Carcassonne is a French fortified city in the department of Aude, in the region of Occitanie. A prefecture, it has a population of about 50,000. Inhabited since the Neolithic period, Carcassonne is located in the Aude plain between historic trade routes, linking the Atlantic to the Mediterranean sea and the Massif Central to the Pyrénées, its strategic importance was recognized by the Romans, who occupied its hilltop until the demise of the Western Roman Empire. In the fifth century, it was taken over by the Visigoths, its strategic location led successive rulers to expand its fortifications until the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659. Its citadel known as the Cité de Carcassonne, is a medieval fortress dating back to the Gallo-Roman period, was restored by the theorist and architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc in 1853, it was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1997. Carcassonne relies on tourism but counts manufacturing and wine-making as some of its other key economic sectors. Carcassonne is located in the south of France, about 80 kilometres east of Toulouse.
Its strategic location between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea has been known since the neolithic era. The town's area is about 65 km2, larger than the numerous small towns in the department of Aude; the rivers Aude and the Canal du Midi flow through the town. The first signs of settlement in this region have been dated to about 3500 BC, but the hill site of Carsac – a Celtic place-name, retained at other sites in the south – became an important trading place in the 6th century BC; the Volcae Tectosages fortified the oppidum. The folk etymology – involving a châtelaine named Lady Carcas, a ruse ending a siege, the joyous ringing of bells – though memorialized in a neo-Gothic sculpture of Mme. Carcas on a column near the Narbonne Gate, is of modern invention; the name can be derived as an augmentative of the name Carcas. Carcassonne became strategically identified when the Romans fortified the hilltop around 100 BC and made the colonia of Julia Carsaco Carcasum; the main part of the lower courses of the northern ramparts dates from Gallo-Roman times.
In 462 the Romans ceded Septimania to the Visigothic king Theodoric II who had held Carcassonne since 453. He built more fortifications at Carcassonne, a frontier post on the northern marches. Theodoric is thought to have begun the predecessor of the basilica, now dedicated to Saint Nazaire. In 508 the Visigoths foiled attacks by the Frankish king Clovis. Saracens from Barcelona took Carcassonne in 725, but King Pepin the Short drove them away in 759-60. A medieval fiefdom, the county of Carcassonne, controlled its environs, it was united with the County of Razès. The origins of Carcassonne as a county lie in local representatives of the Visigoths, but the first count known by name is Bello of the time of Charlemagne. Bello founded a dynasty, the Bellonids, which would rule many honores in Septimania and Catalonia for three centuries. In 1067, Carcassonne became the property of Raimond-Bernard Trencavel, viscount of Albi and Nîmes, through his marriage with Ermengard, sister of the last count of Carcassonne.
In the following centuries, the Trencavel family allied in succession either with the counts of Barcelona or of Toulouse. They built the Basilica of Saints Nazarius and Celsus. In 1096, Pope Urban II blessed the foundation stones of the new cathedral. Carcassonne became famous for its role in the Albigensian Crusades, when the city was a stronghold of Occitan Cathars. In August 1209 the crusading army of the Papal Legate, Abbot Arnaud Amalric, forced its citizens to surrender. Viscount Raymond-Roger de Trencavel was imprisoned whilst negotiating his city's surrender and died in mysterious circumstances three months in his own dungeon; the people of Carcassonne were allowed to leave – in effect, expelled from their city with nothing more than the shirt on their backs. Simon De Montfort was appointed the new viscount, he added to the fortifications. In 1240, Trencavel's son in vain; the city submitted to the rule of the kingdom of France in 1247. Carcassonne became a border fortress between France and the Crown of Aragon under the Treaty of Corbeil.
King Louis IX founded the new part of the town across the river. He and his successor Philip III built the outer ramparts. Contemporary opinion still considered the fortress impregnable. During the Hundred Years' War, Edward the Black Prince failed to take the city in 1355, although his troops destroyed the Lower Town. In 1659, the Treaty of the Pyrenees transferred the border province of Roussillon to France, Carcassonne's military significance was reduced. Fortifications were abandoned, the city became an economic centre that concentrated on the woollen textile industry, for which a 1723 source quoted by Fernand Braudel found it "the manufacturing centre of Languedoc", it remained so until the Ottoman market collapsed at the end of the eighteenth century, thereafter reverting to a country town. Carcassonne was the first fortress to use hoardings in times of siege. Temporary wooden ramparts would be fitted to the upper walls of the fortress through square holes beneath the rampart itself, it provided protection to defenders on the wall and allowed defenders to go out past the wall to drop projectiles on attackers at the wall
Parc des Sports (Avignon)
Parc des Sports is a multi-purpose stadium in Avignon, France. It is used for football matches and hosts the home matches of Ligue 2 club, AC Arles-Avignon; the capacity of the stadium is 17,518 spectators. Since its opening in 1975, Parc des Sports has hosted fourteen France international rugby league matches with the first on 5 December 1982, when France hosted Australia as part of the 1982 Kangaroo tour. In front of 8,000 fans, Australia won the game 15-4 against a committed French team, its last international match was on Friday 1 November 2013, when the stadium hosted France's 2013 Rugby League World Cup game against New Zealand in front of a capacity crowd of 17,518. The French national team has played 15 test matches at the Parc des Sports with the first held against Australia on 5 December 1982; the stadium hosted a 2000 Rugby League World Cup qualifying match between Morocco and Lebanon in 1999. Media related to Parc des Sports at Wikimedia Commons Venue information
Football Club de Lézignan are a semi-professional rugby league football club based in Lézignan-Corbières in the départment of Aude in the south of France. They play in the Elite One Championship, they have won six Lord Derby Cups. The club was founded in 1903. In 1939 the club switched codes and began playing rugby league, which had gained success with the formation of the French championship in 1934. In the 2007-08 season the club, led by their French international player-coach James Wynne, won the French Championship for the first time in 30 years and reached the fourth round of the Challenge Cup, they play in the Elite One Championship at the Stade du Moulin and are coached by Aurelien Cologni In 1893 Joseph Anglade a university professor practised a game called football with students on a ground they called'Belle Isle'. The game was a mixture of football and rugby similar to what is now'Australian Football' On the back of this a student called Lucien Mountain in 1903 founded the original rugby club'Football Club Lezignanais'.
In 1919 after 14 years playing in the hospital grounds the club moved their own ground to the Stade du Moulin called the Stadium of the Mill. In 1921 the club competed in the French Rugby Union Championship for the first time and in 1929 they reached the final but were beaten by US Quillan. Disheartened by rugby in France at this time the club was dissolved in 1931 after they had been threatened with a ban from entering the competition due to financial payments. On 2 August 1939 the new'Lezignan' club joined Rugby league and participated in the 1939/40 season this would be the last one before war broke out. During the war the Vichy Government banned the sport and made players play union, after the war the club resumed playing Rugby League; the revival of the club began in 1954 with the appointment of Edouard Ponsinet as captain-coach and of the arrival of new president Me Fau. They won their first junior title in 1960 the club won their first major trophy winning the Lord Derby Cup under Andre Carere.
The following season the Sangliers lifted the French Rugby League Championship for the first time beating Roanne XIII in the final. In 1963 they won their second title, with the juniors doing better as they completed a league and cup double. Two more cup wins followed for the first team in 1966 and 1970. During the 70s the club under Michel Maique produced a host of excellent young and local players culminating in a 1978 title win over XIII Catalan in which 12 of the starting lie up were from their own youth team. There were near misses as they were runners up three times in the cup 1971, 74 and 78 and in the league in 76, it was during this era that one of their best players emerged in Pierre Lacaze nicknamed'The Butterfly'. There followed a long barren spell in terms of success, 30 years, until they won the league title in 2008. There followed a spell of dominance from the club in which they won 4 straight titles and two cup wins resulting in two consecutive double campaigns in 2010 and 2011.
In 2015 they won the Lord Derby Cup for a sixth time beating St Esteve XIII Catalan in the final. Season 2016/17 brought delight in finishing top of the table but disappointment in losing both the league play-off final against Limoux Grizzlies and the Lord Derby Cup final against AS Carcassonne.'Lezignan play in white green and pink of various design. The badge depicts a windmill, still present at the site; the earliest reference to rugby being played in Lezignan came in 1893 when students played at a place called'Belle Isle' on the'Route de Cruscades. Between 1905 and 1919 rugby was played in the grounds of the hospital at the front of the building named as'Jardins de Blasco' it had one wooden stand, stripped away during the war. In 1919 Lezignan president Gustave Gayraud acquired land from the County of Kerouartz to use as a rugby ground. On the land was a vineyard, two mills, one water the other wind, a small stream, the windmill is now just ruins but the watermill still stands; the first match played at the Stade du Moulin was in October 1919 v Stade Toulousain, the supporters themselves built the first dressing rooms.
Over the years work has been done to the ground with a major overhaul done in 2000 following devastating floods the year before. The current capacity is 6,000. On 3 July 2001 the ground hosted its first full international when Scotland national rugby league team won against France national rugby league team 42-20 Squad for 2018-19 season Lilian Albert - Centre Julien Bartusiak - Prop Maxime Benausse - Five-eighth Theo Bonneriez - Centre Emir-Walid Bouregba - Second-row Florian Bousquet - Hooker Charles Bouzinac - Hooker Damien Cardace - Fullback Alexandre Costes - Second-row Jamal Fakir - Prop Valentin Ferret - Wing Dorian Gouzy - Wing Bernard Gregorius - Centre Mohamed Jamil - Prop Amine Miloudi - Fullback Anthony Ors - Loose forward Benjamin Sarda - Wing Cyril Stacul - Wing Yoan Tisseyre - Second-row Benjamin Tort - Wing Mathieu Tovena - Hooker Mickael Tribillac - Loose forward Blake Leary - Loose forward Elite One Championship 1960/61, 1962/63, 1977/78, 2007/08, 2008/09, 2009/10, 2010/11Lord Derby Cup 1960, 1966, 1970, 2010, 2011, 2015 Official site
Promotion and relegation
In sports leagues and relegation is a process where teams are transferred between multiple divisions based on their performance for the completed season. The best-ranked team in the lower division are promoted to the higher division for the next season, the worst-ranked team in the higher division are relegated to the lower division for the next season. In some leagues, playoffs or qualifying rounds are used to determine rankings; this process can continue through several levels of divisions, with teams being exchanged between levels 1 and 2, levels 2 and 3, levels 3 and 4, so on. During the season, teams that are high enough in the league table that they would qualify for promotion are sometimes said to be in the promotion zone, those at the bottom are in the relegation zone. An alternate system of league organisation, used in the US and Canada is a closed model based on licensing or franchises; this maintains the same teams from year to year, with occasional admission of expansion teams and relocation of existing teams, with no team movement between the major league and minor leagues.
The number of teams exchanged between the divisions is always identical. Exceptions occur when the higher division wishes to change the size of its membership, or has lost one or more of its clubs and wishes to restore its previous membership size, in which case fewer teams are relegated from that division, or more teams are accepted for promotion from the division below; such variations cause a "knock-on" effect through the lower divisions. For example, in 1995 the Premier League voted to reduce its numbers by two and achieved the desired change by relegating four teams instead of the usual three, whilst allowing only two promotions from Football League Division One. In the absence of such extraordinary circumstances, the pyramid-like nature of most European sports league systems can still create knock-on effects at the regional level. For example, in a higher league with a large geographical footprint and multiple feeder leagues each representing smaller geographical regions, should most or all of the relegated teams in the higher division come from one particular region the number of teams to be promoted or relegated from each of the feeder leagues may have to be adjusted, or one or more teams playing near the boundary between the feeder leagues may have to transfer from one feeder league to another to maintain numerical balance.
The system is said to be the defining characteristic of the "European" form of professional sports league organization. Promotion and relegation have the effect of allowing the maintenance of a hierarchy of leagues and divisions, according to the relative strength of their teams, they maintain the importance of games played by many low-ranked teams near the end of the season, which may be at risk of relegation. In contrast, a low-ranked US or Canadian team's final games serve little purpose, in fact losing may be beneficial to such teams, yielding a better position in the next year's draft. Although not intrinsic to the system, problems can occur due to the differing monetary payouts and revenue-generating potential that different divisions provide to their clubs. For example, financial hardship has sometimes occurred in leagues where clubs do not reduce their wage bill once relegated; this occurs for one of two reasons: first, the club can't move underperforming players on, or second, the club is gambling on being promoted back straight away and is prepared to take a financial loss for one or two seasons to do so.
Some leagues offer "parachute payments" to its relegated teams for the following year. The payouts are higher than the prize money received by some non-relegated teams and are designed to soften the financial hit that clubs take whilst dropping out of the Premier League. However, in many cases these parachute payments just serve to inflate the costs of competing for promotion among the lower division clubs as newly relegated teams retain a financial advantage. In some countries and at certain levels, teams in line for promotion may have to satisfy certain non-playing conditions in order to be accepted by the higher league, such as financial solvency, stadium capacity, facilities. If these are not satisfied, a lower-ranked team may be promoted in their place, or a team in the league above may be saved from relegation. While the primary purpose of the promotion/relegation system is to maintain competitive balance, it may be used as a disciplinary tool in special cases. On several occasions, the Italian Football Federation has relegated clubs found to have been involved in match-fixing.
This occurred most in 2006, when the season's initial champions Juventus were relegated to Serie B, two other teams were relegated but restored to Serie A after appeal. In some Communist nations several in Europe after World War II, clubs were promoted and relegated for political reasons rather than performance; this was made evident in the late eighties by teams such as Romanian Steaua București and Yugoslav Red Star Belgrade, both winners of the European Champions League despite the rampant level of corruption in their Communist local leagues. Promotion and relegation may be used in international sports tournaments. In tennis, the Davis Cup and Fed Cup have promotion and relegation, with a'World Group' (split into two divisions in the Fe
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Saint-Gaudens Bears are a semi-professional rugby league club based in the town of Saint-Gaudens, in the Haute-Garonne region of south-western France. They play in the Elite One Championship; the club was formed in 1958. They have won the French rugby league championship on four occasions and lifted the Lord Derby Cup three times, their home ground is the Stade Jules Ribet. The club was founded in 1958 as Racing Club Saint-Gaudinois Comminges XIII, it was during early 1970s that they enjoyed their best spell. Having been runners up in the league on four occasions 1963, 66, 67 and 69 they won it in 1970 when they beat the favourites XIII Catalan 33-10. Two more runners up spots in 1971 and 72 showed. In 1973 they lifted the cup in their first appearance in the final, beating AS Carcassonne on their own ground 22-8; the following season brought more silverware. There followed a lean period, in fact it would be 27 years before any more success occurred but in that season of 1990-91 they registered a league and cup double.
In the cup they beat Pia XIII 30-4 and the league was won thanks to a 10-8 win against US Villeneuve. They retained the cup the following season beating RC Carpentras 22-10 in the final; the league title was won again in 2004 a year after finishing runner up. The 2004 final in Perpignan was won against Union Treiziste Catalane 14-10. A steady decline began after this and the club finished bottom of the league in both 2009 and 2010 escaping relegation but in 2011 the club was relegated to the Elite Two Championship After five seasons in the 2nd tier they were promoted back to the top division when the league was increased; the club have always played at the Stade Jules Ribet. Rugby had been played at the venue since 1898, it has a main stand that seats 2,000 with a total capacity of 5,000. On 23 November 2011 the ground hosted an under 19 game between France and the touring Australians the visitors winning 40-12 Squad for 2018-19 Season.
Stade Albert Domec
Stade Albert Domec is a multi-use municipal stadium in Carcassonne, France. It has a capacity of 10,000 spectators, it is the home ground of Pro D2 rugby union club Union Sportive Carcassonnaise and Elite One Championship rugby league club Association Sportive de Carcassonne XIII. It is used by the association football club Football Agglomération Carcassonne for their big matches. Built in 1899, it is one of the oldest stadiums in France, was renovated in 2002, again in 2012 when US Carcassonne entered the Pro D2; the stadium is named after the French rugby union player Albert Domec, who died 20 September 1948, who represented France in 1939. The stadium is equipped for athletics and has an eight lane 400m track; the stadium has been used in Rugby League World Cups. The ground has hosted many French rugby league championship and cup finals as well as French rugby league internationals, the first being in 1967 when Great Britain national rugby league team won 16-13 in front of 10,650 spectators Formerly called'le stade de la Pepiniere' the ground was built and opened in 1899 and sits within the medieval castle walls of the city.
In 1919 the rugby club paid 95,000 francs for the site sold it to the local council a year later. The council built the two main stands that run along the length of the pitch each able to hold 3,000 spectators, floodlights and a cycle track were installed; the stadium has been renovated twice since in 2002 and in 2012. The ground is named after the former US Carcassonne and French rugby union international player Albert Domec who played as a centre during the 1920s and 1930s; the stadium has a bronze statue of AS Carcassonne's most famous player, former captain of the French national rugby league team, Puig Aubert at its entrance. The record attendance at the ground is 23,500 for the French rugby league championship Final in 1949 between AS Carcassonne and Marseille XIII List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity