Debabarrena is a comarca located in Gipuzkoa, Basque Country. It has an area of 180,3 km², it is north from the comarca of Debagoiena, east from the province of Biscay, south from the Gulf of Biscay. The municipalities which compose Debabarrena are Eibar, Placencia de las Armas, Mendaro and Mutriku. Eibar is the biggest one with about 28,000 inhabitants; the second biggest one is Elgoibar, with about 11,000 inhabitants, the other municipalities have less than 10,000 citizens. Debabarrena is surrounded by many mountains, which are not high; the higher ones have a height of around 800 metres. Urko and Andutz are the highest ones. All the region is full of forests and prairies, has many streams, most of them tributaries of the Deba river, which names the comarca; these streams are short and have a high level of contamination, despite the fact that the level of contamination has been reduced since the 1980s. Debabarrena is located in the centre of the Basque Country, which benefits the region's communications.
The main highway is the AP-8, which connects Debabarrena with Bilbao and the French border, but the AP-1, which connects Eibar with Debagoiena and Álava. The railway line that communicates Bilbao and San Sebastian is used in Deba, Mendaro and Eibar as a short-distance train; the harbours of Deba and Mutriku are not used for passengers. The total population of Debabarrena is about 72,000 people; the city with most citizens is Eibar, with nearly 28,000 inhabitants. Elgoibar is the second biggest one with 10,000, the other small towns with less than 5,000. There is a notable rural population in the baserri or caseríos, the farmhouses that are typical of the Basque Country; the region had around 100,000 inhabitants in the 50's and 60's because of the big industrial development and the resulting immigration. But, the industrial crisis of the 70's and 80's made the population decrease; the economy of the region is industrial, but the primary sector is notable. In the primary sector, there is a big number of small exploitation lands, around 1,000, most of them for sheep and bovinae livestock.
Fishing is only significant in Mutriku. Industry is the primary activity in the region, more than half of the population works in that area; the industrialization was important until the mid-20th century, when sewing machines and bicycles were produced, but since the metal industry has had a big importance, together with the automotive industry. The service sector has a lot of activity, with the 40% of population working on it, it is remarkable in Eibar, tourism in Mutriku and Deba. Official site Tourism site
Basque Country (autonomous community)
The Basque Country the Basque Autonomous Community is an autonomous community in northern Spain. It includes the Basque provinces of Álava and Gipuzkoa; the Basque Country or Basque Autonomous Community was granted the status of nationality within Spain, attributed by the Spanish Constitution of 1978. The autonomous community is based on the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country, a foundational legal document providing the framework for the development of the Basque people on Spanish soil. Navarre, which had narrowly rejected a joint statue of autonomy with Gipuzkoa, Álava and Biscay in 1932, was granted a separate statute in 1982. There is no official capital in the autonomous community, but the city of Vitoria-Gasteiz, in the province of Álava, is the de facto capital as the location of the Basque Parliament, the headquarters of the Basque Government, the residence of the President of the Basque Autonomous Community; the High Court of Justice of the Basque Country has its headquarters in the city of Bilbao.
Whilst Vitoria-Gasteiz is the largest municipality in area, with 277 km2, Bilbao is the largest in population, with 353,187 people, located in the province of Biscay within a conurbation of 875,552 people. The term Basque Country may refer to the larger cultural region, the home of the Basque people, which includes the autonomous community; the following provinces make up the autonomous community: Álava, capital Vitoria-Gasteiz Biscay, capital Bilbao-Bilbo Gipuzkoa, capital Donostia-San Sebastián The Basque Country borders Cantabria and the Burgos province to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the north and Navarre to the east and La Rioja to the south. The territory has three distinct areas, which are defined by the two parallel ranges of the Basque Mountains; the main range of mountains forms the watershed between the Mediterranean basins. The highest point of the range is in the Aizkorri massif; the three areas are: Formed by many valleys with short rivers that flow from the mountains to the Bay of Biscay, like the Nervión, Urola or Oria.
