Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany. Located in a sheltered bay not far from the western tip of the peninsula, the western extremity of metropolitan France, Brest is an important harbour and the second French military port after Toulon; the city is located on the western edge of continental Europe. With 142,722 inhabitants in a 2007 census, Brest is at the centre of Western Brittany's largest metropolitan area, ranking third behind only Nantes and Rennes in the whole of historic Brittany, the 19th most populous city in France. Although Brest is by far the largest city in Finistère, the préfecture of the department is the much smaller Quimper. During the Middle Ages, the history of Brest was the history of its castle. Richelieu made it a military harbour. Brest grew around its arsenal until the second part of the 20th century. Damaged by the Allies' bombing raids during World War II, the city centre was rebuilt after the war. At the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, the deindustrialization of the city was followed by the development of the service sector.
Nowadays, Brest is an important university town with 23,000 students. Besides a multidisciplinary university, the University of Western Brittany and its surrounding area possess several prestigious French elite schools such as École Navale, Télécom Bretagne and the Superior National School of Advanced Techniques of Brittany. Brest is an important research centre focused on the sea, with among others the largest Ifremer centre, le Cedre and the French Polar Institute. Brest's history has always been linked to the sea: the Académie de Marine was founded in 1752 in this city; the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle was built there. Every four years, Brest hosts the international festival of the sea and sailors: it is a meeting of old riggings from around the world; the name of the town is first recorded as Bresta. In 1342, John IV, Duke of Brittany, surrendered Brest to the English, in whose possession it was to remain until 1397; the importance of Brest in medieval times was great enough to give rise to the saying, "He is not the Duke of Brittany, not the Lord of Brest."
With the marriage of Francis I of France to Claude, the daughter of Anne of Brittany, the definitive overlordship of Brest – together with the rest of the duchy – passed to the French crown. The advantages of Brest's situation as a seaport town were first recognized by Cardinal Richelieu, who in 1631 constructed a harbour with wooden wharves; this soon became a base for the French Navy. Jean-Baptiste Colbert, finance minister under Louis XIV, rebuilt the wharves in masonry and otherwise improved the harbour. Fortifications by Vauban followed in 1680–1688; these fortifications, with them the naval importance of the town, were to continue to develop throughout the 18th century. In 1694, an English squadron under Lord Berkeley was soundly defeated in its attack on Brest. In 1917, during the First World War, Brest was used as the disembarking port for many of the troops coming from the United States. Thousands of such men came through the port on their way to the front lines; the United States Navy established a naval air station on 13 February 1918 to operate seaplanes.
The base closed shortly after the Armistice of 11 November 1918. In the Second World War, the Germans maintained a large U-boat submarine base at Brest. Despite being within range of RAF bombers, it was a base for some of the German surface fleet, giving repair facilities and direct access to the Atlantic Ocean. For much of 1941, Scharnhorst and Prinz Eugen were under repair in the dockyards; the repair yard facilities for both submarines and surface vessels were staffed by both German and French workers, with the latter forming the major part of the workforce. In 1944, after the Allied invasion of Normandy, the city was totally destroyed during the Battle for Brest, with only a tiny number of buildings left standing. After the war, the West German government paid several billion Deutschmarks in reparations to the homeless and destitute civilians of Brest in compensation for the destruction of their city. Large parts of today's rebuilt city consist of utilitarian concrete buildings; the French naval base now houses the Brest Naval Training Centre.
