Pembroke College in Brown University
Pembroke College in Brown University was the coordinate women's college for Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1891 and merged into Brown in 1971; the founding of the Women's College Adjunct to Brown University in October 1891 renamed the Women's College in Connection with Brown University, provided an organizational structure to allow women to attend that institution. The system resembled those at Harvard University. Brown's single-sex status had first been challenged in April 1874, when the university received an application from a female; the Advisory and Executive Committee decided that admitting women at the time was not a good proposal, but they continued to revisit the matter annually until 1888. Subsequent discussions led to the creation of the Women's College October 1, 1891; the first women students were: Maude Bonner, Clara Comstock, Nettie Goodale Murdoch, Elizabeth Peckham, Anne T. Weeden, Mary Emma Woolley, their classes were held at a grammar school.
After the boys went home at two o’clock, the women arrived to learn from their professors in a classroom on the second floor. The school had no lights, so the women worked until the daylight was too dim to read by. One of the major advocates for admitting women to Brown University, Sarah Doyle raised $75,000 to build the first permanent building for Brown's new female students. Official recognition of the college as a body of the university came in 1896; the college received its own faculty in 1903. By 1910, 40% of students were from outside Rhode Island. In 1928, the Women's College was renamed "Pembroke College in Brown University" in honor of Pembroke College at the University of Cambridge in England. Roger Williams, one of the founders of Rhode Island, was an alumnus of Cambridge's Pembroke. Due to this, one of the buildings on Brown's campus had been named "Pembroke Hall." This was the building on the Brown campus where most "Pembrokers," as Women's College students were known, attended classes.
The Women's College had already been using the coat of arms of Cambridge's Pembroke for formal decoration on programs and pins. In 1931 Pembroke College began a nursing program with the Rhode Island Hospital Training School for Nurses to train women to teach in nursing school; the "coordinate" status of Pembroke College was valued because it allowed women to take courses with Brown students yet still maintain the advantage of a single-sex education. This included separate newspaper and separate social clubs. In 1969, students from Pembroke and Brown began living in shared dormitories. Since women students had been attending classes and participating in extracurricular activities at Brown for some time, the Advisory and Executive Council proposed a merger between the colleges. On July 1, 1971, the merger became official, with all undergraduate students being admitted to and attending the same college. In 1981, the Pembroke Center for Teaching and Research on Women was established at Brown, billing itself as a "center for interdisciplinary research on gender and society."
Its mission includes the preservation of the history of women at Brown. Affiliated with the Sarah Doyle Women's Center, it is home to the university's Gender Studies program and publishes the academic journal differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies; the Pembroke Center has sponsored the digitization of the Pembroke College newspaper "The Pembroke Record" which can be accessed on line. Although Brown became a coeducational institution with the merger, the history of women at Brown was still evolving. On September 3, 1991, Jill Ker Conway, the president of the all-female Smith College, delivered the opening convocation address to the student body in celebration of Brown's 100 years of women on campus. A four-day symposium was held in October of that year in order to discuss women's issues, with President of Ireland Mary Robinson delivering the keynote address. At the time of the merger, only 25% of the undergraduate students were women. By the 2005-2006 academic year, 51% of students at Brown University were female.
The first graduates were Mary Emma Woolley and Anne Tillinghast Weeden in 1894. In early graduation programs, the names of the female graduates were listed in a special section below those of men; this list is by surname. See the List of Brown University people. Elinor B. Bachrach, Senior Fiscal Advisor, United States Agency for International Development Haiganush R. Bedrosian, Chief Justice of the Rhode Island Family Court. Susan Bennett, Voice-over artist. Voice of "Siri" the digital personal assistant embedded in the iPhone. Dana Buchman Farber, fashion designer, activist Susan Cheever and columnist Kitty Chen, actress Law & Order, author Lyn Crost, reporter for The Honolulu Star-Bulletin covering Japanese-American soldiers in World War II and internment camps Alice Drummond, actress Awakenings, Nobody's Fool, Doubt. Katherine G. Farley, Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, New York City Kathryn S. Fuller, Chairman of the Board of The Ford Foundation Laura Geller, Senior Rabbi of Temple Emanuel.
