The Peloponnesian War was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases and this period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing of the Peace of Nicias. That treaty, was undermined by renewed fighting in the Peloponnese. In 415 BC, Athens dispatched an expeditionary force to attack Syracuse in Sicily. This ushered in the phase of the war, generally referred to either as the Decelean War. The destruction of Athens fleet at Aegospotami effectively ended the war and Thebes demanded that Athens should be destroyed and all its citizens should be enslaved, but Sparta refused. The Peloponnesian War reshaped the ancient Greek world, the economic costs of the war were felt all across Greece, poverty became widespread in the Peloponnese, while Athens found itself completely devastated, and never regained its pre-war prosperity. Greek warfare, originally a limited and formalized form of conflict, was transformed into a struggle between city-states, complete with atrocities on a large scale.
Indeed, the fifty years of Greek history that preceded the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War had been marked by the development of Athens as a major power in the Mediterranean world. The city proceeded to conquer all of Greece except for Sparta and its allies, by the middle of the century, the Persians had been driven from the Aegean and forced to cede control of a vast range of territories to Athens. This tribute was used to support a fleet and, after the middle of the century, to fund massive public works programs in Athens. According to Thucydides, although the Spartans took no action at this time, conflict between the states flared up again in 465 BC, when a helot revolt broke out in Sparta. The Spartans summoned forces from all of their allies, including Athens, Athens sent out a sizable contingent, but upon its arrival, this force was dismissed by the Spartans, while those of all the other allies were permitted to remain. According to Thucydides, the Spartans acted in this way out of fear that the Athenians would switch sides and support the helots, the offended Athenians repudiated their alliance with Sparta.
When the rebellious helots were finally forced to surrender and permitted to evacuate the country, a fifteen-year conflict, commonly known as the First Peloponnesian War, ensued, in which Athens fought intermittently against Sparta, Aegina, and a number of other states. The war was ended by the Thirty Years Peace, signed in the winter of 446/5 BC. The Thirty Years Peace was first tested in 440 BC, when Athens powerful ally Samos rebelled from its alliance with Athens, the rebels quickly secured the support of a Persian satrap, and Athens found itself facing the prospect of revolts throughout the empire. The Spartans, whose intervention would have been the trigger for a war to determine the fate of the empire
In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta. The war is one of the most important events in Greek mythology and has been narrated through many works of Greek literature, most notably through Homers Iliad. The Iliad relates four days in the year of the decade-long siege of Troy. Other parts of the war are described in a cycle of epic poems, episodes from the war provided material for Greek tragedy and other works of Greek literature, and for Roman poets including Virgil and Ovid. Zeus sent the goddesses to Paris, who judged that Aphrodite, as the fairest, in exchange, Aphrodite made Helen, the most beautiful of all women and wife of Menelaus, fall in love with Paris, who took her to Troy. Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and the brother of Helens husband Menelaus, led an expedition of Achaean troops to Troy and besieged the city for ten years because of Paris insult. After the deaths of heroes, including the Achaeans Achilles and Ajax, and the Trojans Hector and Paris.
The Achaeans slaughtered the Trojans and desecrated the temples, thus earning the gods wrath, few of the Achaeans returned safely to their homes and many founded colonies in distant shores. The Romans traced their origin to Aeneas, one of the Trojans, in 1868, the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann met Frank Calvert, who convinced Schliemann that Troy was a real city at what is now Hissarlik in Turkey. On the basis of excavations conducted by Schliemann and others, this claim is now accepted by most scholars, whether there is any historical reality behind the Trojan War remains an open question. The events of the Trojan War are found in works of Greek literature. There is no single, authoritative text which tells the events of the war. Instead, the story is assembled from a variety of sources, the most important literary sources are the two epic poems traditionally credited to Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey, composed sometime between the 9th and 6th centuries BC. Each poem narrates only a part of the war, the Iliad covers a short period in the last year of the siege of Troy, while the Odyssey concerns Odysseuss return to his home island of Ithaca, following the sack of Troy.
Other parts of the Trojan War were told in the poems of the Epic Cycle, known as the Cyclic Epics, the Cypria, Little Iliad, Iliou Persis and Telegony. Though these poems survive only in fragments, their content is known from an included in Proclus Chrestomathy. The authorship of the Cyclic Epics is uncertain, both the Homeric epics and the Epic Cycle take origin from oral tradition. Even after the composition of the Iliad and the Cyclic Epics and details of the story that are only found in authors may have been passed on through oral tradition and could be as old as the Homeric poems
Polis, plural poleis literally means city in Greek. It can mean a body of citizens, in modern historiography, polis is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, and thus is often translated as city-state. The term city-state, which originated in English, does not fully translate the Greek term. The poleis were not like other primordial ancient city-states like Tyre or Sidon, which were ruled by a king or a small oligarchy, the term polis, which in archaic Greece meant city, changed with the development of the governance center in the city to signify state. Finally, with the emergence of a notion of citizenship among landowners, the ancient Greeks did not always refer to Athens, Sparta and other poleis as such, they often spoke instead of the Athenians, Thebans and so on. The body of citizens came to be the most important meaning of the polis in ancient Greece. The Greek term that meant the totality of urban buildings. Plato analyzes the polis in The Republic, whose Greek title, Πολιτεία, the best form of government of the polis for Plato is the one that leads to the common good.
The philosopher king is the best ruler because, as a philosopher, in Platos analogy of the ship of state, the philosopher king steers the polis, as if it were a ship, in the best direction. Books II–IV of The Republic are concerned with Plato addressing the makeup of an ideal polis, in The Republic, Socrates is concerned with the two underlying principles of any society, mutual needs and differences in aptitude. Starting from these two principles, Socrates deals with the structure of an ideal polis. According to Plato, there are five main classes of any polis, merchants, sailors/shipowners, retail traders. Along with the two principles and five classes, there are four virtues. The four virtues of a just city include, courage, with all of these principles and virtues, it was believed that a just city would exist. Publication of state functions, laws and major fiscal accounts were published, conurbation, Absorption of nearby villages and countryside, and the incorporation of their tribes into the substructure of the polis.
Many of a polis citizens lived in the suburbs or countryside, most cities were composed of several tribes or phylai, which were in turn composed of phratries, and finally génea. They had the right to vote, be elected into office, and bear arms, metics could not vote, be elected to office, bear arms, or serve in war. They otherwise had full personal and property rights, albeit subject to taxation, chattel in full possession of their owner, and with no privileges other than those that their owner would grant at will
A bouleuterion, translated as council house, assembly house, and senate house, was a building in ancient Greece which housed the council of citizens of a democratic city state. These representatives assembled at the bouleteurion to confer and decide about public affairs, there are several extant bouleuteria around Greece and its former colonies. It should not be confused with the Prytaneion, which housed the council of the assembly. The Athenian Boule is better known as the Council of 500, solon was credited with its formation in 594 BC as an assembly of 100 men each from Athenss four original tribes. At the adoption of the new constitution around 507 BC, this was changed to 50 men each from the 10 newly created tribes, the Old Bouleuterion was built on the west side of the Agora below the Kolonos Agoraios around 450 BC. It was almost square and included an antechamber and a main council chamber. The roof was supported by five columns and it is now better known as the Metroon since it was repurposed as her temple after the construction of the New Bouleuterion.
The New Bouleuterion was built west of the old building in the late 5th century BC and it was smaller but more sophisticated, with an amphitheater-like system of 12 levels of semicircular benches. Both the Old and New Bouleuteria used the nearby Tholos, the Olympian Bouleuterion was shaped like an early Greek temple, a kind of square horse-shoe. It had a seating arrangement and was located near the citys agora. Other bouleuteria exist at Anemourion, Argos in Greece, Lemnos in Greece, Messene and Troy
Apollonius of Rhodes is one of the many poets who tell how Selene, the Titan goddess of the moon, loved the mortal. She believed him to be so beautiful that she asked Endymions father, alternatively, Selene so loved how Endymion looked when he was asleep in the cave on Mount Latmus, near Miletus in Caria, that she entreated Zeus that he might remain that way. In either case, Zeus granted her wish and put him into an eternal sleep, every night, Selene visited him where he slept. Selene and Endymion had fifty daughters who are equated by some scholars with the fifty months of the Olympiad, the Bibliotheke claims that and Aethlius had a son Endymion who led Aeolians from Thessaly and founded Elis. But some say that he was a son of Zeus, as he was of unsurpassed beauty, the Moon fell in love with him, and Zeus allowed him to choose what he would, and he chose to sleep for ever, remaining deathless and ageless. Endymion had by a Naiad nymph or, as say, by Iphianassa, a son Aetolus, who slew Apis, son of Phoroneus.
There he killed his hosts and Laodocus and Polypoetes, the sons of Phthia and Apollo, according to Pausanias, Endymion deposed Clymenus, son of Cardys, at Olympia. The Moon, they say, fell in love with this Endymion, Endymion set his sons to run a race at Olympia for the throne, Epeius won, and obtained the kingdom, and his subjects were named Epeans for the first time. Pausanias reports seeing a statue of Endymion in the treasury of Metapontines at Olympia, Ciceros Tusculanae Quaestiones, and Theocritus discuss the Endymion myth to some length, but reiterate the above to varying degrees. The myth surrounding Endymion has been expanded and reworked during the period by figures like Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. But now you yourself it would seem, are a victim of a madness like mine, the Louvre example, discovered at Saint-Médard-dEyrans, France, is one of this class. Latin writers explained the name from somnum ei inductum, the put upon him. The myth of Endymion was never transferred to ever-chaste Artemis.
In the Renaissance, the moon goddess Diana had the Endymion myth attached to her. Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, William Heinemann Ltd.1921. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, William Heinemann Ltd, plato in Twelve Volumes, Vol.1 translated by Harold North Fowler, Introduction by W. R. M. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, William Heinemann Ltd.1966, la fortune littéraire et artistique du mythe d’Endymion à l’aube de l’ère moderne, ISBN 3-7861-2499-X. Diana and Endymion circa 1700-1730, by Francesco Solimena, national Museums Liverpool, Walker Art Gallery
Temple of Zeus, Olympia
The Temple of Zeus at Olympia was an ancient Greek temple in Olympia, dedicated to the god Zeus. The temple, built in the quarter of the fifth century BCE, was the very model of the fully developed classical Greek temple of the Doric order. Construction of the temple began around 470 BC and was completed by 457 BC. The architect was Libon of Elis, who worked in the Doric style, the temple was of peripteral form, with a frontal pronaos, mirrored by a similar arrangement at the back of the building, the opisthodomos. The building sat on a crepidoma of three steps, the exterior columns were positioned in a six by thirteen arrangement, two rows of seven columns divided the cella into three aisles. An echo of the original appearance can be seen in the Second Temple of Hera at Paestum. The temple featured carved metopes and triglyph friezes, topped by pediments filled with sculptures in the Severe Style, now attributed to the Olympia Master and his studio. According to Pausanias, the height up to the pediment was 68 feet, its breadth was 95 feet.
It was approached by a ramp on the east side and it was roofed with Pentelic marble cut into the shape of tiles. The marble was cut thinly enough to be translucent, so that on a summers day, the temple featured two pediments, the Eastern pediment depicts the chariot race between Pelops and Oenomaus while the Western pediment features a centauromachy with Theseus and the Lapiths. Pausanius reports in his Description of Greece that the Eastern pedimental sculpture was created by Paeonius, the metopes from the temple depict the twelve labours of Heracles. The temple housed the statue of Zeus, which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The Chryselephantine statue was approximately 13 m high, and was made by the sculptor Phidias in his workshop on the site at Olympia, the statues completion took approximately 12 years and was one of Classical Greeces most revered artistic works. The installation of the colossal statue coincided with substantial modification of the cella, the internal columns and their stylobates were dismantled and repositioned, which likely necessitated retiling the roof.
The original floor, paved with blocks of shell stone, was covered with water-resistant lime. The Roman general Mummius dedicated twenty-one gilded shields after he sacked Corinth in 146 BC, they were fixed at the metopes of the front side. In AD426, Theodosius II ordered the destruction of the sanctuary, earthquakes in 522 and 551 devastated the ruins and left the Temple of Zeus partially buried. The site of the ancient sanctuary, long forgotten under landslips, in 1829 a French team partially excavated the Temple of Zeus, taking several fragments of the pediments to the Musée du Louvre
In Greek mythology, was king of Pisa in the Peloponnesus. His father, was the founder of the House of Atreus through Pelopss son of that name. At the sanctuary at Olympia, chthonic night-time libations were offered each time to dark-faced Pelops in his sacrificial pit before they were offered in the daylight to the sky-god Zeus. Pelops was a son of Tantalus and either Dione, Euryanassa or Eurythemista, of Phrygian or Lydian birth, he departed his homeland for Greece, and won the crown of Pisa or Olympia from King Oenomaus in a chariot race married Oenomauss daughter, Hippodameia. Pelops and Hippodameia had at least sixteen children and their sons include Pittheus, Alcathous, Pleisthenes, Thyestes, Hippalcimus, Sciron and Letreus. Four of their daughters married into the House of Perseus, Nicippe, by the nymph Axioche or Danais Pelops was father of Chrysippus Pelops is believed to have Anatolian origins. He may have been worshipped in Phrygia or Lydia. Other ancient mythographers connect him with Paphlagonia and he may have come from the Paphlagonian town of Enete.
Others represent him as a native of Greece, who came from Olenos in Achaia, according to Strabo, Pelops cult may have come to the Peloponnese originally from Phthiotis, and was first based in Laconia. The Achaeans of Phthiotis came down with Pelops into the Peloponnesus, Pelops father was Tantalus, king at Mount Sipylus in Anatolia. Wanting to make an offering to the Olympians, Tantalus cut Pelops into pieces and made his flesh into a stew, deep in grief after the abduction of her daughter Persephone by Hades, absentmindedly accepted the offering and ate the left shoulder. The other gods sensed the plot and held off from eating of the boys body, while Tantalus was banished to Tartarus, Pelops was ritually reassembled and brought back to life, his shoulder replaced with one of ivory made for him by Hephaestus. Pindar mentioned this tradition in his First Olympian Ode, only to reject it as a malicious invention, after Pelops resurrection, Poseidon took him to Olympus, and made him the youth apprentice, teaching him to drive the divine chariot.
Later, Zeus found out about the stolen food and their now revealed secrets. Having grown to manhood, Pelops wanted to marry Hippodamia, worried about losing, Pelops went to the seaside and invoked Poseidon, his former lover. Reminding Poseidon of their love, he asked Poseidon for help, Poseidon caused a chariot drawn by untamed winged horses to appear. Two episodes involving charioteers were added into the account of the heroic chariot race. In the first related by Theopompus, having received the horses, on the way, his charioteer Cillus dies and stands in a dream over Pelops, who was highly distressed about him, to make requests for a funeral
Aetolia is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania. The country has a level and fruitful coastal region, but an unproductive, the mountains contained many wild beasts, and acquired fame in Greek mythology as the scene of the hunt for the Calydonian Boar. Dionysius of Halicarnassus mentions that Curetes was the old name of the Aetolians, the Aetolians took part in the Trojan War, under their king Thoas. The mountain tribes of Aetolia were the Ophioneis, the Apodotoi, the Agraeis, the Aperantoi, the primitive lifestyle of those tribes made an impression on ancient historians. Polybius doubted their Greek heritage, while Livy reports that spoke a language similar to the Macedonians. On the other hand, Thucydides claims that Eurytanians spoke a very difficult language and they were semi-barbaric and predatory. They worshiped Apollo as god of nature and Artemis as goddess of wilderness. They worshiped Athena, not as goddess of wisdom, and they called Apollo and Artemis “Laphrios gods, ” i. e. patrons of the spoils and loot of war.
In addition, they worshiped Hercules, the river Achelous and Bacchus, in Thermos, an area north of Trichonis lake, there was after the 7th century a shrine of Apollo “Thermios, ” which became a significant religious center during the time of the Common Aetolia. The Aetolians refused to participate in the Persian Wars, in 426 BC, led by Aegitios, they defeated the Athenians and their allies, who had turned against Apodotia and Ophioneia under the general command of Demosthenes. However, they failed to regain Naupaktos, which had meanwhile been conquered by the Corinthians with the aid of the Athenians, at the end of the Peloponnesian War, the Aetolians took part as mercenaries of the Athenians in the expedition against Syracuse. Then the Achaeans occupied Calydon, but the Aetolians recovered it in 361 BC, in 338 BC, Naupaktos was again taken by the Aetolians, with the help of Philip II. During the Lamian War, the Aetolians helped the Athenian general Leosthenes defeat Antipater, as a result, they came into conflict with Antipater and Craterus, taking great risks, but were eventually saved by the disagreement between the two Macedonian generals and Perdiccas.
The Acarnanians attempted to invade their land, but the Aetolians were able to force them to flee, the Aetolians set up a united league, the Aetolian League, in early times. It soon became a confederation and by c.340 BC it became one of the leading military powers in ancient Greece. Subsequently, the Sotiria Games were established by the Aetolians, in honour of Zeus the Saviour, the Aetolians’ power increasingly magnified with the occupation of the lands of Ozoloi and Phocians, as well as Boeotia. They united under the power of their League in the areas of Tegea, Orchomenus, between 220–217 BC, the Social War broke out between the Achaean and Aetolian Leagues. The war was first started by the Aetolians with the help of the Spartans and Eleans, allies of the Achaeans were the Macedonians, the Boeotians, the Phocians, the Epirotes, the Acarnanians and the Messenians
Olympia, a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis on the Peloponnese peninsula, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The Olympic Games were held four years throughout Classical antiquity. The sanctuary, known as the Altis, consists of an arrangement of various buildings. Enclosed within the temenos are the Temple of Hera, the Temple of Zeus, the Pelopion, and the area of the altar, to the north of the sanctuary can be found the Prytaneion and the Philippeion, as well as the array of treasuries representing the various city-states. The Metroon lies to the south of these treasuries, with the Echo Stoa to the east, the hippodrome and stadium were located east of the Echo Stoa. To the south of the sanctuary is the South Stoa and the Bouleuterion, whereas the Palaestra, the workshop of Pheidias, the Gymnasion, very close to the Temple of Zeus which housed this statue, the studio of Pheidias was excavated in the 1950s. Evidence found there, such as tools, corroborates this opinion.
The ancient ruins sit north of the Alpheios River and south of Mount Kronos, the Kladeos, a tributary of the Alpheios, flows around the area. Building of Ptolemy II and Arsinoe II,13, Pheidias workshop and paleochristian basilica,25. For a history of the Olympic Games, see Olympic Games or Ancient Olympic Games, remains of food and burnt offerings dating back to the 10th century BC give evidence of a long history of religious activity at the site. No buildings have survived from this earliest period of use, the first Olympic festival was organized on the site by the authorities of Elis in the 8th century BC – with tradition dating the first games at 776 BC. Major changes were made to the site around 700 BC, including levelling land, Elis power diminished and the sanctuary fell into the hands of the Pisatans in 676 BC. The Pisatans organized the games until the late 7th century BC, the earliest evidence of building activity on the site dates from around 600 BC. At this time the Skiloudians, allies of the Pistans, built the Temple of Hera, the Treasuries and the Pelopion were built during the course of the 6th century BC.
The secular structures and athletic arenas were under construction during this period including the Bouleuterion, the first stadium was constructed around 560 BC, it consisted of just a simple track. The stadium was remodelled around 500 BC with sloping sides for spectators, over the course of the 6th century BC a range of sports were added to the Olympic festival. In 580 BC, Elis, in alliance with Sparta, occupied Pisa, the classical period, between the 5th and 4th centuries BC, was the golden age of the site at Olympia. A wide range of new religious and secular buildings and structures were constructed, the Temple of Zeus was built in the middle of the 5th century BC