glacial period, trees began to recolonise what is now the British Isles over a land bridge, now beneath the Strait of Dover. Forests of this type were found all over what is now the island of Great Britain for a few thousand years, before the climate began to warm in the Atlantic period, the temperate coniferous forests began retreating north into the Scottish Highlands, the last remaining climatic region suitable for them in the British Isles; the native pinewoods which formed this westernmost outpost of the taiga of post-glacial Europe are estimated to have covered 15,000 km2 as a vast wilderness of Scots pine, rowan, juniper, oak and a few other hardy species. On the west coast and birch predominated in a temperate rainforest ecosystem rich in ferns and lichens; the name comes from Pliny the Elder who reveals that 30 years after the Roman invasion of Britain their knowledge of it did not extend beyond the neighbourhood of silva caledonia.
He gives no information about where the silva caledonia was, but the known extent of the Roman occupation suggest that it was north of the River Clyde and west of the River Tay. In the Matter of Britain, the forest is the site of one of King Arthur's Twelve Battles, according to the Historia Brittonum, in which the battle is called Cat Coit Celidon. Scholars Rachel Bromwich and Marged Haycock suggest that the army of trees animated by sorcerers in the Old Welsh poem Cad Goddeu are intended to be the Caledonian Forest. In related Merlin literature, the figure of Myrddin Wyllt retreated to these woods in his madness after the Battle of Arfderydd in the year 573, he fled from the alleged wrath of the king of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, after the slaying of Gwenddoleu ap Ceidio. This is written in the two Merlinic poems in Middle Welsh Yr Oinau and Yr Afallenau in the Black Book of Carmarthen; the forest is the retreat of another character named Lailoken from the Vita Kentigerni, who fled into the woods in a fit of madness and who may be the original model for Myrddin Wyllt.
In the Middle Welsh story Culhwch and Olwen, the main character Culhwch is the son of a king named Celyddon Wledig, who may or may not be related to the forest in name. Another figure from the same story, Cyledyr Wyllt hints at a close relationship of the forest being a retreat for people who suffered from a special kind of madness or gwyllt. In line 994 to 996 of the story, it is explained, "a Chyledyr Wyllt y uab, a llad Nwython a oruc a diot y gallon, a chymhell yssu callon y dat, ac am hynny yd aeth Kyledyr yg gwyllt". Though not named directly, the name Kyledyr Wyllt is close to the two related notions of the forest of Celyddon being where people suffering madness or gwyllt hide. Being a unique ecosystem in the British Isles, the Caledonian Pinewoods are home to some of the islands' rarest wildlife, it is considered to be one of the last remaining wildernesses in the British Isles. Breeding bird species in Caledonian pine forests found breeding nowhere else in the British Isles: Western capercaillie Common goldeneye European crested tit Parrot crossbill Scottish crossbillBreeding bird species in Caledonian pine forests rare elsewhere in the British Isles: Black grouse Red crossbill Goosander Siskin Redpoll Long-eared owl Osprey Red-breasted merganser Redwing Temminck's stint Wood sandpiper Horned grebe Golden eagleMammal species present in Caledonian pine forests: Eurasian beaver Feral goat Mountain hare European pine marten Red deer Red fox Red squirrel Roe deer WildcatMammal species extinct in Caledonian pine forests: Aurochs Brown bear Eurasian lynx Gray wolf Eurasian Elk Tarpan Wild boar A review of the native pinewoods of Scotland Steven & Carlisle highlighted the plight of the remaining 35 ancient pinewood sites, many of, damaged by felling and intensive grazing from sheep and deer.
A review in the 1980s showed that further damage had occurred through ploughing