A wartime German navy memorandum suggested that the town should serve as a German enclave after the war. In 1972, the French Navy opened its nuclear weapon-submarine base at Île Longue in the Rade de Brest; this continues to be an important base for the French nuclear-armed ballistic missile submarines. The meaning of the coat of arms of Brest is half France, half Brittany; these arms were used for the first time in a register of deliberations of the city council dated the 15 July 1683. Brest is best known for the military arsenal and the rue de Siam; the castle and the Tanguy tower are the oldest monuments of Brest
HMS Drake (1777)
HMS Drake was a 14-gun sloop-of-war of the Royal Navy. The merchantman Resolution, she was purchased in early 1777 and commissioned in April 1777, being fitted for RN service at Plymouth from 19 April to 24 May, she served in the American Revolutionary War, on 24 April 1778, off Carrickfergus, Northern Ireland, she fought the North Channel naval duel with the 18-gun sloop Ranger of the Continental Navy, commanded by Captain John Paul Jones. Five of Drake's crew, including her captain, George Burdon, were killed, after an hour-long engagement, Drake surrendered to the Americans. Jones was able to evade capture and deliver Drake to Brest, France as his prize on 8 May 1778; this was the first, most complete, American victory over any Royal Navy vessel in British waters
The Irish Sea separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain. Anglesey, Wales, is the largest island in the Irish Sea; the second in size is the Isle of Man and the sea may but be referred to as the Manx Sea. The Irish Sea is of significant economic importance to regional trade and transport, power generation in the form of wind power and nuclear power plants. Annual traffic between Great Britain and Ireland amounts to over 12 million passengers and 17 million tonnes of traded goods; the Irish Sea is connected to the North Atlantic at both its southern ends. To the north, the connection is through the North Channel between Scotland and Northern Ireland and the Malin Sea; the southern end is linked to the Atlantic through the St George's Channel between Ireland and Pembrokeshire, the Celtic Sea. It is composed of a deeper channel about 190 miles long and 20–30 miles wide on its western side and shallower bays to the east; the western channel's depth ranges from 80 metres up to 275 m in the Beaufort's Dyke in the North Channel.
Cardigan Bay in the south, the waters to the east of the Isle of Man, are less than 50 m deep. With a total water volume of 2,430 km3 and a surface area of 47,000 km2, 80% is to the west of the Isle of Man; the largest sandbanks are the Bahama and King William Banks to the east and north of the Isle of Man and the Kish Bank, Codling Bank, Arklow Bank and Blackwater Bank near the coast of Ireland. The Irish Sea, at its greatest width, narrows to 47 miles; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Irish Sea as follows, On the North. The Southern limit of the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland, defined as a line joining the South extreme of the Mull of Galloway in Scotland and Ballyquintin Point in Northern Ireland. On the South. A line joining St. David's Head in Wales to Carnsore Point in Ireland; the Irish Sea has undergone a series of dramatic changes over the last 20,000 years as the last glacial period ended and was replaced by warmer conditions. At the height of the glaciation, the central part of the modern sea was a long freshwater lake.
As the ice retreated 10,000 years ago, the lake reconnected to the sea. Ireland has no bridge connection to Great Britain. Northern Ireland ports handle 10 million tonnes of goods trade with the rest of the United Kingdom annually; the Port of Liverpool handles 734 thousand passengers a year. Holyhead port handles most of the passenger traffic from Dublin and Dún Laoghaire ports, as well as 3.3 million tonnes of freight. Ports in the Republic handle 3,600,000 travellers crossing the sea each year, amounting to 92% of all Irish Sea travel. Ferry connections from Wales to Ireland across the Irish Sea include Fishguard Harbour and Pembroke to Rosslare, Holyhead to Dún Laoghaire and Holyhead to Dublin. From Scotland, Cairnryan connects with both Larne. There is a connection between Liverpool and Belfast via the Isle of Man or direct from Birkenhead; the world's largest car ferry, Ulysses, is operated by Irish Ferries on the Dublin Port–Holyhead route. "Irish Sea" is the name of one of the BBC's Shipping Forecast areas defined by the coordinates: 54°50′N 05°05′W 54°45′N 05°45′W 52°30′N 06°15′W 52°00′N 05°05′WTransport for Wales Rail, Iarnród Éireann, Irish Ferries, Stena Line, Northern Ireland Railways, Stena Line and Abellio ScotRail promote SailRail with through rail tickets for the train and the ferry.
The Caernarfon Bay basin contains up to 7 cubic kilometres of Permian and Triassic syn-rift sediments in an asymmetrical graben, bounded to the north and south by Lower Paleozoic massifs. Only two exploration wells have been drilled so far, there remain numerous undrilled targets in tilted fault block plays; as in the East Irish Sea Basin, the principal target reservoir is the Lower Triassic, Sherwood Sandstone, top-sealed by younger Triassic mudstones and evaporites. Wells in the Irish Sector to the west have demonstrated that pre-rift, Westphalian coal measures are excellent hydrocarbon source rocks, are at peak maturity for gas generation. Seismic profiles image these strata continuing beneath a basal Permian unconformity into at least the western part of the Caernarfon Bay Basin; the timing of gas generation presents the greatest exploration risk. Maximum burial of, primary gas migration from, the source rocks could have terminated as early as the Jurassic, whereas many of the tilted fault blocks were reactivated or created during Paleogene inversion of the basin.
However, it is possible that a secondary gas charge occurred during regional heating associated with intrusion of Paleogene dykes, such as those that crop out nearby on the coastline of north Wales. (Floodpage et al
The Continental Navy was the navy of the United States during the American Revolutionary War, was formed in 1775. The fleet cumulatively became substantial through the efforts of the Continental Navy's patron John Adams and vigorous Congressional support in the face of stiff opposition, when considering the limitations imposed upon the Patriot supply pool; the main goal of the navy was to intercept shipments of British matériel and disrupt British maritime commercial operations. The initial fleet consisted of converted merchantmen because of the lack of funding and resources, with designed warships being built in the conflict; the vessels that made it to sea met with success only and the effort contributed little to the overall outcome of the war. The fleet did serve to highlight a few examples of Continental resolve, notably launching Captain John Barry into the limelight, it provided needed experience for a generation of officers who went on to command conflicts which involved the early American navy.
With the war over and the Federal government in need of all available capital, the final vessel of the Continental Navy, was auctioned off in 1785 to a private bidder. The Continental Navy is the first establishment of; the original intent was to intercept the supply of arms and provisions to British soldiers, who had placed Boston under martial law. George Washington had informed Congress that he had assumed command of several ships for this purpose, individual governments of various colonies had outfitted their own warships; the first formal movement for a navy came from Rhode Island, whose State Assembly passed a resolution on August 26, 1775 instructing its delegates to Congress to introduce legislation calling "for building at the Continental expense a fleet of sufficient force, for the protection of these colonies, for employing them in such a manner and places as will most annoy our enemies...." The measure in the Continental Congress was met with much derision on the part of Maryland delegate Samuel Chase who exclaimed it to be "the maddest idea in the world."
John Adams recalled, "The opposition... was loud and vehement. It was... represented as the most wild, mad project, imagined. It was an infant taking a mad bull by his horns." During this time, the issue arose of Quebec-bound British supply ships carrying needed provisions that could otherwise benefit the Continental Army. The Continental Congress appointed Silas Deane and John Langdon to draft a plan to seize ships from the convoy in question. On June 12, 1775, the Rhode Island General Assembly, meeting at East Greenwich, passed a resolution creating a navy for the colony of Rhode Island; the same day, Governor Nicholas Cooke signed orders addressed to Captain Abraham Whipple, commander of the sloop Katy and commodore of the armed vessels employed by the government. The first formal movement for the creation of a Continental navy came from Rhode Island because its merchants' widespread shipping activities had been harassed by British frigates. On August 26, 1775, Rhode Island General Assembly passed a resolution that there be a single Continental fleet funded by the Continental Congress.