The first female graduate of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion to head a major metropolitan congregation Lillian Moller Gilbreth, one of the first working female engineers and
Rhode Island School of Design
Rhode Island School of Design is a fine arts and design college located in Providence, in the U. S. state of Rhode Island. It has been ranked among the best educational institutions in the world for art and design. Founded in 1877, it is located at the base of College Hill; the two institutions share social and community resources and offer joint courses. Applicants to RISD are required to complete RISD's two-drawing "hometest", it includes, on the Fall 2015 term, about 470 faculty and curators, 400 staff members. About 2,014 undergraduates and 467 graduate students enroll from all over the United States and 57 other countries, it offers 17 graduate majors. RISD is a member of the Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design, a consortium of thirty-six leading art schools in the United States, it maintains over 80,000 works of art in the RISD Museum. The Centennial Women were a group formed to raise funds for a separate Women's Pavilion showcasing women's work at the 1876 Centennial Exposition.
In a little over a year the RI women raised over $10,000 with spectacles such as: a recreation of the burning of the Gaspee that drew a crowd of 9000, the writing and publication of a monthly newspaper, Herald of the Century, an art exhibition. The Women's Pavilion at the 1876 Centennial highlighted women's "economic right to self-sufficiency" and included exhibits from founded design schools, displays of new patents by women entrepreneurs, a library containing only books written by women; the Rhode Island Centennial Women submitted their newspaper, Herald of the Century, to this Women's Pavilion's library. At the end of the World's Fair, the RI Centennial Women had $1,675 left over and spent some time negotiating how best to memorialize their achievements. Helen Adelia Rowe Metcalf proposed that the group donate the money to found what would become the Rhode Island School of Design, this option was chosen by a majority of the women on January 11, 1877; the school was incorporated in March 1877 and opened its doors the following fall at the Hoppin Homestead in downtown Providence, RI.
Metcalf directed the school until her death in 1895. Her daughter, Eliza Greene Metcalf Radeke took over until her death in 1931; the Rhode Island General Assembly ratified "An Act to Incorporate the Rhode Island School of Design" on March 22, 1877, "or the purpose of aiding in the cultivation of the arts of design". Over the next 129 years, the following original by-laws set forth these following primary objectives: The instruction of artisans in drawing, painting and designing, that they may apply the principles of Art to the requirements of trade and manufacture; the systematic training of students in the practice of Art, in order that they may understand its principles, give instruction to others, or become artists. The general advancement of public Art Education, by the exhibition of works of Art and of Art school studies, by lectures on Art. RISD is annually ranked as a top design school in the United States. U. S. News & World Report ranked RISD first amongst Fine Arts programs, above Yale University and the School of the Art Institute of Chicago.
In 2015 and 2016 RISD was ranked 3rd by the QS World University Rankings amongst Art & Design programs. Within subdivisions of Fine Arts, the school was ranked 1st in graphic design and industrial design; the RISD film program was ranked 5th in USA Today's 10 Best Schools for Pursuing a Film Degree. Its undergraduate architecture program ranked 7 in DesignIntelligence's ranking of the Top Architecture Schools in the US for 2017. Concentrations at RISD do not confer a degree. History, Philosophy + the Social Sciences Theory and History of Art and Design Literary Arts + Studies Nature–Culture–Sustainability Studies Computation and Culture Drawing The RISD Museum houses a collection of fine and decorative art objects; the first public galleries opened in 1893. RISD has teams in two sports and basketball; as might be considered fitting for an arts school, the symbolism used. The hockey team is called the "Nads", their cheer is "Go Nads!" The logo for the Nads features a horizontal hockey stick with two non-descript circles at the end of the stick's handle.
The basketball team is known as the "Balls", their slogan is, "When the heat is on, the Balls stick together." The Balls' logo consists of two balls next to one another in an irregularly shaped net. Lest the sexual message of these teams and logos be lost, the 2001 creation of the school mascot, ended any ambiguity. Despite the name, Scrotie is not a representation of a scrotum, but is a 7-foot tall penis, with scrotum and testes at the bottom. RISD has stated that Scrotie is only an "unofficial" mascot, yet Scrotie is featured prominently on the school's official website. In 2016, the school reported that the 2009 incarnation of the mascot had been deemed not appropriate for younger fans, so the mascot would return to its earlier, "more cartoonish" appearance. Founded in 1878, the RISD Library is one of the oldest independent art college libraries in the country, its more than 145,000 volumes and 380 periodical subscriptions offer unusual depth and richness in the areas of architecture, art and photography.
The collection provides strong historical and contemporary perspectives, materials in landscape architecture, ceramics and jewelry support upper-level research. The library is noted for it
Providence, Rhode Island
Providence is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. is one of the oldest cities in the United States. It was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a Reformed Baptist theologian and religious exile from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, he named the area in honor of "God's merciful Providence" which he believed was responsible for revealing such a haven for him and his followers. The city is situated at the mouth of the Providence River at the head of Narragansett Bay. Providence was one of the first cities in the country to industrialize and became noted for its textile manufacturing and subsequent machine tool and silverware industries. Today, the city of Providence is home to eight hospitals and seven institutions of higher learning which have shifted the city's economy into service industries, though it still retains some manufacturing activity; the city is the third most populous city in New England after Worcester, Massachusetts. Providence was one of the original Thirteen Colonies. Williams and his company were compelled to leave Massachusetts Bay Colony, Providence became a refuge for persecuted religious dissenters, as Williams himself had been exiled from Massachusetts.
The city was burned to the ground in March 1676 by the Narragansetts during King Philip's War, despite the good relations between Williams and the sachems with whom the United Colonies of New England were waging war. In the year, the Rhode Island legislature formally rebuked the other colonies for provoking the war. Providence residents were among the first Patriots to spill blood in the lead-up to the American Revolutionary War during the Gaspée Affair of 1772, Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown on May 4, 1776, it was the last of the Thirteen Colonies to ratify the United States Constitution on May 29, 1790, once assurances were made that a Bill of Rights would become part of the Constitution. Following the war, Providence was the country's ninth-largest city with 7,614 people; the economy shifted from maritime endeavors to manufacturing, in particular machinery, silverware and textiles. By the start of the 20th century, Providence hosted some of the largest manufacturing plants in the country, including Brown & Sharpe, Nicholson File, Gorham Manufacturing Company.
Providence residents ratified a city charter in 1831 as the population passed 17,000. The seat of city government was located in the Market House in Market Square from 1832 to 1878, the geographic and social center of the city; the city offices outgrew this building, the City Council resolved to create a permanent municipal building in 1845. The city offices moved into the Providence City Hall in 1878. During the American Civil War, local politics split over slavery as many had ties to Southern cotton and the slave trade. Despite ambivalence concerning the war, the number of military volunteers exceeded quota, the city's manufacturing proved invaluable to the Union. Providence thrived after the war, waves of immigrants brought the population from 54,595 in 1865 to 175,597 by 1900. By the early 1900s, Providence was one of the wealthiest cities in the United States. Immigrant labor powered one of the nation's largest industrial manufacturing centers. Providence was a major manufacturer of industrial products, from steam engines to precision tools to silverware and textiles.
Giant companies were based in or near Providence, such as Brown & Sharpe, the Corliss Steam Engine Company, Babcock & Wilcox, the Grinnell Corporation, the Gorham Manufacturing Company, Nicholson File, the Fruit of the Loom textile company. From 1975 until 1982, $606 million of local and national community development funds were invested throughout the city. In the 1990s, the city pushed for revitalization, realigning the north-south railroad tracks, removing the huge rail viaduct that separated downtown from the capitol building and moving the rivers to create Waterplace Park and river walks along the rivers' banks, constructing the Fleet Skating Rink and the Providence Place Mall. Despite new investment, poverty remains an entrenched problem. 27.9 percent of the city population is living below the poverty line. Recent increases in real estate values further exacerbate problems for those at marginal income levels, as Providence had the highest rise in median housing price of any city in the United States from 2004 to 2005.
The Providence city limits enclose a small geographical region with a total area of 20.5 square miles. Providence is located at the head of Narragansett Bay, with the Providence River running into the bay through the center of the city, formed by the confluence of the Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket Rivers; the Waterplace Park amphitheater and riverwalks line the river's banks through downtown. Providence is one of many cities claimed to be founded on seven hills like Rome; the more prominent hills are: Constitution Hill, College Hill, Federal Hill. The other four are: Tockwotten Hill at Fox Point, Smith Hill, Christian Hill at Hoyle Square, Weybosset Hill at the lower end of Weybosset Street, leveled in the early 1880s. Providence has 25 official neighborhoods, though these neighborhoods are grouped together and referred to
This article is about tangible folk art objects. For performance folk arts, see Folk arts. Folk art covers all forms of visual art made in the context of folk culture. Definitions vary, but the objects have practical utility of some kind, rather than being decorative; the makers of folk art are trained within a popular tradition, rather than in the fine art tradition of the culture. There is overlap, or contested ground, with naive art, but in traditional societies where ethnographic art is still made, that term is used instead of "folk art"; the types of object covered by the term varies and in particular "divergent categories of cultural production are comprehended by its usage in Europe, where the term originated, in the United States, where it developed for the most part along different lines." In America, "folk art" is more to include contemporary or recent works of "Outsider art" and similar types, that elsewhere might be called "popular art". Folk arts are reflective of the cultural life of a community.
