Glassblowing is a glassforming technique that involves inflating molten glass into a bubble with the aid of a blowpipe. A person who blows glass is called glassmith, or gaffer. A lampworker manipulates glass with the use of a torch on a smaller scale, such as in producing precision laboratory glassware out of borosilicate glass; as a novel glass forming technique created in the middle of the 1st century BC, glassblowing exploited a working property of glass, unknown to glassworkers. That is based on the liquid structure of glass where the atoms are held together by strong chemical bonds in a disordered and random network, therefore molten glass is viscous enough to be blown and hardens as it loses heat. To increase the stiffness of the molten glass, which in turn facilitates the process of blowing, there was a subtle change in the composition of glass. With reference to their studies of the ancient glass assemblages from Sepphoris of Israel, Fischer and McCray postulated that the concentration of natron, which acts as flux in glass, is lower in blown vessels than those manufactured by casting.
Lower concentration of natron would have allowed the glass to be stiffer for blowing. During blowing, thinner layers of glass cool faster than thicker ones and become more viscous than the thicker layers; that allows production of blown glass with uniform thickness instead of causing blow-through of the thinned layers. A full range of glassblowing techniques was developed within decades of its invention; the two major methods of glassblowing are mold-blowing. This method held a pre-eminent position in glassforming since its introduction in the middle of the 1st century BC until the late 19th century, is still used nowadays as a glassforming technique for artistic purposes; the process of free-blowing involves the blowing of short puffs of air into a molten portion of glass called a'"gather", spooled at one end of the blowpipe. This has the effect of forming an elastic skin on the interior of the glass blob that matches the exterior skin caused by the removal of heat from the furnace; the glassworker can quickly inflate the molten glass to a coherent blob and work it into a desired shape.
Researchers at the Toledo Museum of Art attempted to reconstruct the ancient free-blowing technique by using clay blowpipes. The result proved that short clay blowpipes of about 30–60 cm facilitate free-blowing because they are simple to handle and to manipulate and can be re-used several times. Skilled workers are capable of shaping any vessel forms by rotating the pipe, swinging it and controlling the temperature of the piece while they blow, they can produce a great variety of glass objects. An outstanding example of the free-blowing technique is the Portland Vase, a cameo manufactured during the Roman period. An experiment was carried out by Gudenrath and Whitehouse with the aim of re-creating the Portland Vase. A full amount of blue glass required for the body of the vase was gathered on the end of the blowpipe and was subsequently dipped into a pot of hot white glass. Inflation occurred when the glassworker blew the molten glass into a sphere, stretched or elongated into a vase with a layer of white glass overlying the blue body.
Mold-blowing was an alternative glassblowing method that came after the invention of free-blowing, during the first part of the second quarter of the 1st century AD. A glob of molten glass is placed on the end of the blowpipe, is inflated into a wooden or metal carved mold. In that way, the shape and the texture of the bubble of glass is determined by the design on the interior of the mold rather than the skill of the glassworker. Two types of molds, namely single-piece mold and multi-piece mold, are used to produce mold-blown vessels; the former allows the finished glass object to be removed in one movement by pulling it upwards from the single-piece mold and is employed to produce tableware and utilitarian vessels for storage and transportation. Whereas the latter is made in multi-paneled mold segments that join together, thus permitting the development of more sophisticated surface modeling and design; the Roman leaf beaker, now on display in the J. Paul Getty Museum was blown in a three-part mold decorated with the foliage relief frieze of four vertical plants.
Meanwhile and Hill tried to reproduce mold-blown vessels by using three-part molds made of different materials. The result suggested that metal molds, in particular bronze, are more effective in producing high-relief design on glass than plaster or wooden molds; the development of the mold-blowing technique has enabled the speedy production of glass objects in large quantity, thus encouraging the mass production and widespread distribution of glass objects. The transformation of raw materials into glass takes place around 1,320 °C; the glass is left to "fine out", the working temperature is reduced in the furnace to around 1,090 °C. At this stage, the glass appears to be a bright orange color. Though most glassblowing is done between 870 and 1,040 °C, "soda-lime" glass remains somewhat plastic and workable as low as 730 °C. Annealing is done between 371 and 482 °C. Glassblowing involves three furnaces; the first, which contains a crucible of molten glass, is referred to as the furnace. The second i
Old City, Philadelphia
Old City is a historic neighborhood in Center City, Philadelphia, in the area near the Delaware River where William Penn and the Quakers first settled. To tourists, it is best known as the site of Independence Hall and its encompassing Independence National Historical Park, Elfreth's Alley, Carpenters' Hall, the Betsy Ross House, many of Philadelphia's other historic sites; the Old City District occupies several blocks between Front and Sixth Streets, bounded by Vine Street to the north and Walnut Street to the south. The Philadelphia Almanac and Citizens' Manual gives a larger set of boundaries to the Old City area, defined as the area within Spring Garden Street, 4th Street, the Delaware River, Walnut Street; the Old City Redevelopment Area is bounded by Vine Street, the Delaware River, Lombard Street and 7th Street. The Old City Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. In 2003, it was added to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places. Old City is home to the oldest continually inhabited street in Elfreth's Alley.
