Edward Lhuyd was a Welsh naturalist, linguist and antiquary. He is known by the Latinized form Eduardus Luidius. Lhuyd was born in Loppington, the illegitimate son of Edward Lloyd of Llanforda and Bridget Pryse of Llansantffraid, near Talybont, Cardiganshire, he attended and taught at Oswestry Grammar School. His family belonged to the gentry of south-west Wales. Though well-established, the family was not well-off, his father experimented with agriculture and industry in a manner that brought him into contact with the new science of the day. Lhuyd attended grammar school in Oswestry and went up to Jesus College, Oxford in 1682, but dropped out before graduation. In 1684, he was appointed assistant to Robert Plot, the Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum and replaced him as Keeper in 1690, holding the post until his death in 1709. While at the Ashmolean, he travelled extensively. A visit to Snowdonia in 1688 allowed him to construct for John Ray's Synopsis Methodica Stirpium Britannicorum a list of flora local for that region.
After 1697, Lhuyd visited every county in Wales travelled to Scotland, Ireland and Brittany and the Isle of Man. In 1699, financial aid from his friend Isaac Newton allowed him to publish Lithophylacii Britannici Ichnographia, a catalogue of fossils collected around England Oxford, now held in the Ashmolean. In 1701, Lhuyd received a MA honoris causa from the University of Oxford, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1708, he was responsible for the first scientific description and naming of what we would now recognize as a dinosaur: the sauropod tooth Rutellum implicatum. In the late 17th century, Lhuyd was contacted by a group of scholars, led by John Keigwin of Mousehole, who were trying to preserve and further the Cornish language, he accepted their invitation to travel there to study it. Early Modern Cornish was the subject of a paper published by Lhuyd in 1702. In 1707, having been assisted in his research by fellow Welsh scholar Moses Williams, he published the first volume of Archaeologia Britannica: an Account of the Languages and Customs of Great Britain, from Travels through Wales, Bas-Bretagne and Scotland.
This is an important source for its linguistic description of Cornish, but more so for its understanding of historical linguistics. Some of the ideas attributed to linguists of the 19th century have their roots in this work by Lhuyd, "considerably more sophisticated in his methods and perceptions than Jones". Lhuyd noted the similarity between the two linguistic families: P -- Celtic, he argued that the Brythonic languages originated in Gaul, the Goidelic languages in the Iberian Peninsula. He concluded that as the languages were of the people who spoke them were Celts. From the 18th century, the peoples of Brittany, Ireland, Isle of Man and Wales were known as Celts, are regarded to this day as the modern Celtic nations. During his travels, Lhuyd developed asthma, which led to his death from pleurisy in Oxford in 1709; the Snowdon lily was for a time called Lloydia serotina after Lhuyd. Cymdeithas Edward Llwyd, the National Naturalists' Society of Wales, is named after him. On 9 June 2001, a bronze bust of Lhuyd was unveiled by Dafydd Wigley, the former leader of Plaid Cymru, outside the University of Wales's Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies in Aberystwyth, adjacent to the National Library of Wales.
