Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
Andreas Vollenweider is a Swiss harpist. He is categorised as a new-age musician and uses a modified electroacoustic harp of his own design, he has collaborated with Bobby McFerrin, Carly Simon, Luciano Pavarotti and in 1987 received a Grammy Award for the album Down to the Moon. Vollenweider's style has been described by The New York Times as "swirling atmospheric music, which evokes nature and fairy tales", he has toured internationally and produced fourteen regular albums in a career that spans four decades. Vollenweider was born in 1953 and is the son of Hans Vollenweider, an organist and composer, while his mother was a painter. In 1971, he married a kindergarten teacher, with whom he has two sons and a daughter, Noëmi. In 1975, Vollenweider discovered the harp and, finding its traditional versions too limited for his own musical ideas, developed his own style, tailoring the instrument according to his needs, he created the electro-acoustic harp. He formed the trio Poesie und Musik together with Rene Bardet and Orlando Valentini, recording interpretations of the poetry of François Villon and Heinrich Heine, but left in 1978.
During this period, Vollenweider wrote music for film nature documentaries. In 1979 he released Eine Art Suite in XIII Teilen in Switzerland, he subsequently began forming his ensemble “Andreas Vollenweider and Friends”, which included Walter Keiser, Pedro Haldemann, Bobby Reveron, Jon Otis. This five-piece debuted on July 1981 at the Montreux Jazz Festival. Vollenweider was discovered by the German record-producer and manager Vera Brandes, who oversaw the release of Behind the Gardens - Behind the Wall - Under the Tree.... Through her VeraBra Records; the album was distributed through CBS Records International and reached 32 in the German album charts in March 1982. The follow-up Caverna Magica was recorded in the period May–November 1982 while Vollenweider and his band performed around Europe. Released in January 1983, the album managed to reach 11 in the German album chart. In 1983, he underlined his commitment to environmental issues with the EP "Pace Verde" in support for Greenpeace, accompanied by a video that Vollenweider directed and produced himself.
In October of that year he was awarded a Dutch Edison Award in the Instrumental category for Caverna Magica. In 1984, the album White Winds entered the American billboard chart. Released through CBS Masterworks in North America, his records remained on catalogue, clocking up to six-figure sales. Vollenweider embarked on his first American tour in November of that year, making his debut at the Beacon Theatre, New York, it was presented by Carly Simon. She explained that "I knew I had discovered something, going to change me in a wonderful way, I became so obsessed with his music that anyone who came to my house was introduced to it within the first 10 or 15 minutes". Through CBS she arranged for his American debut; as his instrumental tracks were deemed unsuitable for radio, he relied on word-of-mouth in gathering an international following. Vollenweider spent much of 1985 on tour; the shows were described as a new age experience that combined the use of lights and dry ice while Vollenweider appeared as a "white-clad figure who's poised to drive the audience wild with a harp".
In 1987, Down To The Moon, recorded and released in 1984, received a Grammy Award. This was followed by tours in Canada, the United States, thirteen European countries and Australia; when he composed the music of, recorded, the dynamic album Dancing With The Lion in 1988 and 1989, Vollenweider opened his project, for the first time in his career, to numerous guests from a wide range of musical genres. He directed and produced two award-winning videos, one of, for the title selection. Vollenweider's double album The Trilogy, consisted of a selection of the first three albums and unreleased material. In 1991, he followed up with Book of Roses, which included symphonic orchestral elements for the first time. In 1992, he participated in a benefit show for Chernobyl's children on Moscow's Red Square; the same year, he won the World Music Award in Monaco. In 1993-94, he produced his first album including vocals; the 1993–94 album Eolian Minstrel featured contributions from American singers Carly Simon and Eliza Gilkyson.
The release was followed by worldwide tours. In 1994, he performed at the Pavarotti and Friends event in Modena, where he played duets with operatic lyric tenor Luciano Pavarotti and Canadian rock balladeer Bryan Adams. After conducting tours and open-air shows in Europe and the United States, in 1995 he played in Latin America for the first time. 1995–97 saw Vollenweider playing a series of shows in remarkable locations: a tour of Polish castles, a show with Italian singer/songwriter Zucchero at the 2500 m high location of Brunico in the Southern Alps, in a giant volcanic cave at Lanzarote's Festival Musica Visual. In 1998, Vollenweider began the recording of Kryptos, a work for symphonic orchestras and guest virtuosos from all over the world, he initiated a symphonic live project. In 1999, he returned to free improvisation and intimate musical dialogues with his album COSMOPOLY He invited friends, including American vocal acrobat Bobby McFerrin, Brazilian cult poet and singer Milton Nascimento
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented. Anyone who composes, conducts, or performs music is referred to as a musician. A musician who plays a musical instrument is known as an instrumentalist. Musicians can specialize in any musical style, some musicians play in a variety of different styles depending on cultures and background. Examples of a musician's possible skills include performing, singing, producing, composing and the orchestration of music. In the Middle Ages, instrumental musicians performed with soft ensembles inside and loud instruments outdoors. Many European musicians of this time catered to the Roman Catholic Church, they provided arrangements structured around Gregorian chant structure and Masses from church texts. Notable musicians Phillipe de Vitry Guillaume Dufay Guillaume de Machaut Hildegard of Bingen John Jenkins Beatritz de Dia Tyagaraja Purandara Dasa Bhimsen Joshi Bismillah Khan A. R. RAHMAN Renaissance musicians produced music that could be played during masses in churches and important chapels.
Vocal pieces were in Latin—the language of church texts of the time—and were Church-polyphonic or "made up of several simultaneous melodies." By the end of the 16th century, patronage split among many areas: the Catholic Church, Protestant churches, royal courts, wealthy amateurs, music printing—all provided income sources for composers. Notable musicians Giovanni Palestrina Giovanni Gabrieli Thomas Tallis Claudio Monteverdi Leonardo da Vinci The Baroque period introduced heavy use of counterpoint and basso continuo characteristics. Vocal and instrumental "color" became more important compared with the Renaissance style of music, emphasized much of the volume and pace of each piece. Notable musicians George Frideric Handel Johann Sebastian Bach Antonio Vivaldi Classical music was created by musicians who lived during a time of a rising middle class. Many middle-class inhabitants of France at the time lived under long-time absolute monarchies; because of this, much of the music was performed in environments that were more constrained compared with the flourishing times of the Renaissance and Baroque eras.
Notable musicians Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Joseph Haydn Ludwig Van Beethoven The foundation of Romantic period music coincides with what is called the age of revolutions, an age of upheavals in political, economic and military traditions. This age included the initial transformations of the Industrial Revolution. A revolutionary energy was at the core of Romanticism, which quite consciously set out to transform not only the theory and practice of poetry and art, but the common perception of the world; some major Romantic Period precepts survive, still affect modern culture. Notable musicians Ludwig van Beethoven Frédéric Chopin Franz Schubert Niccolò Paganini Franz Liszt Charles-Valentin Alkan Richard Wagner Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Johannes Brahms Johann Strauss II The world transitioned from 19th-century Romanticism to 20th century Modernism, bringing major musical changes. In 20th-century music and musicians rejected the emotion-dominated Romantic period, strove to represent the world the way they perceived it.
Musicians wrote to be"... objective. While past eras concentrated on spirituality, this new period placed emphasis on physicality and things that were concrete."The advent of audio recording and mass media in the 20th century caused a boom of all kinds of music—pop, dance, folk and all forms of classical music. Musicians can experience a number of health problems related to the practice and performance of music; these can include tinnitus and noise-induced hearing loss, which occurs and over a long period of time, most musicians do not seek help until they start to experience secondary symptoms such as tinnitus, distortion of sounds and hyperacusis. In addition, musicians are at increased risk for both musculoskeletal and vocal health problems when producing high sound levels on musical instruments. Increased biomechanical demands, whether at the hands, embouchure, or vocal cords, elevates the risks for occupational health problems like tendonitis, carpal tunnel, rupture of facial muscles, vocal cord malfunction.
Singer Composer Tour manager Musicians' or'Hi-Fi' earplugs Media related to Musicians at Wikimedia Commons
John Gorka is a contemporary American folk musician. In 1991, Rolling Stone magazine called him "the preeminent male singer-songwriter of what has been dubbed the New Folk Movement." Gorka received his first guitar as a Christmas gift. He learned, instead, to play the banjo, began performing in a folk music group at his church. Gorka attended Moravian College in Bethlehem, where he studied philosophy and history, he graduated from Moravian in 1980. As of 2005, he was residing in the St. Croix Valley area near Minnesota. Gorka formed the Razzy Dazzy Spasm Band with Doug Anderson and Russ Rentler and would include guitarist Richard Shindell. After graduating from Moravian, he began performing solo at Godfrey Daniels coffee house in South Bethlehem as the opening act for various musicians including Nanci Griffith, Bill Morrissey, Claudia Schmidt and Jack Hardy. In 1984, Gorka was one of six winners chosen from the finalists in the New Folk competition at the Kerrville Folk Festival. Since he has toured Europe and North America.
He has appeared with artists such as Suzanne Vega, Shawn Colvin, Michael Manring, Christine Lavin, Dave Van Ronk, Cliff Eberhardt, David Massengill, Frank Christian and Lucy Kaplansky. He joined with Kaplansky and Eliza Gilkyson to form the folk supergroup Red Horse in 2010, touring together and releasing a self-titled album on which they performed each other's compositions. Red Horse toured through July 2014. In March 2014, Gorka continued his long relationship with Red House Records with the release of the acoustic CD, Bright Side of Down. I Know Land of the Bottom Line Jack's Crows Temporary Road Out of the Valley Between Five and Seven After Yesterday The Company You Keep Old Futures Gone Writing in the Margins So Dark You See Bright Side of Down Before Beginning: The Unreleased I Know True in Time Red Horse with Lucy Kaplansky and Eliza Gilkyson Motor Folkin' The Gypsy Life Pure John Gorka See various issues of Fast Folk Musical Magazine for early recordings. "I Saw a Stranger with Your Hair" on Legacy: A Collection of New Folk Music "Christmas Bells", on A Winter's Solstice, Vol. III "Love Minus Zero/No Limit" on A Tribute to Bob Dylan, Vol. 2 "The Gypsy Life" on The Live from Mountain Stage, Vol. 8 "The Water is Wide" on Where Have All the Flowers Gone: The Songs of Pete Seeger "Sweet Love" on "Treasures Left Behind: Remembering Kate Wolf" "Bracero" on What's That I Hear?: The Songs of Phil Ochs "Out of My Mind" on When October Goes: Autumn Love Songs "Thirsty Boots" on Bleecker Street: Greenwich Village in the 1960s "Girl from the North Country" on A Nod to Bob: An Artists' Tribute to Bob Dylan on His 60th Birthday "Do La Lay", "Things We've Handed Down" and others on Down at the Sea Hotel Official Website Red House Records Website AIX Records Website
Robert William Jensen is a former professor of journalism from the University of Texas at Austin. From 1992 to 2018 he taught graduate and undergraduate courses in media law and politics, he has focused much of his work on the critique of pornography and of masculinity, developed in his 2017 book, The End of Patriarchy: Radical Feminism for Men. He has written about white privilege and institutional racism, he sits on the editorial board of the academic journal Sexualization and Society. Jensen grew up in North Dakota. In 1981, he received a Bachelor of Science degree from Moorhead State University, in 1985, he received a Master of Arts degree in journalism and public affairs from American University. In 1992 he completed his Ph. D. in media law and ethics in the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Minnesota. Prior to his academic career, he worked as a reporter and copy editor for several newspapers, including the St. Petersburg Times and the St. Paul Pioneer Press.
Jensen writes for popular media, both alternative and mainstream. His opinion and analytic pieces on such subjects as foreign policy and race have appeared in papers around the U. S, he is involved in a number of activist groups, including the Third Coast Activist Resource Center. Jensen wrote an opinion piece for the Houston Chronicle on September 14, 2001, shortly after the September 11th terrorist attacks. In the piece, Jensen wrote that the September 11th terrorist attacks were "reprehensible and indefensible" but "no more despicable than the massive acts of terrorism – the deliberate killing of civilians for political purposes – that the U. S. government has committed during my lifetime."Jensen's piece drew both praise and criticism. Some individuals demanded. In response, University of Texas President Larry Faulkner wrote in a letter to the editor published in the Houston Chronicle that he was "disgusted by Jensen's article" and called Jensen "a fountain of undiluted foolishness on issues of public policy."
In early July 2014, MonkeyWrench Books collective cut all ties with Jensen over his article reviewing two feminist books that critiqued transgenderism. These books were Sheila Jeffreys' Gender Hurts: A Feminist Analysis of the Politics of Transgenderism and Michael Schwalbe's Manhood Acts: Gender and the Practices of Domination. In the review published by Dissident Voice, Jensen concluded that, "On the surface, transgenderism may seem to be a more revolutionary approach, but radical feminism offers a deeper critique of the domination/subordination dynamic at the heart of patriarchy and a more promising path to liberation" which they felt "contributes to a dangerous culture of transphobia". In addition, Dexter M. Thomas wrote a rebuttal, published by Dissident Voice. Jensen responded by writing a follow-up article which elaborated on his views on the ecological and social implications of what he terms "trans ideology". Jensen identifies as a radical Christian. Jensen is married to musician Eliza Gilkyson.
Jensen, Robert. Freeing the first amendment: critical perspectives on freedom of expression. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 9780814706381. Jensen, Robert. Pornography: the production and consumption of inequality. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415918138. Jensen, Robert. Writing dissent: taking radical ideas from the margins to the mainstream. New York: Peter Lang. ISBN 9780820456515. Jensen, Robert. Citizens of the empire: the struggle to claim our humanity. San Francisco: City Lights. ISBN 9780872864320. Jensen, Robert; the heart of whiteness: confronting race and white privilege. San Francisco: City Lights. ISBN 9780872864498. Jensen, Robert. Getting off: pornography and the end of masculinity. Cambridge, Massachusetts: South End Press. ISBN 9780896087767. Jensen, Robert. All my bones shake: seeking a progressive path to the prophetic voice. Brooklyn: Soft Skull Press. ISBN 9781593763466. Jensen, Robert. We are all apocalyptic now: on the responsibilities of teaching, reporting and speaking out. San Francisco: City Lights Books.
ISBN 9781481958479. Jensen, Robert. Arguing for our lives: critical thinking in crisis times. San Francisco: City Lights. ISBN 9780872865730. Jensen, Robert. Plain radical: living and learning to leave the planet gracefully. Berkeley, California: Soft Skull Press. ISBN 9781619026797. Jensen, Robert.. The End of Patriarchy: Radical Feminism for Men. Spinifex Press ISBN 9781742199924. Jensen, Robert, "Knowing pornography", in Carter, Cynthia. Jensen, Robert, "Blows bangs and cluster bombs: the cruelty of men and Americans", in Whisnant, Rebecca. Jensen, Robert. "Fighting objectivity: the illusion of journalistic neutrality in coverage of the Persian Gulf War". Journal of Communication Inquiry. 16: 20–32. Doi:10.1177/019685999201600102. Jensen, Robert. "Pornographic novels and the ideology of male supremacy". Howard Journal of Communications. 5: 92–107. Doi:10.1080/10646179309361653. Jen
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe is the capital of the U. S. state of New Mexico. It is the seat of Santa Fe County; this area was occupied for at least several thousand years by indigenous peoples who built villages several hundred years ago, on the current site of the city. It was known by the Tewa inhabitants as Ogha Po'oge; the city of Santa Fe, founded by Spanish colonists in 1610, is the oldest state capital in the United States. Santa Fe had a population of 69,204 in 2012, it is the principal city of a Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Santa Fe County and is part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area. The city's full name as founded remains La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. Before European colonization of the Americas, the area Santa Fe occupied between 900 CE and the 1500s was known to the Tewa peoples as Oghá P'o'oge and by the Navajo people as Yootó. In 1610, Juan de Oñate established the area as Santa Fe de Nuevo México–a province of New Spain.
Formal Spanish settlements were developed leading the colonial governor Pedro de Peralta to rename the area La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. The phrase "Santa Fe" is translated as "Holy Faith" in Spanish. Although more known as Santa Fe, the city's full, legal name remains to this day as La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís; the standard Spanish variety pronounces it SAHN-tah-FAY as contextualized within the city's full, Spaniard name La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Aśis. However, due to the large amounts of tourism and immigration into Santa Fe, an English pronunciation of SAN-tuh-FAY is commonly used; the area of Santa Fe was occupied by indigenous Tanoan peoples, who lived in numerous Pueblo villages along the Rio Grande. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900 CE. A group of native Tewa built a cluster of homes that centered around the site of today's Plaza and spread for half a mile to the south and west.
The river had a year-round flow until the 1700s. By the 20th century the Santa Fe River was a seasonal waterway; as of 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers. Don Juan de Oñate led the first European effort to colonize the region in 1598, establishing Santa Fe de Nuevo México as a province of New Spain. Under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. New Mexico's second Spanish governor, Don Pedro de Peralta, founded a new city at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1607, which he called La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, the Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi. In 1610, he designated it as the capital of the province, which it has constantly remained, making it the oldest state capital in the United States. Discontent with the colonization practices led to the Pueblo Revolt, when groups of different Native Pueblo peoples were successful in driving the Spaniards out of the area now known as New Mexico, maintaining their independence from 1680 to 1692, when the territory was reconquered by Don Diego de Vargas.
Santa Fe was Spain's provincial seat at outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. It was considered important to fur traders based in present-day Saint Missouri; when the area was still under Spanish rule, the Chouteau brothers of Saint Louis gained a monopoly on the fur trade, before the United States acquired Missouri under the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. The fur trade contributed to the wealth of St. Louis; the city's status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution after Mexico achieved independence from Spain. When the Republic of Texas seceded from Mexico in 1836, it attempted to claim Santa Fe and other parts of Nuevo México as part of the western portion of Texas along the Río Grande. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition set out from Austin, intending to take control of the Santa Fe Trail. Known as the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, the force was poorly prepared and was captured by the Mexican army. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico.
Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into Santa Fe to claim it and the whole New Mexico Territory for the United States. By 1848 the U. S. gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Colonel Alexander William Doniphan, under the command of Kearny, recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled "Spain 1776" showing both the quality of communication and military support New Mexico received under Mexican rule; some American visitors at first saw little promise in the remote town. One traveller in 1849 wrote: I can hardly imagine how Santa Fe is supported; the country around it is barren. At the North stands a snow-capped mountain while the valley in which the town is situated is drab and sandy; the streets are narrow... A Mexican will walk about town all day to sell a bundle of grass worth about a dime, they are the poorest looking people I saw. They subsist principally on mutton and red pepper. In 1851, Jean Baptiste Lamy arrived, becoming bishop of New Mexico, Utah, C