Home to more than 3,000 people since 1702, the street today holds 32 houses built between 1728 and 1836. Girard Fountain Park Independence Hall, where the Declaration of Independence and the U. S. Constitution were drafted and signed Liberty Bell Museum of the American Revolution National Constitution Center National Museum of American Jewish History Penn's Landing Betsy Ross House, the site where seamstress Betsy Ross lived when she sewed the first American flag Old City is one of the city's popular nightlife destinations, with lounges, dive bars, quality restaurants along the three blocks from 3rd and Market streets to Front and Chestnut streets; the 3rd Street Corridor, between Market Street and Vine Street, is home to galleries and other locally owned businesses. Landmark Theatres operates three Ritz movie theaters in the area. During the popular monthly First Friday event, shops hold evening-hours open houses featuring art and fashion. Since 2010, tech firms have moved to the area as well.
The Federal Bureau of Prisons Northeast Region Office is in the U. S. Custom House, a part of the Independence National Historical Park, in Old City. Many foreign governments have consulates in Old City, including Panama and Mexico; the Dominican Republic closed its consulate in the Lafayette Building at 437 Chestnut Street on November 7, 2005. Old City children are assigned to schools in the School District of Philadelphia. Residents are zoned to the General George A. McCall School for grades Kindergarten through 8. All persons assigned to McCall are assigned to Benjamin Franklin High School in North Philadelphia. Old City was assigned to Furness High School; the Mastery Charter Schools system operates the Mastery Charter Lenfest Campus in Old City. It moved from North Philadelphia to Old City in 2002; the Free Library of Philadelphia operates its Independence Branch at 18 South 7th Street. Christ Church Arch Street Meeting Old First Reformed Church Congregation Mikveh Israel Old St. George's Church St. Augustine's Church Seamen's Church Institute In National Treasure, Nicholas Cage's character runs across the roof of Independence Hall.
In Shooter, Mark Wahlberg's character is set-up for the shooting of the Ethiopian archbishop at Independence Mall. Old City Special Services District of Philadelphia Old City District "A Glimpse into the History of the 401 Block of Arch Street, Philadelphia." Retrieved 22 October 2007. Philadelphia/Old City travel guide from Wikivoyage
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe is the capital of the U. S. state of New Mexico. It is the seat of Santa Fe County; this area was occupied for at least several thousand years by indigenous peoples who built villages several hundred years ago, on the current site of the city. It was known by the Tewa inhabitants as Ogha Po'oge; the city of Santa Fe, founded by Spanish colonists in 1610, is the oldest state capital in the United States. Santa Fe had a population of 69,204 in 2012, it is the principal city of a Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Santa Fe County and is part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area. The city's full name as founded remains La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. Before European colonization of the Americas, the area Santa Fe occupied between 900 CE and the 1500s was known to the Tewa peoples as Oghá P'o'oge and by the Navajo people as Yootó. In 1610, Juan de Oñate established the area as Santa Fe de Nuevo México–a province of New Spain.
Formal Spanish settlements were developed leading the colonial governor Pedro de Peralta to rename the area La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. The phrase "Santa Fe" is translated as "Holy Faith" in Spanish. Although more known as Santa Fe, the city's full, legal name remains to this day as La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís; the standard Spanish variety pronounces it SAHN-tah-FAY as contextualized within the city's full, Spaniard name La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Aśis. However, due to the large amounts of tourism and immigration into Santa Fe, an English pronunciation of SAN-tuh-FAY is commonly used; the area of Santa Fe was occupied by indigenous Tanoan peoples, who lived in numerous Pueblo villages along the Rio Grande. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900 CE. A group of native Tewa built a cluster of homes that centered around the site of today's Plaza and spread for half a mile to the south and west.