The sculptor was John Meirion Morris. Delair, Justin B. and William A. S. Sarjeant. "The earliest discoveries of dinosaurs: the records re-examined." Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 113: 185–197 Emery, Frank. Edward Lhuyd. 1971 Evans, Dewi W. and Brynley F. Roberts Archæologia Britannica: Texts and Translations. Celtic Studies Publications 10. 2007. Description Gunther, R. T; the Life and Letters of Edward Lhuyd. 1945 Roberts, Brynley F. Edward Lhuyd, the Making of a Scientist. 1980 Williams, Derek R. Prying into every hole and corner: Edward Lhuyd in Cornwall in 1700. 1993 Williams, Derek R. Edward Lhuyd, 1660–1709: A Shropshire Welshman. 2009 "Never at rest" A biography of Isaac Newton by Richard S. Westfall ISBN 0521274354 581 pp. Archaeologia Britannica. Downloadable pdf at The Internet Archive Biography of Edward Lhuyd from the Canolfan Edward Llwyd, a centre for the study of science through Welsh Lithophylacii Britannici ichnographia – full digital facsimile from Linda Hall Library
Pillar of Eliseg
The Pillar of Eliseg — known as Elise's Pillar or Croes Elisedd in Welsh — stands near Valle Crucis Abbey, Wales. It was erected by Cyngen ap Cadell, king of Powys in honour of his great-grandfather Elisedd ap Gwylog; the form Eliseg found on the pillar is thought to be a mistake by the carver of the inscription. Whilst the pillar itself dates to the 9th century, the mound is thought to be older prehistoric; the mound can be dated to the Bronze Age. The Latin inscription consisted of some thirty-one lines of insular script, it not only mentioned several individuals described in the Historia Britonum, but complemented the information presented in that text. The Latin inscription was as follows: † Concenn filius Cattell Cattell / filius Brohcmail Brohcmal filius / Eliseg Eliseg filius Guoillauc † Concenn itaque pronepos Eliseg / edificauit hunc lapidem proauo / suo Eliseg † Ipse est Eliseg qui nec/xit hereditatem Pouos … mort / c autem per uim …e potestate Anglo/…in gladio suo parta in igne / † Quicu]mque recituerit manescrp/ … m det benedictionem supe/ Eliseg † Ipse est Concenn /……… … manu / ……… e ad regnum suum Pouos / …… …… et quod / …… … …… / …… …… montem /… ………… /……… … monarchiam / … … ail Maximus Brittanniae / … nn Pascen … Mau Annan / … Britu atm filius Guarthi/ que bened Germanus que / … peperit ei Seira filia Maximi / gis qui occidit regem Romano/rum † Conmarch pinxit hoc / chirografu rege suo poscente / Concenn † Benedictio dni in Con/cenn et sr i tota familia eius / et in tota ragione Pouois / usque in …A accepted translation of this inscription, one of the longest surviving inscriptions from pre-Viking Wales, is as follows: † Concenn son of Cattell, Cattell son of Brochmail, Brochmail son of Eliseg, Eliseg son of Guoillauc.
† And that Concenn, great-grandson of Eliseg, erected this stone for his great-grandfather Eliseg. † The same Eliseg, who joined together the inheritance of Powys... throughout nine out of the power of the Angles with his sword and with fire. † Whosoever shall let him give a blessing on the soul of Eliseg. † This is that Concenn who captured with his hand eleven hundred acres which used to belong to his kingdom of Powys... and which...... the mountain... the monarchy... Maximus... of Britain... Concenn, Maun, Annan. † Britu son of Vortigern, whom Germanus blessed, whom Sevira bore to him, daughter of Maximus the king, who killed the king of the Romans. † Conmarch painted this writing at the request of king Concenn. † The blessing of the Lord be upon Concenn and upon his entire household, upon the entire region of Powys until the Day of Judgement. The Pillar was thrown down by the Roundheads during the English Civil War and a grave under it opened. Edward Lhuyd examined the Pillar and copied the inscription in 1696.
The lower half disappeared but the upper half was re-erected in 1779. The original inscription is now illegible. Trevor Lloyd, the landowner in 1773 is said to have conducted an examination and found a stone cist burial in which he claimed to have found a skeleton and artefacts, which he removed; the mound which supports the pillar was subjected to excavation in the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 by Project Eliseg. This established that the earliest phase of construction was that of a kerbed platform cairn, dated by type to around 2000 BC. A small cist in the first phase of construction yielded evidence of burnt human bone, confirming its use as a burial site; the second phase of construction consisted of a raising in height of the cairn and contained a large cist considered as Early Bronze Age, however, no human remains were found. A further cist was found in this phase which contained some 7 kg of cremated bone, which represents numerous adult and infant burials. A flint knife and a bone pin were recovered.
