House of Oldenburg
The House of Oldenburg is a European dynasty of North German origin. It is one of Europe's most influential royal houses, with branches that rule or have ruled in Denmark, Greece, Russia, Schleswig and Oldenburg; the current Queen of Denmark and King of Norway, the former King of Greece, the consort of the monarch of the United Kingdom, as well as the first thirteen persons in the line of succession to the British throne, are all patrilineal members of the Glücksburg branch of this house. The dynasty rose to prominence when Count Christian I of Oldenburg was elected as King of Denmark in 1448, of Norway in 1450 and of Sweden in 1457; the house has occupied the Danish throne since. Marriages of medieval counts of Oldenburg had paved the way for their heirs to become kings of various Scandinavian kingdoms. Through marriage with a descendant of King Valdemar I of Sweden and of King Eric IV of Denmark, a claim to Sweden and Denmark was staked, since 1350. At that time, its competitors were the successors of Margaret I of Denmark.
In the 15th century, the Oldenburg heir of that claim married Hedwig of Schauenburg, a descendant of Euphemia of Sweden and Norway and a descendant of Eric V of Denmark and Abel of Denmark. Since descendants better situated in genealogical charts died out, their son Christian became the king of all three kingdoms of the whole Kalmar Union; the House of Mecklenburg was its chief competitor regarding the Northern thrones, other aspirants included the Duke of Lauenburg. Different Oldenburgine branches have reigned in several countries; the House of Oldenburg was poised to claim the British thrones through the marriage of Queen Anne and Prince George of Denmark and Norway. Kings of Denmark Kings of Norway Kings of Sweden Counts of Oldenburg Dukes of Schleswig and Counts of Holstein Dukes of Schleswig and Holstein, ruling only part of the Duchies Dukes of Schleswig Dukes of Holstein Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, extinct in male line in 1931 Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein Kings of Denmark King of Iceland Kings of the Hellenes Mountbatten-Windsor line: although Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, his children and his sons' children are patrilineally descended from this branch, his male-line descendants bearing the style of "Royal Highness" are de jure members of the House of Windsor, by declaration of the British monarch.
Kings of Norway Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp Emperors of Russia Holstein-Gottorp, extinct Kings of Sweden King of Norway Holstein-Gottorp Dukes of Oldenburg Media related to House of Oldenburg at Wikimedia Commons Marek, The House of Oldenburg, Genealogy. EU
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Counts, dukes and grand dukes of Oldenburg
This is a list of the counts, grand dukes, prime ministers of Oldenburg. 1101–1108 Elimar I 1108–1143 Elimar II 1143–1168 Christian I the Quarrelsome 1168–1211 Maurice I 1209–1251 Otto I, joint rule with Christian II and with John I 1211–1233 Christian II 1233–1272 John I 1272–1278 Christian III 1272–1301 Otto II, Count of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst 1278–1305 John II 1302–1323 Christian IV 1305–1345 John III 1331–1356 John IV 1345–1368 Conrad I 1368–1386 Conrad II 1386–1420 Maurice II 1368–1398 Christian V 1398–1423 Christian VI 1423–1440 Dietrich the Lucky 1440–1448 Christian VII, in personal union as Christian I King of Denmark 1448–1483 Gerhard VI "the Quarrelsome" 1483–1500 Adolph, Count of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst 1500–1526 John V 1526–1529 John VI, joint rule with his brothers George and Anthony I, forced to resign in 1529 1526–1529 George, joint rule with his brothers John VI, Christopher and Anthony I, forced to resign in 1529 1526–1566 Christopher, joint rule with his brothers John VI, George and Anthony I 1526–1573 Anthony I, joint rule with his brothers John VI, George and Christopher 1573–1603 John VII 1573–1619 Anthony II, Count of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst 1603–1667 Anthony Günther 1667–1670 Frederick I, in personal union as Frederick III King of Denmark 1670–1699 Christian VIII, in personal union as Christian V King of Denmark 1699–1730 Frederick II, in personal union as Frederick IV King of Denmark 1730–1746 Christian IX, in personal union as Christian VI King of Denmark 1746–1766 Frederick III, in personal union as Frederick V King of Denmark 1766–1773 Christian X, in personal union as Christian VII King of Denmark, ceded the county to the Holstein-Gottorp line 1773 Paul I, ceded the county to his cousin of the Holstein-Gottorp line 1773–1774 Frederick Augustus I, in personal union Prince-Bishop of Lübeck To France in 1810–1813 Grand Duke of Oldenburg, Heir in Norway, Duke of Schleswig, Stormarn, Ditmarshes & Oldenburg, Prince of Lübeck and Birkenfeld, Lord of Jever and Kniphausen
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by Inc.. The subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCat's database, the world's largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscription OCLC services. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour; that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat. In 2003, OCLC began the "Open WorldCat" pilot program, making abbreviated records from a subset of WorldCat available to partner web sites and booksellers, to increase the accessibility of its subscribing member libraries' collections. In 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million "identities", predominantly authors and persons who are the subjects of published titles.
In December 2017, WorldCat contained over 400 million bibliographic records in 491 languages, representing over 2.6 billion physical and digital library assets, the WorldCat persons dataset included over 100 million people. WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model; that is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the underlying library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently: WorldCat shows that a particular item is owned by a particular library but does not provide that library's call number. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair, or moved to storage not directly accessible to patrons. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title; as an alternative, WorldCat allows participating institutions to add direct links from WorldCat to their own catalog entries for a particular item, which enables the user to determine its real-time status.
However, this still requires users to open multiple Web pages, each pointing to a different online public access catalog with its own distinctive user interface design, until they can locate a catalog entry that shows the item is available at a particular library. Copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Open Library Research Libraries UK Blackman, Cathy. "WorldCat and SkyRiver: a comparison of record quantity and fullness". Library Resources & Technical Services. 58: 178–186. Doi:10.5860/lrts.58n3.178. Breeding, Marshall. "Library services platforms: a maturing genre of products". Library Technology Reports. 51: 1–38. Doi:10.5860/ltr.51n4. Matthews, Joseph R.. "An environmental scan of OCLC alternatives: a management perspective". Public Library Quarterly. 35: 175–187. Doi:10.1080/01616846.2016.1210440. McKenzie, Elizabeth. OCLC changes its rules for use of records in WorldCat: library community pushback through blogs and cultures of resistance. Boston: Suffolk University Law School.
Research paper 12-06. What the OCLC online union catalog means to me: a collection of essays. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC. 1997. ISBN 1556532237. OCLC 37492023. Wilson, Kristen. "The knowledge base at the center of the universe". Library Technology Reports. 52: 1–35. Doi:10.5860/ltr.52n6. "WorldCat data licensing". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. See also: "Data licenses & attribution". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. Information about licensing of WorldCat records and some other OCLC data. Official website "WorldCat". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. Information on the OCLC website about WorldCat. "Bibliographic Formats and Standards". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. "WorldCat Identities". Worldcat.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31