The river had a year-round flow until the 1700s. By the 20th century the Santa Fe River was a seasonal waterway; as of 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers. Don Juan de Oñate led the first European effort to colonize the region in 1598, establishing Santa Fe de Nuevo México as a province of New Spain. Under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. New Mexico's second Spanish governor, Don Pedro de Peralta, founded a new city at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1607, which he called La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, the Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi. In 1610, he designated it as the capital of the province, which it has constantly remained, making it the oldest state capital in the United States. Discontent with the colonization practices led to the Pueblo Revolt, when groups of different Native Pueblo peoples were successful in driving the Spaniards out of the area now known as New Mexico, maintaining their independence from 1680 to 1692, when the territory was reconquered by Don Diego de Vargas.
Santa Fe was Spain's provincial seat at outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. It was considered important to fur traders based in present-day Saint Missouri; when the area was still under Spanish rule, the Chouteau brothers of Saint Louis gained a monopoly on the fur trade, before the United States acquired Missouri under the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. The fur trade contributed to the wealth of St. Louis; the city's status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution after Mexico achieved independence from Spain. When the Republic of Texas seceded from Mexico in 1836, it attempted to claim Santa Fe and other parts of Nuevo México as part of the western portion of Texas along the Río Grande. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition set out from Austin, intending to take control of the Santa Fe Trail. Known as the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, the force was poorly prepared and was captured by the Mexican army. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico.
Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into Santa Fe to claim it and the whole New Mexico Territory for the United States. By 1848 the U. S. gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Colonel Alexander William Doniphan, under the command of Kearny, recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled "Spain 1776" showing both the quality of communication and military support New Mexico received under Mexican rule; some American visitors at first saw little promise in the remote town. One traveller in 1849 wrote: I can hardly imagine how Santa Fe is supported; the country around it is barren. At the North stands a snow-capped mountain while the valley in which the town is situated is drab and sandy; the streets are narrow... A Mexican will walk about town all day to sell a bundle of grass worth about a dime, they are the poorest looking people I saw. They subsist principally on mutton and red pepper. In 1851, Jean Baptiste Lamy arrived, becoming bishop of New Mexico, Utah, C
National Register of Historic Places listings in Beaver County, Pennsylvania
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Beaver County, Pennsylvania. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Beaver County, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map. There are 20 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county. Three sites are further designated as National Historic Landmarks; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. List of Pennsylvania state historical markers in Beaver County
National Register of Historic Places listings in Bedford County, Pennsylvania
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Bedford County, Pennsylvania. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Bedford County, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map. There are 32 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county. Three sites are further designated as National Historic Landmarks. Another 2 properties have been removed; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Pennsylvania National Register of Historic Places listings in Pennsylvania List of Pennsylvania state historical markers in Bedford County
A metalsmith or smith is a craftsman fashioning useful items out of various metals. Smithing is one of the oldest metalworking occupations. Shaping metal with a hammer is the archetypical component of smithing; the hammering is done while the metal is hot, having been heated in a forge. Smithing can involve the other aspects of metalworking, such as refining metals from their ores, casting it into shapes, filing to shape and size; the prevalence of metalworking in the culture of recent centuries has led Smith and its equivalents in various languages to be a common occupational surname. As a suffix, -smith connotes a meaning of a specialized craftsman—for example and tunesmith are nouns synonymous with writer or songwriter, respectively. In pre-industrialized times, smiths held high or special social standing since they supplied the metal tools needed for farming and warfare. A metalsmith is one who works with or has the knowledge and the capacity of working with "all" metals. Types of smiths include: A blacksmith works with iron and steel A bladesmith forges knives and other blades A brownsmith works with brass and copper A coinsmith works with coins and currency A coppersmith works with copper A goldsmith works with gold A glasssmith works with glass A gunsmith builds and repairs firearms A locksmith works with locks A silversmith, or brightsmith, works with silver A swordsmith is a bladesmith who forges only swords A tinsmith, tinner, or tinker works with light metal and can refer to someone who deals in tinware A weapon-smith forges weapons like axes, spears and other weapons A whitesmith works with white metal and can refer to someone who polishes or finishes the metal rather than forging it The ancient traditional tool of the smith is a forge or smithy, a furnace designed to allow compressed air to superheat the inside, allowing for efficient melting and annealing of metals.
Today, this tool is still used by blacksmiths as it was traditionally. The term, metalsmith refers to artisans and craftpersons who practice their craft in many different metals, including gold and silver. Jewelers refer to their craft as metalsmithing, many universities offer degree programs in metalsmithing, jewelry and blacksmithing under the auspices of their fine arts programs. Machinists are metalsmiths who produce high-precision tools; the most advanced of these tools, CNC machines, are computer controlled and automated