Frederick I of Prussia
Frederick I, of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia in personal union. The latter function. From 1707 he was in personal union the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel, he was the paternal grandfather of Frederick the Great. Born in Königsberg, he was the third son of Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg by his father's first marriage to Louise Henriette of Orange-Nassau, eldest daughter of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange and Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, his maternal cousin was King William III of England. Upon the death of his father on 29 April 1688, Frederick became Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia. Right after ascending the throne Frederick founded a new city southerly adjacent to Dorotheenstadt and named it after himself, the Friedrichstadt. Frederick was noted for his opposition to France, in contrast to his father who had sought an alliance with Louis XIV. Frederick took Brandenburg into the League of Augsburg against France and in 1689 led military forces into the field as part of the allied coalition.
That year an army under his command captured Bonn. Despite this opposition to France he was fond of French culture, styled his court in imitation of that of Louis XIV; the Hohenzollern state was known as Brandenburg-Prussia. The family's main possessions were the Margraviate of Brandenburg within the Holy Roman Empire and the Duchy of Prussia outside of the Empire, ruled as a personal union. Although he was the Margrave and Prince-elector of Brandenburg and the Duke of Prussia, Frederick desired the more prestigious title of king. However, according to Germanic law at that time, no kingdoms could exist within the Holy Roman Empire, with the exception of the Kingdom of Bohemia. In the Crown Treaty of 16 November 1700, Frederick persuaded Leopold I, Archduke of Austria and Holy Roman Emperor, to allow Prussia to be elevated to a kingdom; this agreement was ostensibly given in exchange for an alliance against King Louis XIV in the War of the Spanish Succession and the provision of 8,000 Prussian troops to Leopold's service.
Frederick argued that Prussia had never been part of the Holy Roman Empire, he ruled over it with full sovereignty. Therefore, he said, there was no political barrier to letting him rule it as a kingdom. Frederick was aided in the negotiations by Charles Ancillon. Frederick crowned himself on 18 January 1701 in Königsberg. Although he did so with the Emperor's consent, with formal acknowledgement from Augustus II the Strong, Elector of Saxony, who held the title of King of Poland, the Polish-Lithuanian Diet raised objections, viewed the coronation as illegal. In fact, according to the terms of the Treaty of Wehlau and Bromberg, the House of Hohenzollern's sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia was not absolute but contingent on the continuation of the male line. Therefore, out of deference to the region's historic ties to the Polish crown, Frederick made the symbolic concession of calling himself "King in Prussia" instead of "King of Prussia", his royalty was, in any case, limited to Prussia and did not reduce the rights of the Emperor in the portions of his domains that were still part of the Holy Roman Empire.
In other words, while he was a king in Prussia, he was still only an elector under the suzerainty of the Holy Roman Emperor in Brandenburg. The Hohenzollern state was still a personal union between Brandenburg and Prussia. However, by the time Frederick crowned himself as king, the emperor's authority over Brandenburg was only nominal, in practice it soon came to be treated as part of the Prussian kingdom rather than as a separate entity, his grandson, Frederick the Great, was the first Prussian king to formally style himself "King of Prussia". Frederick was a patron of learning; the Akademie der Künste in Berlin was founded by Frederick in 1696, as was the Academy of Sciences in 1700, though the latter was closed down by his son as an economic measure. Frederick appointed Jacob Paul von Gundling as Professor of History and Law at the Berlin Knights Academy in 1705, as historian at the Higher Herald's Office in 1706. Frederick is entombed in the Berliner Dom, his grandson, Frederick the Great, referred to Frederick I as "the mercenary king", due to the fact that he profited from the hiring of his Prussian troops to defend other territories, such as in northern Italy against the French.
"All in all," he wrote of his grandfather, "he was great in small matters, small in great matters." Frederick was married three times: first to Elizabeth Henrietta of Hesse-Kassel, with whom he had one child, Louise Dorothea, born 1680, who died without issue at age 25. Then to Sophia Charlotte of Hanover, with whom he had Frederick August Frederick William I, born in 1688, who succeeded him. In 1708, he married Sophia Louise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, who survived him but had no children by him, he had an official mistress, Catharina von Wartenberg, between 1696 and 1711. However, he was never known to make use of her services, being in love with his first wife. Frederick's ancestors in four generations Media related to Frederick I of Prussia at Wikimedia Commons "Frederick I. of Prussia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg
John Sigismund was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from the House of Hohenzollern. He became the Duke of Prussia through his marriage to Duchess Anna, the eldest daughter of Duke Albert Frederick of Prussia who died without sons, their marriage resulted in the creation of Brandenburg-Prussia. John Sigismund was born in Halle an der Saale to Joachim III Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg, his first wife Catherine of Brandenburg-Küstrin, he succeeded his father as Margrave of Brandenburg in 1608. In 1611, John Sigismund traveled from Königsberg to Warsaw, where on 16 November 1611 he gave feudal homage to Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland, he became Duke of Prussia in 1618, although he had served as regent on behalf of the mentally-disturbed Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia, for several years prior. John Sigismund died in the following year. John Sigismund gave the Reichshof Castrop to his teacher and educator Carl Friedrich von Bordelius, whereas he received the territories of Cleves and Ravensberg in the Treaty of Xanten in 1614.
John Sigismund's most significant action was his conversion from Lutheranism to Calvinism, after he had earlier equalized the rights of Catholics and Protestants in the Duchy of Prussia under pressure from the King of Poland. He was won over to Calvinism during a visit to Heidelberg in 1606, but it was not until 1613 that he publicly took communion according to the Calvinist rite; the vast majority of his subjects in Brandenburg, including his wife Anna of Prussia, remained Lutheran, however. After the Elector and his Calvinist court officials drew up plans for mass conversion of the population to the new faith in February 1614, as provided for by the rule of Cuius regio, eius religio within the Holy Roman Empire, there were serious protests, with his wife backing the Lutherans. Resistance was so strong that in 1615, John Sigismund backed down and relinquished all attempts at forcible conversion. Instead, he allowed his subjects to be either Lutheran or Calvinist according to the dictates of their own consciences.
Henceforward, Brandenburg-Prussia would be a bi-confessional state. On 30 October 1594, John Sigismund married Anna of Prussia, daughter of Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia, they were parents to eight children: George William. His successor. Anne Sophia of Brandenburg. Married Frederick Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. Married Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, they were parents of Christina of Sweden. Catherine of Brandenburg. Married first Gabriel Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania and secondly Franz Karl of Saxe-Lauenburg. Joachim Sigismund of Brandenburg. Agnes of Brandenburg. John Frederick of Brandenburg. Albrecht Christian of Brandenburg. Theodor Hirsch, "Johann Sigismund", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 14, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 169–175 Settlement of Dortmund between Brandenburg and Palatinate-Neuburg and the conflict of succession in Jülich, in full text "Brandenburg, Confession of". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920
Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg
Joachim Frederick, of the House of Hohenzollern, was Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1598 until his death. Joachim Frederick was born in Cölln to John George, Elector of Brandenburg, Sophie of Legnica, he served as administrator of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg from 1566 to 1598 succeeded his father as Elector of Brandenburg in 1598. Joachim Frederick was succeeded at his death by his son John Sigismund. Joachim Frederick's first marriage on 7 March 1570 was to Catherine of Brandenburg-Küstrin, daughter of John, Margrave of Brandenburg-Küstrin, Catherine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Joachim Frederick's second marriage, on 23 October 1603, was to Eleanor of Prussia, born 12 August 1583, daughter of Albert Frederick and Marie Eleonore of Cleves, he became regent of the Duchy of Prussia in 1605. His titles included "duke of Stettin, Cassubia and Crossen", according to the terms of the Treaty of Grimnitz, although the Pomeranian titles were only nominal. Joachim Frederick and Catherine of Brandenburg-Küstrin had these children: John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg Anne Catherine, married King Christian IV of Denmark Girl John George, Duke of Jägerndorf married Eva Christina of Württemberg, daughter of Frederick I, Duke of Württemberg and Sibylla of Anhalt.
Elected Bishop of Strasbourg 1592. Herrenmeister of the Order of Saint John from 1616 until his death. August Frederick Albert Frederick Joachim Ernest Barbara Sophie, married John Frederick, Duke of Württemberg Girl Christian William Joachim Frederick and Eleanor of Prussia had only one child: Marie Eleonore, married Louis Philip, Count Palatine of Simmern-Kaiserslautern Joachim-Freidrich Strasse in Berlin is named after him
Agnes of Solms-Laubach
Agnes of Solms-Laubach was a Countess of Solms-Laubach and, by marriage, Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel from 1593 until her death. Agnes was a daughter of Count John George of Solms-Laubach from his marriage to Margaret, daughter of Count George I of Schönburg-Glauchau, she married at the age of 15, on 23 September 1593, to Kassel Landgrave Maurice of Hesse-Kassel, whom she had met at the wedding of his oldest sister Anna Maria. Anna's wedding was celebrated in the presence of numerous princely guests; the marriage to the Calvinist Countess increased Maurice ties with the Calvinist counts of Wetterau although Maurice had chosen Agnes as his wife more out of love than of dynastic calculation. Agnes was described as exceptionally talented and lovable. Matthäus Merian made an embroidery of the countess with her husband and children. On the day after Anna's death, Maurice wrote to King Henry IV of France about his great loss. From her marriage with Maurice, Agnes had following children: Otto married firstly in 1613 Princess Katharina Ursula of Baden-Durlach married secondly in 1617 Princess Agnes Magdalena of Anhalt-Dessau Elisabeth married in 1618 Duke John Albert II of Mecklenburg-Güstrow Maurice William V, Landgrave of Hesse-Kasselmarried in 1619 Countess Amalie Elisabeth of Hanau-Münzenberg Christian Roeth: history of Hesse, p. 225 ff.
Heiner Borggrefe, Vera Lüpkes and Hans Otto Meyer: The scholar Maurice: a Renaissance prince in Europe, 1997 Stefan Schweizer: interpretation of history and pictures from history, p. 270 Alison Deborah Anderson: On the verge of war, p. 34
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Schloss Köpenick is a Baroque water palace of the Hohenzollern electors of Brandenburg which stands on an island in the Dahme River surrounded by an English-style park and gives its name to Köpenick, a district of Berlin. The castle was built on the foundations of a Slavic castle in 1558 as a hunting lodge by order of Elector Joachim II Hector of Brandenburg; the building in a Renaissance style was located on the river island at the site of the former medieval fort. Joachim II died here in 1571. In 1631 it served as the headquarters of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, where he - without results - asked his brother-in-law Elector George William for assistance in the Thirty Years' War. Frederick I of Prussia had the lodge rebuilt and enlarged from 1677 and lived here together with his first wife Elizabeth Henrietta of Hesse-Kassel. In 1730 Frederick II of Prussia Crown Prince, his friend Hans Hermann von Katte faced the court-martial for desertion at Schloss Köpenick. Today the castle surrounded by a small park serves as the Museum of Decorative Arts, run by the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation as part of the Berlin State Museums.
Since 1963, Köpenick Palace has been used by the Kunstgewerbemuseum as an exhibition space. Being renovated in 2004, the palace accommodates museum of arts with the permanent exhibition "RoomArt", featuring the decorative arts of the Renaissance and Rococo periods; the museum presents the outstanding masterworks in interior design from the 16th to 18th centuries. Josef Batzhuber: Garten der Schlossinsel Köpenick, Stadtbezirk Treptow-Köpenick. Überarbeitete Auflage, Bonn 2005. Folkwin Wendland: Berlins Gärten und Parke von der Gründung der Stadt bis zum ausgehenden neunzehnten Jahrhundert. Raimund Hertzsch: Schloß Köpenick. Lothar Lambacher: Schloss Köpenick. Archäologie, Nutzung. Günter Schade: Schloß Köpenick. Ein Streifzug durch die Geschichte der Köpenicker Schloßinsel. Verbesserte Ausgabe, Berlin 1975. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin: Schloß Köpenick. Kunstgewerbemuseum: Europäisches Kunsthandwerk aus zehn Jahrhunderten. Schloss Köpenick - official site at Berlin State Museums
Treaties of Nijmegen
The Treaties of Peace of Nijmegen were a series of treaties signed in the Dutch city of Nijmegen between August 1678 and December 1679. The treaties ended various interconnected wars among France, the Dutch Republic, Brandenburg, Denmark, the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, the Holy Roman Empire; the most significant of the treaties was the first, which established peace between France and the Dutch Republic and placed the northern border of France near its modern position. The Franco-Dutch War of 1672–78 was the source of all the other wars that were ended formally at Nijmegen. Separate peace treaties were arranged for conflicts like the Third Anglo-Dutch War and the Scanian War, but all of them had been directly caused by and form part of the Franco-Dutch War. England participated in the war on the French side but withdrew in 1674, after the Treaty of Westminster. Peace negotiations had begun as early as 1676, but nothing was agreed to and signed before 1678; the treaties did not result in a lasting peace.
Some of the countries involved signed peace deals elsewhere, such as the Treaty of Celle, Treaty of Saint-Germain and Treaty of Fontainebleau. 10 August 1678 – France and the Dutch Republic make peace. Sweden was not part of the treaty, but a section orces the Dutch Republic to take a neutral approach toward Sweden with which it had been at war since 1675. 19 September 1678 – France and Spain make peace. 26 January 1679 – France makes peace with the Holy Roman Empire. 26 January 1679 – Sweden mades peace with the Holy Roman Empire. 19 March 1679 – Sweden makes peace with the Prince-Bishopric of Münster. All of Münster's soldiers in Danish war service are to be withdrawn. 2 October 1679 – Sweden made peace with the Dutch Republic. The Franco–Dutch War ended with a treaty which gave France control over the region of the Franche-Comté. France gained further territories of the Spanish Netherlands, adding to those it had annexed under the 1659 Peace of the Pyrenees and 1668 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
These included the town of Saint-Omer with the remaining northwestern part of the former Imperial County of Artois. In turn, French King Louis XIV ceded the occupied town of Maastricht and the Principality of Orange to the Dutch stadtholder William III; the French forces withdrew from several occupied territories in northern Hainaut. Emperor Leopold I had to accept the French occupation of the towns of Freiburg and Kehl on the right bank of the Rhine. Marc-Antoine Charpentier wrote a Te Deum for this occasion; the prelude of the Te Deum is known as the Eurovision Song Contest theme. Scan of the Franco-Dutch treaty