The final phase of construction appeared to be modern and subsequent to the re-erection of the cross. Magnus Maximus Gratian Rhys, John. "All around the Wrekin". Y Cymmrodor: The magazine of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. Y Cymmrodor. XXI. London: Honorable Society of Cymmrodorion. Pp. 1–62. – the pillar and the etymology of "Eliseg" are discussed in this article, which includes Edward Lhuyd's translation. Project Eliseg - 2010 Archaeological Excavation of the Pillar and Surrounding area On the castlewales website "Ancient British Pillar, Valle Crucis Abbey, South Wales", Table-book
Owain Glyndŵr, or Owain Glyn Dŵr, sometimes called Owen Glendower in English, was a Welsh ruler and the last native Welshman to hold the title Prince of Wales. He instigated a fierce and long-running, yet unsuccessful war of independence with the aim of ending English rule in Wales. Glyndŵr was a descendant of the Princes of Powys through his father Gruffudd Fychan II, hereditary Tywysog of Powys Fadog and Lord of Glyndyfrdwy, of those of Deheubarth through his mother Elen ferch Tomas ap Llywelyn ab Owen. On 16 September 1400, Glyndŵr instigated the Welsh Revolt against the rule of Henry IV of England; the uprising was very successful and gained control of large areas of Wales, but it suffered from key weaknesses – a lack of artillery, which made capturing defended fortresses difficult, of ships, which made their coastlands vulnerable. The uprising was suppressed by the superior resources of the English. Glyndŵr was driven from his last strongholds in 1409, but he avoided capture and the last documented sighting of him was in 1412.
He twice ignored offers of a pardon from his military nemesis, the new king Henry V of England, despite the large rewards offered, Glyndŵr was never betrayed to the English. His death was recorded by a former follower in the year 1415. In William Shakespeare's play Henry IV, Part 1, the character of Owen Glendower is a wild and exotic king ruled by magic and emotion. With his death Owain acquired a mythical status along with Cadwaladr and Arthur as the hero awaiting the call to return and liberate his people. In the late 19th century, the Cymru Fydd movement recreated him as the father of Welsh nationalism. Glyndŵr was born around 1349 to a prosperous landed family, part of the Anglo-Welsh gentry of the Welsh Marches in northeast Wales; this group moved between Welsh and English societies and languages, occupying important offices for the Marcher Lords while maintaining their position as uchelwyr — nobles descended from the pre-conquest Welsh royal dynasties — in traditional Welsh society. His father, Gruffydd Fychan II, hereditary Tywysog of Powys Fadog and Lord of Glyndyfrdwy, died some time before 1370, leaving Glyndŵr's mother Elen ferch Tomas ap Llywelyn of Deheubarth a widow and Owain a young man of 16 years at most.
The young Owain ap Gruffydd was fostered at the home of David Hanmer, a rising lawyer shortly to be a justice of the Kings Bench, or at the home of Richard FitzAlan, 3rd Earl of Arundel. Owain is thought to have been sent to London to study law at the Inns of Court, he studied as a legal apprentice for seven years. He was in London during the Peasants' Revolt of 1381. By 1383, he had returned to Wales, where he married David Hanmer's daughter, started his large family and established himself as the Squire of Sycharth and Glyndyfrdwy, with all the responsibilities that entailed. Glyndŵr entered the English king's military service in 1384 when he undertook garrison duty under the renowned Welshman Sir Gregory Sais, or Sir Degory Sais, on the English–Scottish border at Berwick-upon-Tweed. In August 1385, he served King Richard under the command of John of Gaunt again in Scotland. On 3 September 1386, he was called to give evidence in the Scrope v Grosvenor trial at Chester. In March 1387, Owain was in southeast England under Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel, in the English Channel at the defeat of a Franco-Spanish-Flemish fleet off the coast of Kent.
Upon the death in late 1387 of his father-in-law, Sir David Hanmer, knighted earlier that same year by Richard II, Glyndŵr returned to Wales as executor of his estate. He served as a squire to Henry Bolingbroke, son of John of Gaunt, at the short, sharp Battle of Radcot Bridge in December 1387, he had gained three years' concentrated military experience in different theatres and seen at first hand some key events and people. King Richard was distracted by a growing conflict with the Lords Appellant from this time on. Glyndŵr's opportunities were further limited by the death of Sir Gregory Sais in 1390 and the sidelining of Richard Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel, he returned to his stable Welsh estates, living there for ten years during his forties; the bard Iolo Goch, himself a Welsh lord, visited him in the 1390s and wrote a number of odes to Owain, praising Owain's liberality, writing of Sycharth, "Rare was it there / to see a latch or a lock." The names and number of Owain Glyndŵr's siblings cannot be known.
The following are given by the Jacob Youde William Lloyd: Brother Tudur, Lord of Gwyddelwern, born about 1362, died 11 March 1405 at a battle in Brecknockshire in the wars of his brother. Brother Gruffudd who had a daughter and heiress, Eva. Sister Lowri spelled Lowry, married Robert Puleston of Emral. Sister Isabel married Adda ap Iorwerth Ddu of Llys Pengwern. Sister Morfudd married Sir Richard Croft of Croft Castle, in Herefordshire and, David ab Ednyfed Gam of Llys Pengwern. Sister Gwenllian. Tudur and Lowri are given as his siblings by the more cautious Prof. R R Davies; that Owain Glyndŵr had another brother. In the late 1390s, a series of events began to push Owain towards rebellion, in what was to be called the Welsh Revolt, the Glyndŵr Rising or the Last War of Independence, his neighbour, Baron Grey de Ruthyn, had seized control of some land, for which Glyndŵr appealed to the English Parliament. Owain's petition for redress was ignored. In 1400, Lord Grey informed Glyndŵr too lat
Valle Crucis Abbey
Valle Crucis Abbey is a Cistercian abbey located in Llantysilio in Denbighshire, Wales. More formally the Abbey Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Valle Crucis it is known in Welsh both as Abaty Glyn Egwestl and Abaty Glyn y Groes; the abbey was built in 1201 by Prince of Powys Fadog. Valle Crucis was dissolved in 1537 during the Dissolution of the Monasteries, subsequently fell into serious disrepair; the building is now a ruin. Valle Crucis Abbey is now under the care of Cadw. Valle Crucis Abbey was founded in 1201 by Madog ap Gruffydd Maelor, on the site of a temporary wooden church and was the last Cistercian monastery to be built in Wales. Founded in the principality of Powys Fadog, Valle Crucis was the spiritual centre of the region, while Dinas Bran was the political stronghold; the abbey took its name from the nearby Pillar of Eliseg, erected four centuries earlier by Cyngen ap Cadell, King of Powys in memory of his great-grandfather, Elisedd ap Gwylog. Madog was buried in the then-completed abbey upon his death in 1236.
Not long after Madog's death, it is believed that a serious fire badly damaged the abbey, with archaeological evidence that the church and south range were affected. The location on which Valle Crucis was raised was established as a colony of twelve monks from Strata Marcella, an earlier abbey located on the western bank of the River Severn near Welshpool; the original wooden structure was replaced with stone structures of faced rubble. The completed abbey is believed to have housed up to about sixty brethren, 20 choir monks and 40 lay-members who would have carried out the day-to-day duties including agricultural work; the numbers within the church fluctuated throughout its history and the monks and the abbey itself came under threat from various political and religious events. The abbey is believed to have been involved in the Welsh Wars of Edward I of England during the 13th century, was damaged in the uprising led by Owain Glyndŵr. Numbers fell after the Black Death ravaged Britain; the fortunes of Valle Crucis improved during the 15th century, the abbey gained a reputation as a place of hospitality.
Several important Welsh poets of the period spent time at the abbey including Gutun Owain, Tudur Aled and Guto'r Glyn. Guto'r Glyn spent the last few years of his life at the abbey, was buried at the site in 1493. In 1537, Valle Crucis was dissolved, as it was deemed not prosperous compared to the more wealthy English abbeys. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the site fell into disrepair, the building was given to Sir William Puckering on a 21-year lease by Henry VIII; the lease was renewed under the reign of Henry's son Edward VI in 1551, but after Sir William's death in 1574, the property was passed to his daughter, Hestor. In 1575 Hestor married Edward Wotton, 1st Baron Wotton, the lease was extended to Baron Wotton in 1583 by Elizabeth I. By the late 16th century the eastern range was converted into a manor house. Valle Crucis remained with the Wotton family, was inherited by the 2nd Baron Wotton, but upon his death it was passed to Hestor Wotton, his third daughter. Hestor married Baptist Noel, 3rd Viscount Campden and the abbey entered the family's ownership, before being sold shortly afterwards when the estate was sequestered by Parliament in 1651.
By the late 18th century the building that remained were re-roofed and the site was used as a farm, before excavations were undertaken in the half of the 19th century. The site is now cared for by Cadw, is an open visitor attraction, it is surrounded by a caravan park, which occupies fields on three sides and extends up to the outer walls of the ruin. Valle Crucis Abbey consisted of the church plus several adjoining out buildings which enclosed a square courtyard; the church itself ran West to East in the traditional cruciform style. Today much of the original church is ruined, though the west end front wall survives, including the masonry of the rose window, much of the east end. In the 14th century the church was divided by a pulpitum across the nave; the lay brothers worshipped before an altar in front of the pulpitum, the choir monks before the high altar or side chapels. The outbuildings including the adjoining east range, which survives intact and the west range, which housed the lay brethren’s frater, but is now demolished.
Completing the four sides of the inner courtyard was the southern frater and kitchen, which faced the church. The east and west ranges housed the cloisters, with the east range leading to the final structure, the abbot's lodgings which settled between the range and the church but outside the courtyard; the site is home to the only remaining monastic fishpond in Wales, but suffered from being remodelled as a reflecting pool in the 18th century. As well as the west end front wall, extensive parts of the east end of the structures survive to the present day; the chancel walls, the southern part of the transept, the east range of the cloister together with the chapter house and sacristy and the lower part of the reredorter all survive intact. In 1870 the west end wall was restored by George Gilbert Scott. Rather unusually for a monastic ruin, parts of the first floor can be accessed, including the dormitory and abbot's lodgings. Many pieces have been removed by the local museum, the font from the church was placed in the gardens of Plas Newydd, Llangollen by the Ladies of Llangollen in the late 18th century.
List of abbeys and priories in Wales List of Cadw properties Davies, John. The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of W
Kingdom of Powys
The Kingdom of Powys was a Welsh successor state, petty kingdom and principality that emerged during the Middle Ages following the end of Roman rule in Britain. It roughly covered the top two thirds of the modern county of Powys and part of the West Midlands. More and based on the Romano-British tribal lands of the Ordovices in the west and the Cornovii in the east, its boundaries extended from the Cambrian Mountains in the west to include the modern West Midlands region of England in the east; the fertile river valleys of the Severn and Tern are found here, this region is referred to in Welsh literature as "the Paradise of Powys". The name Powys is thought to derive from Latin pagus'the countryside' and pagenses'dwellers in the countryside' the origins of French "pays" and English "peasant". During the Roman Empire, this region was organised into a Roman province, with the capital at Viroconium Cornoviorum, the fourth-largest Roman city in Britain. An entry in the Annales Cambriae concerning the death of King Cadell ap Brochfael says that the land called Powys was known as Teyrnllwg.
Throughout the Early Middle Ages, Powys was ruled by the Gwerthrynion dynasty, a family claiming descent jointly from the marriage of Vortigern and Princess Sevira, the daughter of Magnus Maximus. Archaeological evidence has shown that, unusually for the post-Roman period, Viroconium Cornoviorum survived as an urban centre well into the 6th century and thus could have been the Powys capital; the Historia Brittonum, written around AD 828, records the town as Caer Guricon, one of his "28 British Towns" of Roman Britain. In the following centuries, the Powys eastern border was encroached upon by English settlers from the emerging Anglian territory of Mercia; this was a gradual process, English control in the West Midlands was uncertain until the late 8th century. In 549 the Plague of Justinian - an outbreak of a strain of bubonic plague - arrived in Britain, Welsh communities were devastated, with villages and countryside alike depopulated. However, the English were less affected by this plague as they had far fewer trading contacts with the continent at this time.
Faced with shrinking manpower and increasing Anglian encroachment, King Brochwel Ysgithrog may have moved the court from Caer Guricon to Pengwern, the exact site of, unknown but may have been at Shrewsbury, traditionally associated with Pengwern, or the more defensible Din Gwrygon, the hill fort on The Wrekin. In 616, the armies of Æthelfrith of Northumbria clashed with Powys. Seeing an opportunity to further drive a wedge between the North Welsh and those of Rheged, Æthelfrith invaded Powys' northern lands. Æthelfrith defeated Selyf and his allies. At the commencement of the battle, Bede tells us that the pagan Æthelfrith slaughtered 1200 monks from the important monastery of Bangor-on-Dee in Maelor because, he said, "they fight against us, because they oppose us by their prayers". Selyf ap Cynan was killed in the battle and may have been the first of the kings of Powys to be buried at the church dedicated to St. Tysilio, at Meifod, thence known as the Eglwys Tysilio and subsequently the dynasty's Royal mausoleum.
If King Cynddylan of Pengwern hailed from the royal Powys dynasty forces from Powys may have been present at the Battle of Maes Cogwy in 642. According to the ninth-century cycle of englyn-poems Canu Heledd, the region around Pengwern was sacked soon after, its royal family slaughtered and most of its lands were annexed by Mercia, some by Powys. However, this account is now thought to represent ninth-century imaginings of what must have been going on in the seventh, inspired by Powys's political situation in the ninth century. Powys enjoyed a resurgence with successful campaigns against the English in 655, 705-707 and 722, wrote Davies; the court was moved to Mathrafal Castle in the valley of the river Vyrnwy by 717 by king Elisedd ap Gwylog. Elisedd's successes led King Æthelbald of Mercia to build Wat's Dyke; this endeavour may have been with Elisedd's own agreement, for this boundary, extending north from the Severn valley to the Dee estuary, gave Oswestry to Powys. King Offa of Mercia seems to have continued this consultive initiative when he created a larger earth work, now known as Offa's Dyke.
Davies wrote of Cyril Fox's study of Offa's Dyke: In the planning of it, there was a degree of consultation with the kings of Powys and Gwent. On the Long Mountain near Trelystan, the dyke veers to the east, leaving the fertile slopes in the hands of the Welsh, and for Gwent Offa had the dyke built "on the eastern crest of the gorge with the intention of recognizing that the river Wye and its traffic belonged to the kingdom of Gwent. This new border moved Oswestry back to the English side of the new frontier, Offa attacked Powys in 760 at Hereford, again on 778, 784 and 796. Offa's Dyke remained the frontier between the Welsh and English, though the Welsh would recover by the 12th century the area between the Dee and the River Conwy, known as the Perfeddwlad or "Midlands". Powys was united with Gwynedd when king Merfyn Frych of Gwynedd married princess Nest ferch Cadell, sister of king Cyngen of Powys, the last representative of the Gwertherion dynasty. With the death of Cyngen in 855 Rhodri the Great became king of Powys, having inherited Gwynedd the year before.
This formed the basis of Gwynedd's continued claims of overlordship over Powys for the next 443 years. Rhodri the Great ruled over most of modern Wales until his death in 878, his sons would in t
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to