They encompass the body of expressive culture associated with the fields of folklore and cultural heritage. Tangible folk art includes objects which are crafted and used within a traditional community. Intangible folk arts include such forms as music and narrative structures; each of these arts, both tangible and intangible, was developed to address a real need. Once this practical purpose has been lost or forgotten, there is no reason for further transmission unless the object or action has been imbued with meaning beyond its initial practicality; these vital and reinvigorated artistic traditions are shaped by values and standards of excellence that are passed from generation to generation, most within family and community, through demonstration and practice. Objects of folk art are a subset of material culture, include objects which are experienced through the senses, by seeing and touching; as with all material culture, these tangible objects can be handled re-experienced and sometimes broken.
They are considered works of art because of the skillful technical execution of an existing form and design. As folk art, these objects share several characteristics which distinguish them from other artifacts of material culture; the object is created by a single team of artisans. The craftsmen and women work within an established cultural framework, they have a recognizable style and method in crafting their pieces, allowing their products to be recognized and attributed to a single individual or workshop. This was articulated by Alois Riegl in his study of "Volkskunst, und Hausindustrie", published in 1894. "Riegl … stressed that the individual hand and intentions of the artist were significant in folk creativity. To be sure, the artist may have been obliged by group expectations to work within the norms of transmitted forms and conventions, but individual creativity – which implied personal aesthetic choices and technical virtuosity – saved received or inherited traditions from stagnating and permitted them to be renewed in each generation."
Individual innovation in the production process plays an important role in the continuance of these traditional forms. Many folk art traditions like quilting, ornamental picture framing, decoy carving continue to thrive, while new forms emerge. Contemporary outsider artists are self-taught as their work is developed in isolation or in small communities across the country; the Smithsonian American Art Museum houses over 70 such self-taught artists. All folk art objects are produced in a one-off production process. Only one object is made at a time, either in a combination of hand and machine methods; as a result of this manual production, each individual piece is unique and can be differentiated from other objects of the same type. In his essay on "Folk Objects", folklorist Simon Bronner references preindustrial modes of production, but folk art objects continue to be made as unique crafted pieces by skilled artisans. "The notion of folk objects tends to emphasize the handmade over machine manufactured.
Folk objects imply a mode of production common to preindustrial communal society where knowledge and skills were personal and traditional." This does not mean that all folk art is old, it continues to be hand-crafted today in many regions around the world. The design and production of folk art is taught informally or formally. Folk art does not strive for individual expression. Instead, "the concept of group art implies, indeed requires, that artists acquire their abilities, both manual and intellectual, at least in part from communication with others; the community has something a great deal, to say about what passes for acceptable folk art." The training in a handicraft was done as apprenticeships with local craftsmen, such as the blacksmith or the stonemason. As the equipment and tools needed were no longer available in the community, these traditional crafts moved into technical schools or applied arts schools; the object is recognizable within its cultural framework as being of a known type.
Similar objects can be found in the environment made by other individuals which resemble this object. Without exception, individual pieces of folk art will reference other works in the culture as they show
Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island. Founded in 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, it is the seventh-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. At its foundation, Brown was the first college in the U. S. to accept students regardless of their religious affiliation. Its engineering program was established in 1847, it was one of the early doctoral-granting U. S. institutions in the late 19th century, adding masters and doctoral studies in 1887. In 1969, Brown adopted a New Curriculum sometimes referred to as the Brown Curriculum after a period of student lobbying; the New Curriculum eliminated mandatory "general education" distribution requirements, made students "the architects of their own syllabus" and allowed them to take any course for a grade of satisfactory or unrecorded no-credit. In 1971, Brown's coordinate women's institution, Pembroke College, was merged into the university.
Undergraduate admissions is selective, with an acceptance rate of 6.6% for the class of 2023. The university comprises the College, the Graduate School, Alpert Medical School, the School of Engineering, the School of Public Health and the School of Professional Studies. Brown's international programs are organized through the Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, the university is academically affiliated with the Marine Biological Laboratory and the Rhode Island School of Design; the Brown/RISD Dual Degree Program, offered in conjunction with the Rhode Island School of Design, is a five-year course that awards degrees from both institutions. Brown's main campus is located in the College Hill Historic District in the city of Providence, Rhode Island; the University's neighborhood is a federally listed architectural district with a dense concentration of Colonial-era buildings. Benefit Street, on the western edge of the campus, contains "one of the finest cohesive collections of restored seventeenth- and eighteenth-century architecture in the United States".
As of August 2018, 8 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with Brown University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Brown's faculty and alumni include five National Humanities Medalists and ten National Medal of Science laureates. Other notable alumni include eight billionaire graduates, a U. S. Supreme Court Chief Justice, four U. S. Secretaries of State and other Cabinet officials, 54 members of the United States Congress, 56 Rhodes Scholars, 52 Gates Cambridge Scholars 49 Marshall Scholars, 14 MacArthur Genius Fellows, 21 Pulitzer Prize winners, various royals and nobles, as well as leaders and founders of Fortune 500 companies; the origin of Brown University can be dated to 1761, when three residents of Newport, Rhode Island drafted a petition to the General Assembly of the colony: Your Petitioners propose to open a literary institution or School for instructing young Gentlemen in the Languages, Geography & History, & such other branches of Knowledge as shall be desired.
That for this End... it will be necessary... to erect a public Building or Buildings for the boarding of the youth & the Residence of the Professors. The three petitioners were Ezra Stiles, pastor of Newport's Second Congregational Church and future president of Yale. Stiles and Ellery were co-authors of the Charter of the College two years later; the editor of Stiles's papers observes, "This draft of a petition connects itself with other evidence of Dr. Stiles's project for a Collegiate Institution in Rhode Island, before the charter of what became Brown University."There is further documentary evidence that Stiles was making plans for a college in 1762. On January 20, Chauncey Whittelsey, pastor of the First Church of New Haven, answered a letter from Stiles: The week before last I sent you the Copy of Yale College Charter... Should you make any Progress in the Affair of a Colledge, I should be glad to hear of it; the Philadelphia Association of Baptist Churches had an eye on Rhode Island, home of the mother church of their denomination: the First Baptist Church in America, founded in Providence in 1638 by Roger Williams.
The Baptists were as yet unrepresented among colonial colleges. Isaac Backus was the historian of the New England Baptists and an inaugural Trustee of Brown, writing in 1784, he described the October 1762 resolution taken at Philadelphia: The Philadelphia Association obtained such an acquaintance with our affairs, as to bring them to an apprehension that it was practicable and expedient to erect a college in the Colony of Rhode-Island, under the chief direction of the Baptists. Mr. James Manning, who took his first degree in New-Jersey college in September, 1762, was esteemed a suitable leader in this important work. Manning arrived at Newport in July 1763 and was introduced to Stiles, who agreed to write the Charter for the College. Stiles's first draft was read to the General Assembly in August 1763 and rejected by Baptist members who worried that the College Board of Fellows would under-represent the Baptists. A revised Charter written by Stiles and Ellery was adopted by the Assembly on March 3, 1764.
In September 1764, the inaugural meeting of the College Corporation was held at Newport. Go
Jesse H. Metcalf
Jesse Houghton Metcalf was a United States Senator from Rhode Island. Born in Providence, Metcalf was educated in private schools there, studied textile manufacturing in Yorkshire and engaged in textile manufacturing. Metcalf's father, Jesse Metcalf, was a textile manufacturer, his mother, Helen Adelia Rowe Metcalf, was the co-founder of the Rhode Island School of Design. In 1889 Metcalf received a large bequest from Henry J. Steere. Metcalf served as a member of the Rhode Island House of Representatives from 1889 to 1891 and in 1907, was a member of the Providence Common Council from 1888 to 1892, he was chairman of the Metropolitan Park Commission of Rhode Island from 1909 to 1924, a member of the penal and charitable board from 1917 to 1923. In addition, he was president of Rhode Island Hospital, a trustee of the Rhode Island School of Design at Providence and of Brown University, from 1935 to 1940 a Republican National Committeeman, he was a part owner of The Providence Journal. Metcalf was elected as a Republican to the United States Senate on November 4, 1924, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of LeBaron B.
Colt. He was reelected in 1930 and served from November 5, 1924, to January 3, 1937. In 1930 he was elected as a Compatriot of the Rhode Island Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. While in the Senate he was chairman of the Committee on Patents and a member of the Committee on Education and Labor, he died in Providence in 1942. The Jesse H. Metcalf Lodge at Camp Yawgoog, the funds for which were donated by his wife, houses the Camp Sandy Beach dining hall and was named in his honor. Metcalf's sister, Eliza Greene Metcalf Radeke, served as president of RISD from 1913 to 1931. Jesse H. Metcalf at Find a GraveUnited States Congress. "Jesse H. Metcalf". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress