The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland. It is the seat of government of the Netherlands. With a metropolitan population of more than 1 million, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam; the Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area, with a population of 2.7 million, is the 13th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation; the Hague is the seat of the Cabinet, the States General, the Supreme Court, the Council of State of the Netherlands, but the city is not the constitutional capital of the Netherlands, Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander lives in Huis ten Bosch and works at the Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, together with Queen Máxima; the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and other Dutch companies.
Most foreign embassies in the Netherlands and 200 international governmental organisations are located in the city, including the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Court, which makes The Hague one of the major cities hosting a United Nations institution along with New York City, Vienna and Nairobi. Because of this, The Hague is known as the home of international law and arbitration; the Hague was first mentioned as Die Haghe in 1242. In the 15th century, the name des Graven hage came into use "The Count's Wood", with connotations like "The Count's Hedge, Private Enclosure or Hunting Grounds". "'s Gravenhage" was used for the city from the 17th century onward. Today, this name is only used in some official documents like marriage certificates; the city itself uses "Den Haag" in all its communications. Little is known about the origin of The Hague. There are no contemporary documents describing it, sources are of dubious reliability. What is certain is that The Hague was founded by the last counts of the House of Holland.
Floris IV owned two residences in the area, but purchased a third court situated by the present-day Hofvijver in 1229 owned by a woman called Meilendis. Floris IV intended to rebuild the court into a large castle, but he died in a tournament in 1234, before anything was built, his son and successor William II lived in the court, after he was elected King of the Romans in 1248, he promptly returned to The Hague, had builders turn the court into a "royal palace", which would be called the Binnenhof. He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished during the reign of his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal, still intact, is the most prominent, it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onward, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative center and residence when in Holland; the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Die Haghe in a charter dating from 1242.
It became the primary residence of the Counts of Holland in 1358, thus became the seat of many government institutions. This status allowed the village to grow. In its early years, the village was located in the ambacht, or rural district, of Monster, governed by the Lord of Monster. Seeking to exercise more direct control over the village, the Count split the village off and created a separate ambacht called Haagambacht, governed directly by the Counts of Holland; the territory of Haagambacht was expanded during the reign of Floris V. When the House of Burgundy inherited the counties of Holland and Zeeland in 1432, they appointed a stadtholder to rule in their stead with the States of Holland and West Friesland as an advisory council. Although their seat was located in The Hague, the city became subordinate to more important centres of government such as Brussels and Mechelen, from where the sovereigns ruled over the centralised Burgundian Netherlands. At the beginning of the Eighty Years' War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, as it allowed Spanish troops to occupy the town.
In 1575, the States of Holland, temporarily based in Delft considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William the Silent. In 1588, The Hague became the permanent seat of the States of Holland as well as the States General of the Dutch Republic. In order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, "city rights" have no place anymore. Only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France; as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, while the government was situated in The Hague.
When the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague expanded. Many streets were built for the large number of civil se
Architectural Association School of Architecture
The Architectural Association School of Architecture in London referred to as the AA, is the oldest independent school of architecture in the UK and one of the most prestigious and competitive in the world. Its wide-ranging programme of exhibitions, lectures and publications have given it a central position in global discussions and developments within contemporary architectural culture; the foundation of the Architectural Association was as an alternative to the practice where young men were articled to established architects. This practise offered no guarantee for educational professional standards; the AA believed it was open to vested interests, abuse and incompetence. This situation led two articled pupils, Robert Kerr and Charles Gray, to propose a systematic course of training provided by the students themselves. Following a merger with the existing Association of Architectural Draughtsmen, the first formal meeting under the name of the Architectural Association took place in May 1847 at Lyons Inn Hall, London.
Kerr became the first president, 1847–48. From 1859 the AA shared premises at 9 Conduit Street with the Royal Institute of British Architects renting rooms in Great Marlborough Street; the AA School was formally established in 1890. In 1901, it moved premises to the former Royal Architectural Museum in Westminster. In 1917, it moved again, to its current premises in Bedford Square, central London; the school has acquired property on Morwell Street behind Bedford Square. Women were first admitted as students to the AA School during the First World War in 1917. AA is one of the world's most international and prestigious schools of architecture and selecting students and staff from more than 60 countries worldwide, with a long list of visiting critics and other participants from around the world each year; the students of the AA have been addressed by many eminent figures, from John Ruskin and George Gilbert Scott in the 19th century, to more Richard Rogers, an alumnus of the school. In November 2017, the AA was reported to be planning to make 16 staff redundant, including the whole of its publications and exhibitions departments.
Shortly before, the AA had announced it was seeking a new director, to be appointed by March 2018, following the departure of Brett Steele announced in December 2016. Courses are divided into two main areas – undergraduate programmes, leading to the AA Diploma, postgraduate programmes, which include specialised courses in landscape urbanism and urbanism, sustainable environmental design and theories, emergent technologies, design research lab, as well as day-release course in building conservation, garden conservation, environmental access. Launched programmes include projective cities, design + make, interprofessional studio. Since its foundation, the school has continued to draw its teaching staff from progressive international practices, they are reappointed annually, allowing a continual renewal of the exploration of architectural graphics and polemical formalism; the school sits outside the state-funded university system and UCAS application system, with tuition fees comparable to those of a private school.
As an independent school, the AA does not feature in university rankings. Since non-EU students are charged higher fees to attend state universities, the AA is competitively priced by comparison, with a higher proportion of overseas students enrolled than many other UK architecture schools. At undergraduate/first degree level direct application is the norm, it is not included in many books. The school has a bookshop, containing a range of architectural books; the bookshop is used as a platform for the AA's own books. AA Publications has a long tradition of publishing architects and theorists early in their careers, as well as publishing figures who have gained notoriety in other fields of expertise, such as Salman Rushdie. AA Publications publishes the journal AA Files and the AA Book, known as the Projects Review, which annually documents the work undertaken by members of the school from Foundation to Graduate programmes. AA publications are designed and edited by the AA Print Studio established in 1971 as part of the Communications Unit directed by Dennis Crompton of Archigram.
The school had its own independent radio station. Howard Robertson Alvin Boyarsky Alan Balfour Roger Zogolovitch Mohsen Mostafavi Brett Steele Samantha Hardingham Eva Franch i Gilabert John Summerson: The Architectural Association 1847–1947, Pleiades Books, London 1947. Official website Bedford Press AA Publications
University of Thessaly
The University of Thessaly is a public university in Thessaly, founded in 1984. The university main campus with its administrative and academic centre is based in Volos, but branch campuses operate in Karditsa, Larissa, City of Lamia; as of 2014, there is a student population of 14,000 undergraduate students enrolled at the university, more than 3,500 postgraduate students and 710 faculty members. The emblem of the University of Thessaly is Chiron, who used to live in Pelion Mountain and was famous for his special knowledge about medicine, archery, hunting and the art of prophecy; the university has eighteen Departments in six Faculties, the majority of them founded by the end of 2001. In 2013, the University of Thessaly absorbed Department of Computer Science and Biomedical Informatics of University of Central Greece, in 2019 absorted City of Lamia Campus of the Technological Educational Institute of Central Greece; the university comprises six faculties: Humanities and Social Sciences, Agricultural Sciences, Health Sciences, Physical Education and Sport Sciences and Sciences, which contain 18 departments offering undergraduate and post-graduate degree programs.
Each department has its own associated student organization. The language of instruction is Greek, although there are programs in foreign languages and courses for international students, which are carried out in English, French and Italian; the Faculty of Health Sciences is associated with the General University Hospital of Larissa. The university staff is divided into five main categories: Teaching and research staff: The staff in this category undertakes the majority of the teaching and research work done in the university, it comprises associate professors, assistant professors and lecturers. Scientific teaching staff: This category consists of former teaching and research assistants, their main role is to cooperate with the Teaching and Research staff and assist them in their teaching responsibilities. Special laboratory teaching staff: The members of this category are administering the university laboratories and they undertake special applied and laboratory teaching work. Special technical laboratory staff: They are responsible of keeping the laboratory equipment in good condition and upgrade it whenever necessary in order to stay up to date.
They provide specific technical laboratory services and help with the laboratory teaching. Administrative staff: This category comprises all employees working in administrative positions; the educational work is exercised by guest professors and scientists who are invited to teach specific courses. In 2015 the external evaluation committee gave University of Thessaly a Positive evaluation. An external evaluation of all academic departments in Greek universities was conducted by the Hellenic Quality Assurance and Accreditation Agency in the previous years. Department of Physical Education and Sport Science Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Rural Environment Department of Ichthyology and Aquatic Environment Department of History and Social Anthropology Department of Primary Education Department of Early Childhood Education Department of Special Education Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Biomedical Informatics Department of Civil Engineering Department of Architecture Department of Urban Planning & Regional Development Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Department of Medicine Department of Veterinary Science Department of Economics Library and Information Center of University of Thessaly was founded in 1995.
Its central building is hosted in the renewed building of the old Athens Bank, built in 1903, is located in the center of Volos. Moreover, there are branches of the Library that operate in every faculty in all cities of University of Thessaly; the Kitsos Makris Folklore Center is part of the University of Thessaly Library & Information Center. University of Thessaly owns a small Student Residence Hall in Volos with a capacity of 40 rooms. There is an accommodation grant of 100 € per month for the undergraduate foreign students of countries outside EU. For the Greek students and the students of countries members of EU there is an accommodation grant of 1000 € per year depending on academic and financial criteria. There are plans for the development of a new large scale residence hall in the near future; the Laboratory of Psychology and Educational Applications of the Department of Special Education offers psychological support and help to all students who need it, in order to deal with their personal difficulties and concerns, it helps in developing skills on how to manage potential problems, such as problems in student life, difficulties in personal relations and other psychological disorders.
The students make an appointment with the psychologist of the Laboratory, either individually or in groups. All services are provided free of charge and the meetings have confidential character. University of Thessaly offers the possibility of cultural activities. There are many student groups consisting the team of Physical Education, Musical Ensembles, Theater Group, Photography Group etc. In the beginning of every semester the students have the opportunity to enter in every action that are interested in. Moreover, there is plenty of student groups that undertake cultural actions such as Cinema Group and University of The
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Kyushu is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku and Tsukushi-no-shima; the historical regional name Saikaidō referred to its surrounding islands. In the 8th century Taihō Code reforms, Dazaifu was established as a special administrative term for the region; as of 2016, Kyushu covers 36,782 square kilometres. The island is mountainous, Japan's most active volcano, Mt Aso at 1,591 metres, is on Kyushu. There are many other signs including numerous areas of hot springs; the most famous of these are in Beppu, on the east shore, around Mt. Aso, in central Kyushu; the island is separated from Honshu by the Kanmon Straits. The name Kyūshū comes from the nine ancient provinces of Saikaidō situated on the island: Chikuzen, Hizen, Buzen, Bungo, Hyūga, Satsuma. Today's Kyushu Region is a politically defined region that consists of the seven prefectures on the island of Kyushu, plus Okinawa Prefecture to the south: Northern Kyushu Fukuoka Prefecture Kumamoto Prefecture Nagasaki Prefecture Ōita Prefecture Saga Prefecture Southern Kyushu Kagoshima Prefecture Miyazaki Prefecture Okinawa Prefecture Kyushu comprises 10.3 percent of the entire population of Japan.
Most of Kyushu's population is concentrated along the northwest, in the cities of Fukuoka and Kitakyushu, with population corridors stretching southwest into Sasebo and Nagasaki and south into Kumamoto and Kagoshima. Excepting Oita and Miyazaki cities, the eastern seaboard shows a general decline in population. Kyushu is described as a stronghold of the LDP political party. Designated citiesFukuoka Kitakyushu Kumamoto Core citiesKagoshima Ōita Nagasaki Miyazaki Naha Kurume Sasebo Saga Parts of Kyushu have a subtropical climate Miyazaki prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture. Major agricultural products are rice, tobacco, sweet potatoes, soy; the island is noted for various types of porcelain, including Arita, Imari and Karatsu. Heavy industry is concentrated in the north around Fukuoka, Kitakyushu and Oita and includes chemicals, automobiles and metal processing. In 2010, the graduate employment rate in the region was the lowest nationwide, at 88.9%. Besides the volcanic area of the south, there are significant mud hot springs in the northern part of the island, around Beppu.
These springs are the site of occurrence of certain extremophile micro-organisms, that are capable of surviving in hot environments. Major universities and colleges in Kyushu: National universities Kyushu University – One of seven former "Imperial Universities" Kyushu Institute of Technology Saga University Nagasaki University Kumamoto University Fukuoka University of Education Oita University Miyazaki University Kagoshima University National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya University of the Ryukyus Universities run by local governments University of Kitakyushu Kyushu Dental College Fukuoka Women's University Fukuoka Prefectural University Nagasaki Prefectural University Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences Prefectural University of Kumamoto Miyazaki Municipal University Miyazaki Prefectural Nursing University Okinawa Prefectural University of Arts Major private universities Fukuoka University – University with the largest number of students in Kyushu Kumamoto Gakuen University Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University Seinan Gakuin University Kyushu Sangyo University – Baseball team won the Japanese National Championship in 2005 University of Occupational and Environmental Health Kurume University The island is linked to the larger island of Honshu by the Kanmon Tunnels, which carry both the San'yō Shinkansen and non-Shinkansen trains of the Kyushu Railway Company, as well as vehicular and bicycle traffic.
The Kanmon Bridge connects the island with Honshu. Railways on the island are operated by the Kyushu Railway Company, Nishitetsu Railway. Northern Kyushu Southern Kyushu Azumi people, an ancient group of people who inhabited parts of northern Kyūshū Geography of Japan Group Kyushu Western Army United States Fleet Activities Sasebo Hoenn, a fictional region in the Pokémon franchise, based on Kyushu Kanmonkyo Bridge, that connects Kyūshū with Honshū Kyushu National Museum List of regions in Japan Kyushu dialects Hichiku dialect, Hōnichi dialect and Kagoshima dialect Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
Parc de la Villette
The Parc de la Villette is the third-largest park in Paris, 55.5 hectares in area, located at the northeastern edge of the city in the 19th arrondissement. The park houses one of the largest concentration of cultural venues in Paris, including the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie, three major concert venues, the prestigious Conservatoire de Paris. Parc de la Villette is served by Paris Métro stations Corentin Cariou on Line 7 and Porte de Pantin on Line 5; the park was designed by Bernard Tschumi, a French architect of Swiss origin, who built it from 1984 to 1987 in partnership with Colin Fournier, on the site of the huge Parisian abattoirs and the national wholesale meat market, as part of an urban redevelopment project. The slaughterhouses, built in 1867 on the instructions of Napoléon III, had been cleared away and relocated in 1974. Tschumi won a major design competition in 1982–83 for the park, he sought the opinions of the deconstructionist philosopher Jacques Derrida in the preparation of his design proposal.
Since the creation of the park, concert halls, theatres have been designed by several noted contemporary architects, including Christian de Portzamparc, Adrien Fainsilber, Philippe Chaix, Jean-Paul Morel, Gérard Chamayou,on to Mr. Tschumi; the park houses museums, concert halls, live performance stages, theatres, as well as playgrounds for children, thirty-five architectural follies. These include: Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie, the largest science museum in Europe. Grande halle de la Villette, a historical cast iron & glass abattoir that now holds fairs, festive cultural events, other programming. Cinéma en plein air, an outdoor movie theatre, site of an annual film festival. Since its completion in 1987, the Parc de la Villette has become a popular attraction for Paris residents and international travelers alike. An estimated 10 million people visit the park each year to take part in an array of cultural activities. With its collection of museums, architectural follies, themed gardens, open spaces for exploration and activity, the park has created an area that relates to both adults and children.
Designed by Bernard Tschumi, the park is meant to be a place inspired by the post-modernist architectural ideas of deconstructivism. Tschumi’s design was in partial response to the philosophies of Jacques Derrida, acting as an architectural experiment in space and how those relate a person’s ability to recognize and interact. According to Tschumi, the intention of the park was to create space for activity and interaction, rather than adopt the conventional park mantra of ordered relaxation and self-indulgence; the vast expanse of the park allows for visitors to walk about the site with a sense of freedom and opportunity for exploration and discovery. The design of the park is organized into a series of points and surfaces; these categories of spatial relation and formulation are used in Tschumi’s design to act as means of deconstructing the traditional views of how a park is conventionally meant to exist. The Parc de la Villette boasts activities that engage all people of all ages and cultural backgrounds.
The park is a contemporary melting pot of cultural expression where local artists and musicians produce exhibits and performances. On the periphery of the park lies the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie, the largest science museum in Europe. There is an I-MAX theatre; the park acts as a connection between these exterior functions. Concerts are scheduled year round. Dividing the park is the Canal de l'Ourcq, which has boat tours that transport visitors around the park and to other sites in Paris. Festivals are common in the park along with artist shows by performers; the Parc de la Villette hosts an annual open-air film festival. In 2010 the festival's theme was "To Be 20" and featured films about youth and self-discovery around the age