The coast is rough, with small inlets. The main features of the coast are the Bilbao Abra Bay and the Estuary of Bilbao, the Urdaibai estuary and the Bidasoa-Txingudi Bay that forms the border with France. Between the two mountain ranges, the area is occupied by a high plateau called Llanada Alavesa, where the capital Vitoria-Gasteiz is located; the rivers flow south from the mountains to the Ebro River. The main rivers are the Zadorra Bayas River. From the southern mountains to the Ebro is the so-called Rioja Alavesa, which shares the Mediterranean characteristics of other Ebro Valley zones; some of Spain's production of Rioja wine takes place here. The Basque Mountains form the watershed and mark the distinct climatic areas of the Basque Country: The northern valleys, in Biscay and Gipuzkoa and the valley of Ayala in Álava, are part of Green Spain, where the oceanic climate is predominant, with its wet weather all year round and moderate temperatures. Precipitation average is about 1200 mm; the middle section is influenced more by the continental climate, but with a varying degree of the northern oceanic climate.
This gives cold, snowy winters. The Ebro valley has a pure continental climate: winters are cold and dry and summers warm and dry, with precipitation peaking in spring and autumn. Precipitation is irregular, as low as 300 mm. Half of the 2,155,546 inhabitants of the Basque Autonomous Community live in Greater Bilbao, Bilbao's metropolitan area. Of the ten most populous cities, six form part of Bilbao's conurbation, known as Greater Bilbao. With 28.2% of the Basque population born outside this region, immigration is crucial to Basque demographics. Over the 20th century most of this immigration came from other parts of Spain from Galicia or Castile and León. Over recent years, sizeable numbers of this population have returned to their birthplaces and most immigration to the Basque country now comes from abroad, chiefly from South America. Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in the Basque Country. In 2012, the proportion of Basques that identified themselves as Roman Catholic was 58.6%, while it is one of the most secularised communities of Spain: 24.6% were non-religious and 12.3% of Basques were atheist.
Bilbao-Bilbo Vitoria-Gasteiz San Sebastián-Donostia Barakaldo Getxo Irun Portugalete Santurtzi Basauri Errenteria Spanish and Basque are co-official in all territories of the autonomous community. The Basque-speaking areas in the modern-day autonomous community are set against the wider context of the Basque language, spoken to the east in Navarre and the French Basque Country; the whole Basque speaking territory has experienced both expansion in its history. The Basque language experienced a gradual territorial contraction throughout the last nine centuries, severe deterioration of its sociolinguistic status for much of the 20th century due to heavy immigration from other parts of Spain, the virtual nonexistence of Basque language schooling, national policies implemented by the different Spanish régimes. After the advent of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Countr
Valencia Club de Fútbol referred to as Valencia CF or Valencia, is a Spanish football club based in Valencia. They play in La Liga. Valencia have won six La Liga titles, seven Copa del Rey titles, two Inter-Cities Fairs Cups, one UEFA Cup, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup and two UEFA Super Cups, they reached two UEFA Champions League finals in a row, losing to La Liga rivals Real Madrid in 2000 and German club Bayern Munich on penalties after a 1–1 draw in 2001. Valencia were members of the G-14 group of leading European football clubs and since its end has been part of the original members of the European Club Association. In total, Valencia have reached seven major European finals. Valencia were founded in 1919 and have played their home games at the 49,500-seater Mestalla since 1923, they were due to move into the new 75,000-seater Nou Mestalla in the northwest of the city in 2013, but the final move date has been postponed while the stadium remains under construction. Valencia have a fierce rivalry with fellow Valencian club Villarreal, with whom they contest the Derbi de la Comunitat.
The rivalry is further fueled by the fact. Valencia have a long-standing rivalry with Levante located in the city of Valencia, with two other clubs in the Valencian region, Hércules and Castellón. Valencia is the third-most supported football club in Spain, behind heavyweights Real Madrid and Barcelona, it is one of the biggest clubs in the world in terms of number of associates, with more than 50,000 season ticket holders and another 20,000+ season ticket holders on the waiting list, who can be accommodated in the new 75,000-seater stadium. Over the years, the club has achieved a global reputation for their prolific youth academy, or "cantera." Products of their academy include world-class talents such as Raúl Albiol, Andrés Palop, Miguel Ángel Angulo, David Albelda, Gaizka Mendieta and David Silva. Current stars of the game to have graduated in recent years include Isco, Jordi Alba, Juan Bernat, José Gayà and Paco Alcácer; the club was established on 5 March 1919 and approved on 18 March 1919, with Octavio Augusto Milego Díaz as its first president.
The club played its first competitive match away from home on 21 May 1919 against Valencia Gimnástico, losing 1–0. Valencia moved into the Mestalla Stadium in 1923, having played its home matches at the Algirós ground since 7 December 1919; the first match at Mestalla ended a 0 -- 0 draw. In another match the day after, Valencia won against the same opposition, 1–0. Valencia won the Regional Championship in 1923, was eligible to play in the domestic Copa del Rey cup competition for the first time in its history; the Spanish Civil War halted Valencia's progress until 1941, when they won the Copa del Rey, defeating Espanyol in the final. In the 1941–42 season, the club won its first La Liga championship title, although winning the Copa del Rey was more reputable than the championship at the time; the club maintained its consistency to capture the league title again in the 1943–44 season, as well as the 1946–47 league edition. In the 1950s, the club failed to simulate the success of the 1940s though it grew as a club.
A restructuring of Mestalla resulted in an increase in spectator capacity to 45,000, while the club had a number of Spanish and foreign stars. Players such as Spanish international Antonio Puchades and Dutch forward Faas Wilkes graced the pitch at Mestalla. In the 1952 -- 53 season, the club finished behind Barcelona. In the following season, the club won its third Copa del Rey known as the Copa del Generalísimo. Valencia beat holders Barça 3–0 in the final in front of over 110,000 spectators at the Estadio Chamartín the home ground of Real Madrid; the 1950s saw the retirement of club greats like Salvador Monzó, Vicente Asensi, Amadeo Ibáñez, Antonio Puchades and Pasieguito. While managing indifferent league form in the early 1960s, the club had its first European success in the form of the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. In the 1961–62 season, Valencia defeated Barcelona in the final; the 1962–63 edition of the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup final pitted Valencia against Yugoslavian club Dinamo Zagreb, which the Valencians won.
Valencia were again present in the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup final in the 1963–64 season, but were defeated 2–1 by Real Zaragoza. Former two-time European Footballer of the Year award winner Alfredo Di Stéfano was hired as head coach in 1970, inspired his new club to their fourth La Liga championship and first since 1947; this secured Valencia its first qualification for the prestigious European Cup, contested by the various European domestic champions. Valencia reached the third round of the 1971–72 competition before losing both legs to Hungarian champions Újpesti Dózsa. In 1972, the club finished runners-up both in La Liga and the domestic cup, losing to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid respectively; the most notable players of the 1970s era include Austrian midfielder Kurt Jara, forward Johnny Rep of the Netherlands, West German midfielder Rainer Bonhof and Argentinian forward Mario Kempes, who became the La Liga topscorer for two consecutive seasons in 1976–77 and 1977–78. Valencia would go on to win the Copa del Rey again in the 1978–79 season, capture the European Cup Winners' Cup the next season, after beating English club Arsenal in the final, with Kempes spearheading Valencia's success in Europe.
In 1982, the club appo
Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta and the Plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces; the layout of Spain's provinces follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the subdivision of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one; the provinces served as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, as Spain was a centralised state for most of its modern history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy, they remain electoral districts for national elections and as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would be identified as being in, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The provinces were the "building-blocks". No province is divided between more than one of these communities. Most of the provinces—with the exception of Álava, Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Balearic Islands, La Rioja, Navarra — are named after their principal town. Only two capitals of autonomous communities — Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia — are not the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Navarra; these are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the capital city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs and a link to a list of municipalities in the province; the names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish language names are the same.
List of Spanish provinces by population List of Spanish provinces by area Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces Autonomous communities of Spain Comarcas of Spain ISO 3166-2:ESGeneral: Political divisions of Spain Maps of the provinces of Spain Maps of Spain's Provinces List of municipalities of Spain listed by province from the Spanish INE
Athletic Club commonly known as Athletic, is a professional football club, based in Bilbao, in the Basque Country. They are known as Los Leones. Mammes was an early Christian thrown to the lions by the Romans. Mammes pacified the lions and was made a saint; the club is one of three founding members of the Primera División that have never been relegated from the top division since its inception in 1929, the others being Real Madrid and Barcelona. Athletic have won La Liga on eight occasions, fourth most in the history of the league. In the table of Copa del Rey titles, Athletic is second only to Barcelona; the club has one of the most successful women's teams in Spain, which has won five championships in the Primera División Femenina. The club is known for its cantera policy of bringing young Basque players through the ranks, as well as recruiting players from other Basque clubs like Joseba Etxeberria and Javi Martínez. Athletic's official policy is signing professional players native to or trained in football in the greater Basque Country, which includes Biscay, Gipuzkoa, Álava and Navarre.
Since 1912, Athletic has played with players meeting its own criteria to be deemed as Basque, has been one of the most successful teams in La Liga. This can be seen as a unique case in European football; the club has been praised for promoting home grown players and club loyalty. The Basque rule does not apply to coaching staff however, with several examples of non-Basque coaches both from Spain and abroad having coached the first team. Athletic's main rivals are Real Sociedad, against whom it contests the Basque derby, Real Madrid, due to sporting and political rivalry. At various points in the club's history, further Basque league derbies have been contested against Alavés, Eibar and Osasuna. Athletic is one of only four professional clubs in Spain, not a sports corporation. Football was introduced to Bilbao by two distinct groups with British connections. In the late 19th century, Bilbao was a leading industrial town and attracted many migrant workers, including miners from the north-east of England, shipyard workers from Southampton and Sunderland.
They brought with them the game of football, came together to form Bilbao Football Club. Meanwhile, sons of the Basque educated classes went to Britain to complete their studies, developed an interest in football and on their return began to arrange games with British workers. In 1898, students founded the Athletic Club. In 1901, a meeting held in the Café García established more formal regulations. In 1902, the two clubs formed a combined team, known as Bizcaya, in the first Copa del Rey and won the competition; this led to the eventual merger of the two clubs as Athletic Club in 1903. In the same year, Basque students formed Athletic Club Madrid which evolved into Atlético Madrid; the club itself declares 1898 as its foundation date. The club featured prominently in early Copas del Rey. Following the inaugural win by Club Bizcaya, the newly formed Athletic Bilbao won it again in 1903. In 1904, they were declared winners. In 1907, they revived the name Club Vizcaya after entering a combined team with Union Vizcaino.
After a brief lull, they won again in 1911 and three times in a row between 1914 and 1916. The star was Pichichi, who scored the first goal at the San Mamés stadium in 1913 and a hat-trick in the 1915 cup final; the La Liga top scorer award is named in his honour. Other Basque clubs such as Real Unión, Arenas Club de Getxo and Real Sociedad were founding members of La Liga in 1928 and by 1930 they were joined by CD Alavés; the saying "Con cantera y afición, no hace falta importación", translated as "With home-grown teams and support, there is no need for import", made sense during these early days. In 1921, a new British coach, Fred Pentland, arrived, he revolutionised the way. In 1927, Pentland left Athletic but returned in 1929 and led the club to La Liga/Copa del Rey doubles in 1930 and 1931; the club won the Copa del Rey four times in a row between 1930 and 1933 and they were La Liga runners-up in 1932 and 1933. In 1931, Athletic defeated Barcelona 12 -- the latter's worst-ever defeat. Athletic's success under British coaches continued with William Garbutt.
His first season in Spain was a massive success. He had inherited a talented squad which included strikers Guillermo Bata. Garbutt promoted the young Ángel Zubieta to the first team, a player who at 17 years of age went on to become the youngest to play for the Spanish national team at the time. In the final game of the season, the title was decided when Athletic defeated Oviedo 2–0 at home on 19 April 1936, winning the title just two points clear of Real Madrid. In July 1936, football halted due to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War; the league did not restart until the 1939–40 season. Athletic Club did not win the title again by that time Garbutt had been exiled. In 1941, the club changed its name following a decree issued by Franco; the same year Telmo Zarra made his debut. He
Basque Nationalist Party
The Basque Nationalist Party Basque National Party in English, is a Christian democratic and Basque nationalist party. It operates in all the territories comprising the Basque Country: the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre in Spain, in the French Basque Country, it has delegations in dozens of foreign nations those with a major presence of Basque immigrants. EAJ-PNV was founded by Sabino Arana in 1895, which makes it the second oldest party in Spain that remains active, after the PSOE, it is the largest Basque nationalist party, having led the Basque Government uninterruptedly since 1979. In Navarre, it is part of the coalition Geroa Bai, the party in the Navarrese regional government. At the national level, it has a presence in the Cortes Generales: the Congress of Deputies and the Senate. Since 1932, EAJ-PNV celebrates on Easter the Aberri Eguna'Homeland Day'. Since 1977, the party celebrates Alderdi Eguna'Party Day'; the party's social offices are called batzokis. A member of the European Democratic Party, the Basque Nationalist Party was a member of the European Free Alliance from 1999 to 2004.
Earlier it had been affiliated with the European People's Party from which it resigned before the European Parliament election of 1999, the Christian Democrat International until its expulsion in 2000. The current chairman of EAJ-PNV is Andoni Ortuzar; the youth wing of the Basque Nationalist Party is called EGI Euzko Gaztedi Indarra'Basque Youth Force'. The party was founded in 1895 by Sabino de Arana Goiri as a Catholic conservative party agitating for the restoration of self-government and the defense of Juramento de Larrazabal Basque traditional values and identity, it describes itself as Basque, participatory and humanist. It is a moderate nationalist party. EAJ-PNV opposes political violence. In its beginnings, the party established a requirement for its members to prove Basque ancestry by having a minimum number of Basque surnames. In 1921, the Arana movement split into the traditionalist Comunión Nacionalista Vasca and the independentist Aberri. During the single party dictatorship rule of general Miguel Primo de Rivera, the nationalist parties were outlawed and persecuted.
However, its activity continued under the guise of folklore clubs. At the end of 1930, Aberri and CNV reunited under the old name of EAJ-PNV. However, a small group formed Acción Nacionalista Vasca, it was on the moderate nationalist left, non-confessional and open to alliances with the republican and socialist parties fighting against the dictatorship. The division between autonomism and independentism appeared again during the second Spanish Republic. Headed by Eli Gallastegi, a small group of independentists, gathered around the weekly Jagi-Jagi and the Mountaineer Federation of Biscay, left the party, they rejected the autonomy. After the coup d'état of 18 July 1936, the party felt torn, it shared the rebel side's Catholicism and there was pressure from the Vatican to keep away from the Republic, but the promised autonomy and their anti-Fascist ideology led them to side with the republican government. The Biscayne and Gipuzkoan branches, the more important in number, declared support for the Republic and anti-Fascism in the ensuing Spanish Civil War and were key in balancing those provinces to the Republican side.
In the territory seized by the rebels, PNV members faced tough times. During the military uprising in Navarre, the Basque nationalist mayor of Estella-Lizarra Fortunato Aguirre was arrested by the Spanish nationalist rebels, killed in September; some Basque nationalists could flee north to Basque areas loyal to the Republic, or France. However, some members of the Alavese and Navarrese committees, ahead of an official decision, published notes refusing support to the Republic. Notwithstanding their initial ambiguous position in certain areas, the party premises and press in Álava and Navarre were closed in that month of July; some PNV sympathizers and members joined the Carlist battalions, either out of conviction or to avoid attacks. By October 1936, a war front had been established at the northern tip of Álava and to the west of Donostia; the Defence Committees in Biscay and Gipuzkoa were dominated by the Popular Front. After hard negotiations Basque autonomy was granted within the Second Spanish Republic in late 1936, the new autonomous government organized the Basque Army, consisting of militias recruited by each of the political organizations, including PNV.
The autonomous government avoided chaos in Biscay and western Gipuzkoa, took the reins of the coordination and provision of military resistance. On occupation of the territories loyal to the Republic, the Francoist repression was focused on leftists, but Basque nationalists were targeted, facing prison and death; as the rebel troops approached Biscay, the Carlist press in Pamplona called for the extermination of Basque nationalists. José Antonio Aguirre, the party leader, became in October 1936 the first lendakari of the wartime multipartite Basque Government, ruling the unconquered parts of Biscay and Gipuzkoa. In April 1937, the city of Guernica was bombed by German airplanes. Jose Antonio de Aguirre stated that "the German planes bombed us with a brutality that had never been seen before fo