The resolution was tabled. In the meantime, George Washington had begun to acquire ships, starting with the schooner Hannah, chartered by Washington from merchant and Continental Army Lt. Colonel John Glover of Marblehead, Massachusetts. Hannah was launched on September 5, 1775 from the port of Beverly, Massachusetts; the United States Navy recognizes October 13, 1775 as the date of its official establishment, the passage of the resolution of the Continental Congress at Philadelphia that created the Continental Navy. On this day, Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships; the first ship in commission was the USS Alfred, purchased on November 4 and commissioned on December 3 by Captain Dudley Saltonstall. On November 10, 1775, the Continental Congress passed a resolution calling for two battalions of Marines to be raised for service with the fleet. John Adams drafted its first governing regulations, which were adopted by Congress on November 28, 1775 and remained in effect throughout the Revolutionary War.
The Rhode Island resolution was reconsidered by the Continental Congress and was passed on December 13, 1775, authorizing the building of thirteen frigates within the next three months: five ships of 32 guns, five with 28 guns, three with 24 guns. When it came to selecting commanders for ships, Congress tended to be split evenly between merit and patronage. Among those who were selected for political reasons were Esek Hopkins, Dudley Saltonstall, Esek Hopkins' son John Burroughs Hopkins. However, Abraham Whipple, Nicholas Biddle, John Paul Jones managed to be appointed with backgrounds in marine warfare. On December 22, 1775, Esek Hopkins was appointed the naval commander-in-chief, officers of the navy were commissioned. Saltonstall, Biddle and Whipple were commissioned as captains of the Alfred, Andrew Doria and Columbus, respectively. Hopkins led the first major naval action of the Continental Navy in early March 1776 with this small fleet, complemented by the Providence and Hornet; the battle occurred at Nassau, Bahamas where stores of much-needed gunpowder were seized for the use of the Continental Army.
However, success was diluted with the appearance of disease spreading from ship to ship. On April 6, 1776, the squadron, with the addition of th
John Paul Jones
John Paul Jones was the United States' first well-known naval commander in the American Revolutionary War. He made many friends and enemies—who accused him of piracy—among America's political elites, his actions in British waters during the Revolution earned him an international reputation which persists to this day; as such, he is sometimes referred to as the "Father of the American Navy". Jones grew up in Scotland, became a sailor, served as commander of several British merchant ships. After having killed one of his crew members with a sword, he fled to the Colony of Virginia and around 1775 joined the newly founded Continental Navy in their fight against Britain in the American Revolutionary War, he commanded U. S. Navy ships stationed in France and led one single assault on England, which resulted in failure, few on British merchant ships. Left without a command in 1787, he joined the Imperial Russian Navy and obtained the rank of rear admiral. John Paul was born on the estate of Arbigland near Kirkbean in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright on the southwest coast of Scotland.
His father John Paul Sr. was a gardener at Arbigland, his mother was Jean McDuff. His parents married on November 1733 in New Abbey, Kirkcudbright. John Paul started his maritime career at the age of 13, sailing out of Whitehaven in the northern English county of Cumberland as apprentice aboard Friendship under Captain Benson. Paul's older brother William Paul had settled in Fredericksburg, Virginia. Virginia was the destination of many of the younger Jones's voyages. For several years, Paul sailed aboard a number of merchant and slave ships, including King George in 1764 as third mate and Two Friends as first mate in 1766. In 1768, he abandoned his prestigious position on the profitable Two Friends while docked in Jamaica, he found his own passage back to Scotland, obtained another position. John Paul's career was and unexpectedly advanced during his next voyage aboard the brig John, which sailed from port in 1768, when both the captain and a ranking mate died of yellow fever. Paul managed to navigate the ship back to a safe port and, in reward for this feat, the vessel's grateful Scottish owners made him master of the ship and its crew, giving him 10 percent of the cargo.
He led two voyages to the West Indies before running into difficulty. During his second voyage in 1770, John Paul had one of his crew flogged, leading to accusations that his discipline was "unnecessarily cruel"; these claims were dismissed, but his favorable reputation was destroyed when the sailor died a few weeks later. John Paul was arrested for his involvement in the man's death, was imprisoned in Kirkcudbright Tolbooth, but released on bail; the negative effect of this episode on his reputation is indisputable, although the man's death has been linked to yellow fever. The man who died of his injuries was not a usual sailor but an adventurer from a influential Scottish family. Leaving Scotland, John Paul commanded a London-registered vessel named Betsy, a West Indiaman mounting 22 guns, engaging in commercial speculation in Tobago for about 18 months; this came to an end, when John killed a mutinous crew member named Blackton with a sword in a dispute over wages. He claimed that it was in self-defense, years in a letter to Benjamin Franklin describing this incident, but was not willing to be tried in an Admiral's Court, where the family of his first victim had been influential.
He felt compelled to flee to Fredericksburg, leaving his fortune behind, with the additional purpose of arranging the affairs of his brother, who had died there without leaving any immediate family. About this time he assumed the surname of Jones, in addition to his original surname. There is a long-held tradition in the state of North Carolina that John Paul adopted the name "Jones" in honor of Willie Jones of Halifax, North Carolina. From that period, America became "the country of his fond election", as he afterwards expressed himself to Baron Joan van der Capellen tot den Pol, it was not long afterward. Sources struggle with this period of Jones's life the specifics of his family situation, making it difficult to pinpoint Jones's exact motivations for emigrating to America, it is not known whether his plans were not developing as expected for the plantation, or if he was inspired by a revolutionary spirit. Jones left for Philadelphia shortly after settling in North America to volunteer his services around 1775 to the newly founded Continental Navy, precursor to the United States Navy.
During this time, the Navy and Marines were being formally established, suitable ship's officers and captains were in great demand. Jones's potential would have gone unrecognized were it not for the endorsement of Richard Henry Lee, who knew of his abilities. With help from influential members of the Continental Congress, Jones was appointed as a 1st Lieutenant of the newly converted 24-gun frigate Alfred in the Continental Navy on December 7, 1775. Jones sailed from the Delaware River in February 1776 aboard Alfred on the Continental Navy's maiden cruise, it was aboard this vessel that Jones took the honor of hoisting the first U. S. ensign−the Grand Union Flag−over a naval vessel. The fleet had been expected to cruise along the coast but was ordered instead by Commodore Esek Hopkins to sail for The Bahamas, where Nassau was raided for military supplies; the fleet had an unsuccessful encounter with a British packet ship on their return voyage. Jones was assigned command of the sloop USS Pr
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers. They were developed in the late 19th century by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" were "large and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been shortened to "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War. Before World War II destroyers were light vessels with little endurance for unattended ocean operations. After the war, the advent of the guided missile allowed destroyers to take on the surface combatant roles filled by battleships and cruisers; this resulted in larger and more powerful guided missile destroyers more capable of independent operation.
At the start of the 21st century, destroyers are the global standard for surface combatant ships, with only two nations operating the heavier class cruisers, with no battleships or true battlecruisers remaining. Modern guided missile destroyers are equivalent in tonnage but vastly superior in firepower to cruisers of the World War II era, are capable of carrying nuclear tipped cruise missiles. At 510 feet long, a displacement of 9,200 tons, with armament of more than 90 missiles, guided missile destroyers such as the Arleigh Burke-class are larger and more armed than most previous ships classified as guided missile cruisers; some European navies, such as the French, Spanish, or German, use the term "frigate" for their destroyers, which leads to some confusion. The emergence and development of the destroyer was related to the invention of the self-propelled torpedo in the 1860s. A navy now had the potential to destroy a superior enemy battle fleet using steam launches to fire torpedoes. Cheap, fast boats armed with torpedoes called torpedo boats were built and became a threat to large capital ships near enemy coasts.
The first seagoing vessel designed to launch the self-propelled Whitehead torpedo was the 33-ton HMS Lightning in 1876. She was armed with two drop collars to launch these weapons, these were replaced in 1879 by a single torpedo tube in the bow. By the 1880s, the type had evolved into small ships of 50–100 tons, fast enough to evade enemy picket boats. At first, the threat of a torpedo boat attack to a battle fleet was considered to exist only when at anchor. In response to this new threat, more gunned picket boats called "catchers" were built which were used to escort the battle fleet at sea, they needed significant seaworthiness and endurance to operate with the battle fleet, as they became larger, they became designated "torpedo boat destroyers", by the First World War were known as "destroyers" in English. The anti-torpedo boat origin of this type of ship is retained in its name in other languages, including French, Portuguese, Greek, Dutch and, up until the Second World War, Polish. Once destroyers became more than just catchers guarding an anchorage, it was realized that they were ideal to take over the role of torpedo boats themselves, so they were fitted with torpedo tubes as well as guns.
At that time, into World War I, the only function of destroyers was to protect their own battle fleet from enemy torpedo attacks and to make such attacks on the battleships of the enemy. The task of escorting merchant convoys was still in the future. An important development came with the construction of HMS Swift in 1884 redesignated TB 81; this was a large torpedo boat with three torpedo tubes. At 23.75 knots, while still not fast enough to engage enemy torpedo boats reliably, the ship at least had the armament to deal with them. Another forerunner of the torpedo boat destroyer was the Japanese torpedo boat Kotaka, built in 1885. Designed to Japanese specifications and ordered from the Glasgow Yarrow shipyards in 1885, she was transported in parts to Japan, where she was assembled and launched in 1887; the 165-foot long vessel was armed with four 1-pounder quick-firing guns and six torpedo tubes, reached 19 knots, at 203 tons, was the largest torpedo boat built to date. In her trials in 1889, Kotaka demonstrated that she could exceed the role of coastal defense, was capable of accompanying larger warships on the high seas.
The Yarrow shipyards, builder of the parts for Kotaka, "considered Japan to have invented the destroyer". The first vessel designed for the explicit purpose of hunting and destroying torpedo boats was the torpedo gunboat. Small cruisers, torpedo gunboats were equipped with torpedo tubes and an adequate gun armament, intended for hunting down smaller enemy boats. By the end of the 1890s torpedo gunboats were made obsolete by their more successful contemporaries, the torpedo boat destroyers, which were much faster; the first example of this was HMS Rattlesnake, designed by Nathaniel Barnaby in 1885, commissioned in response to the Russian War scare. The gunboat was armed with torpedoes and designed for hunting and destroying
USS Hall (DD-583)
USS Hall was a Fletcher-class destroyer of the United States Navy, named for Lieutenant Elijah Hall, who served in the Continental Navy under John Paul Jones. Hall deployed to the Pacific theater. Following the war, the ship was placed in reserve until 1959, when she was sold to the Hellenic Navy and renamed Lonchi; the destroyer remained in service with the Hellenic Navy until 1990 and was scrapped in 1997. Hall was laid down by the Boston Navy Yard 16 April 1942 and was launched on 18 July 1942, sponsored by Mrs. Elizabeth Williams Greenleaf, great-granddaughter of Lt. Hall; the ship was commissioned on 6 July 1943, with Commander J. F. Delaney in command. Hall departed Boston, Massachusetts on 11 August 1943, for shakedown training off the East Coast reported for duty at Norfolk, Virginia on 28 September; as an escort for French transport Richelieu, she sailed for Boston on 2 October, returning three days later. She continued escort duties in the Norfolk and Boston areas until departing 5 November for special duty with the destroyers Halligan and Macomb.
The three destroyers rendezvoused at sea with the battleship Iowa, carrying President Franklin D. Roosevelt and other dignitaries to the Teheran Conference. After a safe crossing, the escorts were relieved of their duties near Gibraltar on 17 November, they performed escort and antisubmarine search duties off western Africa until 6 December rejoined Iowa for the return voyage of the President and his party. Ordered to the Pacific, Hall departed Charleston, South Carolina on 21 December and arrived at Pearl Harbor 11 January 1944. On 22 January, she cleared Hawaii with Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner's Expeditionary Force bound for the capture and occupation of the Marshall Islands, a giant step across the Pacific toward Japan. Sent with three cruisers and three other destroyers on a special mission to wreck the airfields on Tarao Island during the invasion, Hall joined in the devastating bombardment of that island 30 January, her guns knocked out a gasoline dump with a tremendous explosion, hit several gun emplacements, screened the larger ships during the remainder of the firing.
Tarao neutralized, the ships sailed for Kwajalein and the main assault. Hall carried out varied duties during the month-long invasion of the Marshalls. On 4 February, she supported the landing of troops on Burnet Island in the Battle of Kwajalein. During the Battle of Eniwetok on 18 February, she covered the landings of Engebi Island and supplied gunfire support, furnished starshell illumination for landings on 22 to 23 February on Parry Island. After an escort voyage with transports to Pearl Harbor and back between 29 February and 26 March, Hall was assigned patrol and lifeguard duties in the Kwajalein area. On 4 April, while searching for a downed Marine flyer near Wotje, she received two 6-inch shells close aboard from an enemy shore battery. Suffering one sailor killed, she returned the fire, continued her search, rescued the airman. Hall continued her effective role in the overwhelming amphibious victory until departing Majuro atoll 12 May for Pearl Harbor, where she arrived 18 May. Hall next joined the escort for a group of 12 fleet oilers whose job it was to supply vital fuel to units of the 5th Fleet during the Marianas operations.
She made two fuelling voyages from Majuro to the Marianas shifted her base to Seeadler Harbor, Admiralty Islands, on 26 August to screen refuelling and replacement units during the operations for the capture of the Carolines. Hall continued this duty until 24 November. Getting underway from Manus Island on 29 November, Hall steamed to Humboldt Bay, New Guinea, to join 7th Fleet for the developing invasion of the Philippines. Convoying troop-laden amphibious ships, she arrived at Leyte Gulf on 7 December 1944, 4 days steamed out of San Pedro Bay for Mindoro Island with the Mindoro Attack Group; as the ships passed through Surigao Strait and into the Sulu Sea, they underwent frequent severe air attacks, but the escort ships succeeded in downing four aircraft by 13 December. On 15 December and the other escorts supported the landings at Mangarin Bay and, as Japanese planes bombed and strafed the first wave of assault troops, Hall patrolled and fired from her station to seaward of the landing craft.
The gunfire and covering aircraft splashed 15 dive-bombers during the initial landings. After two escort voyages to Leyte Gulf, Hall joined Admiral Jesse B. Oldendorf's support force for the landings at Lingayen Gulf. Sailing 30 December, she steamed via the Sulu Sea for Luzon. On 3 January 1945, the group encountered desperate, but determined, enemy air strikes, which were repelled by tight air cover and effective gunfire; the Japanese attacks intensified and the ships remained at nearly continuous battle stations for more than 4 days. Brave men in these gallant ships inflicted heavy damage on the attackers. Japanese kamikazes, in turn, fatally hit the escort carrier Ommaney Bay 4 January, the burning, abandoned carrier was sunk by American torpedoes; the next two days brought heavier Japanese attacks. Despite the withering curtain of fire laid down by Hall and other ships of the group, the suicide raiders crashed more than 16 ships, including the battleships California and New Mexico. Undaunted, the valiant ships bore the brunt of the kamikazes with resolute courage and determination.
In doing so, they repelled the menace of the suicide planes and saved the transport and assault forces from certain destruction. Following the successful amphibious assaults in Lingayen Gulf on 9 January, Hall continued to operate in the Gulf where she served as an escort and screen ship. In the month on January 29, she returned to Leyte before departing for Ulithi. At Ulithi Hall joined in the prepara